Nugroho Susetya Putra
Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gajah Mada Yogyakarta. Jl. Flora Bulaksumur, Sleman Yogyakarta 55281

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RESPON SEMUT TERHADAP KERUSAKAN ANTROPOGENIK DALAM HUTAN LINDUNG SIRIMAU AMBON Latumahina, Fransina; Musyafa, Musyafa; Sumardi, Sumardi; Putra, Nugroho Susetya
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 22, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1.84 KB)

Abstract

Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji respon semut terhadap kerusakan habitat akibat kehadiran manusia dalam hutan lindung Sirimau Ambon. Penelitian dilaksanakan dari bulan Juni 2011 hingga Juli 2012. Respon semut diketahui dengan pendekatan kekayaan, kelimpahan, keragaman, frekuensi dan tanggap fungsional terhadap kerusakan antropogenik dalam hutan lindung melalui metode line transect. Parameter tambahan yang diamati adalah faktor iklim mikro, sifat fisik dan kimia tanah. Hasil penelitian menemukan 23 spesis semut, 16601 individu, kelimpahan spesis tertinggi sebesar 0,158, frekuensi 32,44 % dan indeks keragaman sebesar 2,92 yang tergolong sedang. Kelompok fungsional semut terbagi menjadi kelompok oppurtunist (1 spesis), generalized myrmicinae (1 spesis), specialis predator (4 spesis), tropical climate specialis (6 spesis), dominant dolichoderinae (4 spesis), subordinate camponitini (6 spesis) dan criptic species (4 spesis). Faktor antropogenik yang menyebabkan kerusakan habitat hutan lindung yakni pembukaan wilayah hutan, penebangan pohon, pembakaran hutan, perladangan berpindah dan pembangunan fisik akibatnya terjadi fragmentasi dan degradasi habitat yang diikuti dengan ketidakseimbangan lingkungan dan komponen ekosistem.
Tenuipalpus pasificus Mite on Orchid in Malang Raya Wildaniyah, Ulya; Putra, Nugroho Susetya; Suputa, Suputa
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 22, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.26171

Abstract

Malang Raya is the center of orchid cultivation (Orchidaceae) in Indonesia. However, the presence of mites might lead to economic losses. This study aimed to determine the population density of mite Tenuipalpus pasificus and the intensity of attack on four genera of orchids (Dendrobium, Cattleya, Phalaenopsis, and Coelogyne). Snowball technique was used to collect mite samples on eight locations. During the observation, T. pasificus was found dominant in Coelogyne orchid (72 mites/plant). The highest population of T. pasificus was commonly found at 10 a.m on Phalaenopsis and Coelogyne, while on Dendrobium at 12 p.m, and on Cattleya at between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. The intensity of attack of T. pasificus was not significantly differing among four orchids, which was varied from 20.02 to 30.10%, and was determined as low intensity.IntisariMalang Raya merupakan sentra budidaya tanaman anggrek (Orchidaceae) di Indonesia. Keberadaan tungau dapat menyebabkan kerugian secara ekonomi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan populasi tungau Tenuipalpus pasificus dan intensitas serangannya pada empat jenis anggrek yaitu Dendrobium, Cattleya, Phalaenopsis, dan Coelogyne. Metode pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik snow ball, sehingga didapatkan delapan lokasi pengamatan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, T. pasificus paling banyak ditemukan pada tanaman anggrek jenis Coelogyne (72 ekor per tanaman). Kepadatan populasi T. pasificus tertinggi ditemukan pada pukul 10.00 WIB pada Phalaenopsis dan Coelogyne, sedangkan pada Dendrobium pada pukul 12.00 WIB, dan pada Cattleya pada pukul 10.00 hingga 16.00 WIB. Intensitas serangan tungau T. pasificus pada keempat jenis anggrek tidak berbeda secara signifikan yaitu bernilai 20,02−30,10% dengan kategori intensitas serangan ringan.
Keragaman Semut pada Ekosistem Tanaman Kakao di Desa Banjaroya Kecamatan Kalibawang Yogyakarta Ikbal, Moh.; Putra, Nugroho Susetya; Martono, Edhi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.15607

Abstract

This study aims to determine the diversity of ants in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) ecosystems in six hamlets in the village of Banjaroya, District Kalibawang Yogyakarta. The sampling was carried out by the method of feeding ants using tuna and sugar solution, which is placed on the cacao tree and the ground surface; pit-fall traps; and direct picking by hand. Six sub-family of ants, namely Cerapachynae, Dolichoderinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae, and Pseudomyrmicinae were found. Six of the most abundant genera found in each catchment were Dolichoderus sp., Anoplolepis sp., Paratrechina sp., Crematogaster sp., Pheidole sp., and Pheidologeton sp., which is known to be aggressive and invasive. The analysis showed that the diversity of ant communities in the Village Banjaroya categorized as medium (H ‘> 1-3), meaning that the overall state of the ecosystem of the cocoa crop was classified as stable or steady. Meanwhile, the results of the analysis of the dominance index (C) shows that the community of ants in each village tends was tended to be dominated by a single species (C close to 0). The relationship between habitat condition and the diversity of ant was discussed in this article.  Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman semut pada ekosistem kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) di 6 dusun di Desa Banjaroya, Kecamatan Kalibawang Yogyakarta. Pengambilan sampel semut dilakukan dengan metode pengumpanan menggunakan ikan tuna dan larutan gula yang diletakkan pada pohon kakao dan permukaan tanah; lubang perangkap; dan pemungutan dengan tangan. Enam subfamili semut, yaitu Cerapachynae, Dolichoderinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae, dan Pseudomyrmicinae telah ditemukan di lokasi pengambilan sampel. Enam genus yaitu Dolichoderus sp., Anoplolepis sp., Paratrechina sp., Crematogaster sp., Pheidole sp. dan Pheidologeton sp. yang dikenal agresif dan invasif, ditemukan paling melimpah di setiap dusun. Hasil analisis keragaman komunitas semut di Desa Banjaroya menunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruhan keadaan ekosistem pada tanaman kakao masih tergolong stabil atau mantap dikategorikan sebagai medium (H’>1-3). Sementara itu, hasil analisis indeks dominasi (C) menunjukkan bahwa komunias semut pada setiap dusun cenderung didominasi oleh satu spesies (C mendekati 0). Hubungan antara kondisi habitat dengan keragaman semut didiskusikan dalam tulisan ini.
Potency of Intraguild Predation to Disrupt the Optimum Functions of Predatory Arthropods: An Ecological Perspective Putra, Nugroho Susetya
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.12075

Abstract

Some empirical studies have revealed the ecological consequence of interspecific relationships among predatory arthropods that is the disruption of natural functions of indigenous species of predators on their preys, i.e. phytophagous arthropods. In relation to many efforts on the utilization of introduced species of natural enemies, particularly predatory arthropods, the effects oflntraguild Predation (IGP) on key predators should be considered carefully to optimize their potency. In addition, understanding the impact of biological traits of each species of predatory arthropods on their ability to adapt from being predated by other species might be important to predict their composition and possibilities for being exist in ecosystem.
POPULATION OF HERBIVOROUS AND CARNIVOROUS ARTHROPODS IN RICE FIELD ECOSYSTEM MODIFIED WITH VERMICOMPOST AND FLOWER PLANTS Suparni, Suparni; Putra, Nugroho Susetya; Suputa, Suputa
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Vol 2, No 2 (2017): August
Publisher : Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada jointly with PISPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2088.318 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ipas.16983

Abstract

Biological diversity index could be used as an option to assess the stability of an agricultural ecosystem. This limited field research was aimed to determine the effect of vermicompost and flowering plants (Asteraceae) to the diversity of herbivore and carnivore arthropods (M+). Conventional treatment with the application of non-organic fertiliser and without the addition of flowering plant was used as control (M0). Sampling was conducted using insect nets, and began at 30 days after planting (DAT), and repeated every other week until before harvesting. The results showed that the diversity of herbivore and carnivore arthropods in modified plots with organic fertiliser worm cast and flower plants/habitat manipulated system (M+) was moderate (herbivores: Shannon diversity index from 1.1 - 2.2; carnivores: 1.93 - 2.09), as well as the diversity of arthropods in the field of non-modified/custom system (M0) (herbivores: Shanon index of 1.2 - 1.7; carnivore: 1.34 - 2.18). Meanwhile, the number of arthropod species found in the M+ plot was 59 species, consisted of 22 herbivores and 37 carnivores (9 order, 32 families, and 35 genera). Number of arthropods found in the M0 plot was 54 species, consisted of 17 species of herbivores and 37 species of carnivores (7 orders, 28 families, and 30 generas). Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the plot diversity M+ and M0. Nevertheless, mean diversity of the M+ plot tended to be higher (Shannon Index herbivore and carnivore = 1.6 = 2.01) compared with M0 plot (herbivore and carnivore = 1.45 = 1.76).
Detection of Cocoa Pod Borer Infestation Using Sex Pheromone Trap and its Control by Pod Wrapping Rahmawati, Dian; Wagiman, Fransiscus Xaverius; Harjaka, Tri; Putra, Nugroho Susetya
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 21, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (27.916 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.22659

Abstract

Cocoa pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is a major pest of cocoa. Detection of the pest infestation using sex pheromone traps in the early growth and development of cocoa pods is important for an early warning system programme. In order to prevent the pest infestation the young pods were wrapped with plastic bags. A research to study the CPB incidence was conducted at cocoa plantations in Banjarharjo and Banjaroya villages, District of Kalibawang; Hargotirto and Hargowilis villages, District of Kokap; and Pagerharjo village, District of Samigaluh, Yogyakarta. The experiments design used RCBD with four treatments (sex pheromone trap, combination of sex pheromone trap and pod wrapping, pod wrapping, and control) and five replications. As many as 6 units/ha pheromone traps were installed with a distance of 40 m in between. Results showed that one month prior to the trap installation in the experimental plots there were ripen cocoa pods as many as 9-13%, which were mostly infested by CPB. During the time period of introducting research on August to Desember 2016 there was not rambutan fruits as the CPB host, hence the CPB resource was from infested cocoa pods. The CPB moth trapped as many as 0−7 (1.13 ± 0.14) moths/6 traps/12 observations. The seed damage due to CPB larvae in the pheromone trap treatments (23.98%) was relatively similar with the control (20.25%). Seed damage rate in combination treatment of pheromone trap and pod wrapping (0.59%) was relatively the same with the pod wrapping (0.20%). The pheromone trap was more usefull for monitoring tool rather than for control, meanwhile pod wrapping was an effective control measure of CPB. IntisariPenggerek Buah Kakao (PBK), Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) merupakan salah satu hama utama kakao. Deteksi serangan hama PBK dengan perangkap feromon seks pada awal pertumbuhan dan perkembangan buah kakao penting dilakukan sebagai sistem peringatan dini. Dalam upaya pencegahan serangan hama tersebut dilakukan pembrongsongan buah muda. Penelitian dilakukan di kebun kakao rakyat di Desa Banjarharjo dan Banjaroya, Kecamatan Kalibawang, Desa Hargotirto dan Hargowilis, Kecamatan Kokap, serta kebun PT Pagilaran di Desa Pagerharjo, Kecamatan Samigaluh, Yogyakarta. Percobaan dengan empat perlakuan (perangkap feromon, kombinasi perangkap feromon dan brongsong, brongsong, kontrol) dan lima ulangan menggunakan rancangan RCBD. Perangkap feromon sebanyak 6 unit/ha dipasang dengan jarak antar perangkap sekitar 40 m. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa satu bulan sebelum pemasangan perangkap terdapat buah tua sebanyak 9−13 % dan umumnya terserang PBK. Selama kajian berlangsung tidak terdapat buah rambutan sebagai inang PBK sehingga sumber PBK diduga hanya dari buah kakao yang terserang. Ngengat PBK yang tertangkap yaitu sebanyak 0−7 (1,13±0,14) ekor/6 perangkap/12 pengamatan. Intensitas kerusakan biji akibat ulat PBK pada perlakuan perangkap feromon (23,98%) relatif sama dengan kontrol (20,25%). Kerusakan biji kakao pada perlakuan kombinasi perangkap feromon dan pembrongsongan (0,59%) relatif sama dengan pembrongsongan saja (0,20%). Perangkap feromon lebih berfungsi sebagai alat monitoring daripada alat pengendalian PBK, sedangkan pembrongsongan buah merupakan teknologi pengendalian PBK yang efektif.
Survei Penggerek Batang Jagung dan Kompleks Musuh Alaminya di Provinsi Gorontalo Lihawa, Mohamad; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Putra, Nugroho Susetya
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 16, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (305.851 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11728

Abstract

Corn borer is one of the important pests on corn plant in Gorontalo Province, especially in three districts which are the center of maize planting development. Corn borer and its natural enemy complex in Gorontalo Province has not been clearly studied. The purpose of this study is to determine the complexity of the natural enemies of maize stem borer by calculating the diversity and composition. The survey method was used, in which the older larvae, pupae, and corn borer natural enemies were collected from the field in the three districts (Gorontalo, Boalemo, and Pohuwato). Observation plots in each district area of 2,500 m2, were divided into 3 sub plots with the size of 3×3 m, each plot is consisted of 45 plants at the spacing of 75×25 cm. The data were analysed descriptively and organized into tables. Shannon Index was used to count the diversity and composition of the pests and their natural enemies. The results showed that the corn borer species was Ostrinia furnacalis, while the dominant natural enemy was the tachinid fly. The analysis of Shannon diversity index for natural enemies of three districts of Gorontalo, Boalemo, and Pohuwato were 0.63, 0.61, and 0.97 respectively. Penggerek batang jagung adalah salah satu hama penting pada tanaman jagung di Provinsi Gorontalo terutama di tiga kabupaten sentra pengembangan jagung. Hama penggerek batang jagung dan kompleks musuh alaminya di Provinsi Gorontalo belum banyak dikaji. Tujuan kajian ini adalah melihat kompleksitas musuh alami penggerek batang jagung dengan menghitung keragaman dan komposisi. Metode yang digunakan adalah survei, yaitu mengumpulkan larva instar akhir, pupa penggerek batang jagung dan musuh alaminya dari lapangan di tiga kabupaten (Gorontalo, Boalemo, dan Pohuwato). Petak pengamatan di setiap kabupaten seluas 2.500 m2 yang dibagi dalam 3 sub plot berukuran 3×3 m. Jumlah tanaman jagung per plot sekitar 45 tanaman dengan jarak tanam 75×25 cm. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan disusun dalam tabel, untuk keragaman dan komposisi menggunakan Indeks Shannon. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa jenis penggerek batang jagung adalah Ostrinia furnacalis, musuh alami didominasi Ordo Diptera Famili Tachinidae. Analisis Indeks Shannon keragaman musuh alami untuk Kabupaten Gorontalo, Kabupaten Boalemo, dan Kabupaten Pohuwato berturut-turut sebesar 0,63; 0,61; dan 0,97.
Egg Predation Risk Trigger Adult Hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) to Avoid Laying Eggs in Patches Attended by Ladybird Larvae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Putra, Nugroho Susetya; Yasuda, Hironori
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 11, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.12100

Abstract

Oviposition preference of a predatory hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus on the presence of its potential predators, the ladybird larvae which are inflicted serious impacts on its eggs was examined in a non-choice test. Our results revealed that the biggest and the most aggressive species of ladybird, Harmonia axyridis caused the worst impact on hoverfly eggs by attacking and feeding on. The species and developmental stages of ladybird were attributed to the level of predation risk. We correlated the oviposition site selection by hoverfly females to the egg predation risk level inflicted by ladybird larvae. Hoverfly females laid the least number of eggs on the patches attended by the strongest competitor, the larva of H. axyridis, and tended to lay the highest number of eggs on colonies attended by the weakest competitor, the larva of Scymnus posticalis. In addition, the impact of the fourth instar larva of ladybirds was stronger than of the first instar larva.
Morphological and Molecular Characters of Mimegralla spp. (Diptera: Micropezidae) on Zingiberaceae in Central Java Widyastuti, Rahma; Suputa, Suputa; Putra, Nugroho Susetya
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.17537

Abstract

Rhizome fly, Mimegralla sp. (Diptera: Micropezidae) is a major pest on Zingiberaceae plants. Some of those fly species have been reported attacking some of Zingiberaceae plants, but in Indonesia, only one species, Mimegralla coeruleifrons has been reported as being a pest. Since Indonesia has many species of Zingiberaceae plants, it may raise a prediction that more than one species of Mimegralla was found on this plants. Therefore, a taxonomic research on the species of rhizome flies to find the species other than M. coerulifrons on Zingiberaceae plants is urgently required. This study was conducted by using hand-picking method on Mimegralla adult inhabiting Zingiberaceae plants (ginger, turmeric, javanese ginger, and aromatic ginger), and was then identified by using morphological characters and through molecular technique by using mtCO1 gene. The results showed thatM. albimana and M. coeruleifrons found at four zingiberaceae plants were the member of Mimegralla. As a conclusion, these two species have high values of phylogenic relationship (88%) and bootstrap (92).INTISARILalat rimpang (Mimegralla spp.) adalah hama utama pada beberapa tanaman anggota Family Zingiberaceae. Beberapa spesies lalat rimpang dilaporkan menyerang tanaman Zingiberaceae, di antaranya jahe, kunyit, temulawak, dan kencur. Di Indonesia hanya satu spesies yang pernah dilaporkan menyerang tanaman jahe yaituMimegralla coeruleifrons.Sementara itu, jenis tanaman Zingiberaceae yang ditanam di Indonesia sangat beragam, sehingga muncul dugaan bahwa Mimegralla yang menyerang tanaman Zingiberaceae di Indonesia tidak hanyaM. coeruleifrons saja. Oleh karena itu, penelitian untuk mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies lalat rimpang yang menyerang tanaman Zingiberaceae di Indonesia perlu dilakukan. Penelitian ini dilakukan menggunakan metode pemungutan/penangkapan (hand-picking) imago Mimegralla pada tanaman keempat tanaman Zingiberaceae. Imago yang diperoleh diidentifikasi secara morfologi dan molekuler menggunakan genmtCO1. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa M. albimana dan M. coeruleifrons yang ditemukan pada pertanaman Zingiberaceae merupakan satu genus yang sama yaitu Mimegralla. Hasil identifikasi molekuler menunjukkan bahwa kedua lalat rimpang tersebut mempunyai derajat kekerabatan dengan nilai homologi sebesar 88%, dan nilaibootstrap pada pohon filogeni sebesar 92. 
Aktivitas Harian dan Preferensi Burung Predator Lanius sp. terhadap Hama Sexava spp. Lala, Fredy; Wagiman, F. X.; Putra, Nugroho Susetya
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 16, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11740

Abstract

The objective research is to know the daily activities and preference of predatory birds Lanius sp. to several stages of Sexava spp. Ten predatory birds 12 to 14 months of age were bought at merchant bird in Yogyakarta. The study was conducted naturally under controlled condition in cages. Before the study was conducted the predatory birds were acclimatized for three days by feeding them cricket and gradually changed to Sexava spp. The young nymphs, old nymphs, adult male, and adult female of Sexava spp. were found at coconut plantation in Dumagin village became the new dietary of the predator. The result showed that Lanius sp. is a diurnal bird; the activities were dominated by hunting and preying (16.52%), followed by flying (6.53%), jumping (5.70%), and walking (4.58%). The Lanius sp. preferred to prey on significantly more nymphs of Sexava spp. than the adult. The birds prey proportionally on the young nymphs, old nymphs, male, and adult females for 50%, 41%, 5%, and 4%, respectively. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas harian burung predator Lanius sp. dan preferensinya terhadap berbagai fase hama Sexava spp. Burung berumur 1–1,2 tahun sebanyak 10 ekor diperoleh dari pedagang burung di Yogyakarta. Kajian preferensi burung predator Lanius sp. terhadap belalang Sexava spp. dilakukan di bawah kondisi fisik alami dan terkontrol dalam kandang uji. Sebelum kajian dilakukan burung predator diaklimatisasi selama 3 hari dengan pakan jangkrik dan berangsur-angsur diganti dengan belalang Sexava spp. Belalang Sexava spp. stadia nimfa muda, nimfa tua, imago jantan, dan imago betina diperoleh dari kebun kelapa desa Dumagin, dipakai sebagai mangsa burung predator. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa Lanius sp. termasuk burung diurnal; aktivitas siang hari didominasi berburu mangsa dan makan (16,52%), diikuti terbang (6,53%), melompat (5,70%), dan berjalan (4,58%). Lanius sp. Secara signifikan lebih memilih stadia nimfa dibandingkan imago belalang Sexava spp. Proporsi nimfa muda, nimfa tua, imago jantan, dan imago betina yang dimangsa berturut-turut yaitu 50%, 41%, 5%, dan 4%.