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Evaluasi Penggunaan Antibiotika Profilaksis di Ruang Bedah Rumah Sakit Kanker “Dharmais” Jakarta dan Hubungannya dengan Kejadian Infeksi Daerah Operasi Desiyana, Lydia Septa; Soemardi, Ajoedi; Radji, Maksum
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Vol 2, No 4 (2008): Oct - Dec 2008
Publisher : "Dharmais" Cancer Center Hospital

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Abstract

Infeksi daerah operasi (IDO) merupakan salah satu infeksi nosokomial yang menyebabkan morbiditas, mortalitas dan peningkatan biaya perawatan. Faktor resiko terjadinya IDO dapat berasal dari pasien sendiri, lingkungan, operasi dan perawatan pasca operasi. Penggunaan antibiotika profilaksis merupakan salah satu cara menurunkan kejadian IDO.Dilakukan penelitian di ruang bedah RS. Kanker "Dharmais" dengan metode cross-sectional dan prospektif. Metode pengambilan sampel yang dilakukan adalah total sampling. Data dari seluruh pasien yang menjalani operasi pada 10 April -9 Mei 2008 diambil, kemudian dilakukan pemantauan kejadian IDO sampai dengan 30 hari pasca operasi.Dari 150 pasien yang menjalani operasi, sejumlah 131 pasien yang dapat dipantau hingga 30 hari pasca operasi. Antibiotika profilaksis digunakan pada 111 dari 131 operasi yang dilakukan (84,73%). Antibiotika yang paling banyak digunakan adalah sefalosporin generasi III, yaitu ceftriaxone (52,25%). 84,68% pasien menerima antibiotika profilaksis tidak tepat waktu dan 81,98% menerima antibiotika profilaksis > 24 jam. IDO terjadi pada 3 dari 131 (2,29%) pasien tersebut. Hasil analisa multivariat menunjukkan lama rawat sebelum operasi merupakan faktor risiko yang berpengaruh terhadap kejadian IDO pada penelitian ini (p = 0,031, OR = 3,259).Antibiotikan profilaksis yang paling banyak digunakan di instalasi bedah RS. Kanker "Dharmais" adalah ceftriaxone, waktu pemberiannya sebagian besar tidak tepat dan digunakan lebih dari 24 jam. Ceftriaxone merupakan antibiotika spektrum luas yang mempunyai efekstivitas terhadap gram positif dan negatif.Penilaian kesesuaian pemilihan jenis antibiotika profilaksis dilakukan dengan menggunakan data sensitivitas ruangan tahun 2007 dengan hasil bahwa antibiotika profilaksis yang digunakan masih sensitif terhadap bakteri yang ada diruangan ICU, kelas II dan kelas III. Kejadian IDO di RS. Kanker "Dharmais" adalah 2,29%. Hasil analisa bivariat dengan chi-square menunjukkan bahwa sifat operasi, durasi operasi dan lama rawat sebelum operasi mempunyai hubungan bermakna dengan kejadian IDO (p < 0,05). Sementara itu hasil analisa multivariate menunjukkan jumlah hari rawat sebelum operasi merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya IDO.Kata kunci: antibiotika profilaksis, infeksi luka operasi, operasi.
Seleksi Galur-Galur Leuconostoc yang Mempunyai Aktivitas Bakteriostatin Terhadap Berbagai Bakteri Indikator Retnaningsih, Agustina; Malik, Amarila; Radji, Maksum
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 9, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (587.242 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v9i2.3357

Abstract

Lactid Acid Bacteria (LAB) are known to produce bacteriocins which have antimicrobi-al activity, and possessed to be developed as antibiotic complement. This study aimed tocharacterize bacteriocins activity from Leuconostoc strains isolated previously from localsources, and to optimize pH and incubation temperature as well. A well diffusion agarassay for zone inhibition method and bacteriocin potency assay performing minimum in-hibition concentration (MIC) have been done. Bacterial indicators used in this study areLeu. mesenteroides TISTR 120, and JCM 6124, Staphylococcus aureus FNCC 0047, Lis-teria monocytogenes FNCC 0156, Escherichia coli FNCC 0183, Pseudomonas aeruginosaFNCC 0063, Salmonella typhi FNCC 0165 and Bacillus subtilis FNCC 0061. Catalase,Trypsin and Protease K were also used for confirmation test. Results revealed that bothLeu. mesenteroides MBF2-5 and MBF7-17 possessed bacteriocin activity although againstLeu. mesenteroides TISTR 120 and JCM 6124 indicators strains. The optimum pH forbacteriocin potency assay for both Leuconostoc strains MBF2-5 and MBF7-17 was pH 6,whereas the optimum incubation temperature was 32 oc with MIC value of 90% and 80%,respectively.Keywords: Bacteriocin, lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, MIC
UJI MUTAGENISITAS DAN ANTI KANKER EKSTRAK ASETON DAN N-HEKSANA DARI KULIT BATANG SESOOT (Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq.) Radji, Maksum; Sumiati, Atiek; Indani, Nuning
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 1, No 2 (2004)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (37.75 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v1i2.3371

Abstract

Mutagenicity and anti-mutagenicity of the acetone and n-hexane extracts of Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq.bark have been studied by Ames method using Salmonella typhimurium TA 97, TA 98 TA 100, TA 102, dan Escherichia coli WP2. The results showed that the two extracts had a positive effect. It can be concluded that the acetone and n-hexane extracts of Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq. bark have anticancer activity.
UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA DAN UJI SITOTOKSIK EKSTRAK ETANOL AKAR TANAMAN AKAR KUCING (ACALYPHA INDICA LINN), DAGING BUAH MAHKOTA DEWA (PHALERIA MACROCARPA (SHEFF) BOERL) DAN SARI BUAH MERAH (PANDANUS CONOIDEUS LAM) Radji, Maksum; Sari, Ratna Chandra; Sumiati, Atiek
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 5, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (27.204 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v5i1.3417

Abstract

The antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Acalypha indica Linn, Phaleria macrocarpa (Sheff) Boerl and Pandanus conoideus Lam, had been carried out. The results of the research showed that those ethanol extracts had antimi-crobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosae ATCC 27853 and Candida albicans. The determi-nation of cytotoxic effects of those ethanol extracts by brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) using Artemia salina Leach showed that LC50 of Acalypha indica Linn, Phaleria macrocarpa (Sheff) Boerl and Pandanus conoideus Lam were 1,279 ug/ml, 0.123 ug/ml and 0.054 ug/ml respectively.Key Words: Acalypha indica, Phaleria macrocarpa, Pandanus conoideus, antimi-crobial, BSLT.
VAKSIN KANKER Radji, Maksum
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 6, No 3 (2009)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (36.974 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v6i3.3440

Abstract

Cancer vaccines are medicines that work by stimulating or restoring the immune system’s ability to fight cancers and disease. There are two types of cancer vaccines,prophylactic cancer vaccines, which are intended to prevent cancer from developing in healthy people, and treatment cancer vaccines, which are intended to treat already existing cancers by strengthening the body’s natural defenses against cancer. Thisarticle discusses about cancer vaccines including the role of microbes that are respon-sible of human tumor, the mode of action of cancer vaccines and the efficacy of humanpapillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in preventing various benign and malignant condi-tions, including cervical cancers caused by HPV.Keywords: cancer vaccines, HPV vaccines.
UJI EFEKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA BEBERAPA MEREK DAGANG PEMBERSIH TANGAN ANTISEPTIK Radji, Maksum; Suryadi, Herman; Ariyanti, Dessy
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 4, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (24.707 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v4i1.3408

Abstract

In Modern life, peoples are more conscious to keep their healthy. One of the way to keep our body healthy is by keeping our hand clean. Washing hands with soap and water, sometimes is unpractical since it need water to rinse off the soap. Prod-uct innovation has been developed to overcome the unpractical side, which is called antiseptic hand wash or hand sanitizer. This study has been done to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of some hand sanitizer products marketed in Jakarta. The re-sult showed that alcohol-based hand sanitizer and triclosan-based hand sanitizerused in this experiment were significantly reduce bacterial counts on hands, but not all of the samples are effective in reducing fungal counts on hands.Key words :  antiseptic, hand sanitizer.
AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) : PATOGENESIS, PENCEGAHAN DAN PENYEBARAN PADA MANUSIA Radji, Maksum
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 3, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (55.392 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v3i2.3399

Abstract

Avian influenza A (H5N1), or highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), has become the worldÂ’s attention because of possibility of global pandemic. This review describes the features of human infection, pathogenesis, transmission, and clinical management of avian influenza A (H5N1). Key word : H5N1, avian influenza, pathogenesis.
PEMBERIAN VAKSIN MELALUI TANAMAN TRANSGENIK Radji, Maksum
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 1, No 1 (2004)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (31.553 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v1i1.3364

Abstract

Vaccines have played an important role in preventive medicine since Edward Jenner discovered that cowpox induced protection against human smallpox. Until recently, a vaccination has meant a needle in the arm. However, with the increasing need for inexpensive, easily administered vaccines, along with the improvements in genetic engineering, the concept of edible vaccines is fast becoming reality. This is especially important in developing countries, where it is estimated that three to five million children die each year from common diseases, which could have easily been prevented with the proper vaccination. Compared to traditional lab-synthesized vaccines, plants are capable of producing proteins at lower cost, and need not be isolated for injection. Plant-based vaccines are also safer than traditional vaccines because they use selected sub-units of the disease rather the attenuated whole disease-causing organism.
VAKSIN DNA: VAKSIN GENERASI KEEMPAT Radji, Maksum
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 6, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (42.334 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v6i1.3433

Abstract

Vaccines have been developed for a range of different infectious diseases. The complex-ity of microbial infections requires novel approaches to vaccine design. The first-generation of vaccines were live attenuated pathogens. Because of safety concerns, the second-generation of vaccines, chemically or physically inactivated pathogens werelater developed. Purified or synthetic proteins represent a third generation, and recent advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have led to the development ofthe fourth vaccine generation, which includes DNA and virus vector-based vaccines.This review discusses on the genetic elements and construction of DNA vaccines, comparison of DNA vaccines and conventional vaccines, the benefits and limitations of DNA vaccines, and the advances of genetic vaccine development over the last decade.Keywords: DNA vaccines, conventional vaccines.
PEMERIKSAAN BAKTERIOLOGIS AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI BEBERAPA DEPO AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI DAERAH LENTENG AGUNG DAN SRENGSENG SAWAH JAKARTA SELATAN Radji, Maksum; Oktavia, Heria; Suryadi, Herman
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 5, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (33.228 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v5i2.3424

Abstract

Recently, refilled drinking water stores are flourishing in the some cities of Indonesia. This research tries to find out the quality of refilled drinking water at some shop in Jagakarsa, South Jakarta. The samples of refilled drinking water were taken from thir-teen shops around Lenteng Agung and Srengseng Sawah, Jagakarsa area. The bacte-riological test of refilled drinking water was to detect the availability of Coliformbacteria and identification of some bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Sal-monella, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.It had been concluded that two of thirteen samples of refilled drinking water had the total number of bacteria above of the limit number according to the standard about the quality and requirement of drinking water. Four of the thirteen samples contain Sta-phylococcus aureus and none of the samples contain Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Key words: refilled drinking water, coliform bacteria.