Mohamad Rafi
Biopharmaca Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University. Jl. Taman Kencana No. 3, Bogor 16128, Indonesia

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PENGOPTIMUMAN KONDISI ADSORPSI CD(II) OLEH ADSORBEN BERBASIS SILIKA TERMODIFIKASI GLISINA MENGGUNAKAN CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN Indriyani, Lisa Aprilia; Arif, Zulhan; Linda, Roza; Purwaningsih, Henny; Rafi, Mohamad
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 22, No 5 (2019): Volume 22 Issue 5 Year 2019
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3216.184 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.22.5.184-191

Abstract

Silika gel (SG) merupakan salah satu jenis adsorben yang umum digunakan pada eksraksi fase padat untuk prakonsentrasi. Berhubung SG memiliki selektivitas dan efektivitas adsorpsi yang rendah terhadap ion logam, maka silika perlu dimodifikasi. SG dimodifikasi dengan d-glisina (Si-Gly) menggunakan 3-aminopropiltrimetoksisilana dan glutaraldehida sebagai penaut silang. Kemampuan Si-Gly sebagai adsorben ion kadmium (Cd) dipelajari dengan metode adsorpsi batch. Hasil modifikasi dibuktikan dengan spektrum inframerah. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi Cd dengan Si-Gly diperoleh pada pH 5, dengan bobot adsorben 0,3 g, dan waktu kontak 11 menit. Persentase adsorpsi Cd pada kondisi optimum oleh Si-Gly (99,34%) lebih besar daripada oleh SG (89,03%). Kapasitas adsorpsi maksimum Si-Gly terhadap Cd(II) ialah 9,77 mg/g yang diperoleh pada konsentrasi 400 mg/L. Pola adsorpsi SG dan Si-Gly terhadap Cd(II) mengikuti model isoterm Langmuir.
METABOLITE PROFILING OF JAVA TURMERIC (CURCUMA XANTHORIZA) ESSENTIAL OIL WITH DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES Rafi, Mohamad; Septaningsih, Dewi Anggraini; Heryanto, Rudi
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2531.448 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.21.4.237-241

Abstract

Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthoriza) is one of the native plants from Indonesia. Java turmeric is known as a medicinal plant with a high content of volatile oils. In this study, we investigated the chemical profile of java turmeric essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation associated with different harvesting times of the rhizome (7, 9, and 11 months). The constituent of the essential oil was determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. About 19, 20 and 34 compounds were identified in 7, 9, and 11-month old java turmeric. Fifteen compounds were found in all samples namely ?-elemene, zingiberene, ?-elemene, ?-farnesene, ?-curcumene, benzofuran, ?-cedrene, epicurzerenone, ar-curcumene, germacrone, aromadendrene, ??longipene, trans-caryophilene, curcuphenol, and xanthorrhizol. This study showed the level of all compound detected in 7, 9, and 11 months old of java turmeric is different.
PENENTUAN KADAR FENOLIK TOTAL DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN ENAM TANAMAN HIAS Rafi, Mohamad; Pertiwi, Tanti Yulianti Raga; Syaefudin, Syaefudin
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 22, No 3 (2019): Volume 22 Issue 3 Year 2019
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2542.088 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.22.3.79-84

Abstract

Kadar fenolik total dan aktivitas antioksidan pada enam tanaman hias Indonesia telah diteliti. Enam tanaman tersebut yaitu Alamanda (Allamanda cathartica L.), Bokor (Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser.), Kuping Gajah (Anthurium crystallinum Linden & André), Sambang Colok (Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Blume), Teh-tehan (Acalypha siamensis Oliv. Ex Gage), dan Torenia (Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. Fourn). Ekstraksi dilakukan secara maserasi menggunakan etanol sebagai pelarut pengekstraknya. Kadar fenolik total ditentukan menggunakan metode Folin Ciocalteu. Aktivitas antioksidan diukur menggunakan metode 2,2-difenil-1-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH), reducing power, dan cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). Berdasarkan hasil yang diperoleh, rendemen dan kadar fenolik total tertinggi dimiliki oleh daun Bokor masing-masing sebesar 15,45% dan 13,86 mg ekivalen asam galat/g serbuk kering. Daun Teh-tehan memiliki aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi untuk semua metode yang digunakan yaitu DPPH, reducing power, dan CUPRAC dengan nilai masing-masing 180,45; 202,17; dan 589.90 µmol troloks/g serbuk kering. Hal ini menandakan bahwa aktivitas antioksidan tidak hanya berasal dari senyawaan fenolik karena daun Teh-tehan yang memiliki kadar fenolik total lebih rendah dari daun Bokor memberikan kapasitas antioksidan yang lebih tinggi.
HIDROKARBON AROMATIK POLISIKLIK PADA LAHAN TERCEMAR LIMBAH MINYAK BUMI: TINJAUAN PERTUMBUHAN MIKRO-ORGANISME, PROSES METABOLISME DAN BIODEGRADASI Kurniawan, Allen; Wirasembada, Yanuar Chandra; Ningtyas Razaad, Indah Mutiara; Novriansyah, Adi; Rafi, Mohamad; Effendi, Agus Jatnika
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 16, No 1 (2018): April 2018
Publisher : Program Studi Ilmu Lingkungan,Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (38.4 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jil.16.1.9-24

Abstract

ABSTRAKHidrokarbon Aromatik Polisiklik (HAP) berasal dari proses alamiah dan limbah antropogenik di lingkungan. HAP merupakan polutan di udara, tanah, dan padatan yang mengendap pada fase cair (sedimen) dan berkembang akibat pembakaran tidak lengkap material organik. Kajian ini berupa studi literatur mengenai informasi secara lebih detil tentang laju kenaikan HAP pada tanah, gambaran umum proses metabolisme, proses biodegradasi HAP melalui keterlibatan mikroorganisme, dan alternatif pengolahan sebagai media teknologi penunjang aktivitas proses degradasi. Proses degradasi HAP dan substrat hidrofobik digunakan untuk membatasi jumlah fase cair terlarut melalui sorbsi, kristalin, dan non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) sehingga HAP terlarut menjadi tidak tersedia. Laju peningkatan HAP di dalam tanah terbagi atas tiga fase, yaitu fase eksponensial, fase lanjutan dengan pertumbuhan pseudo-linear, dan fase pseudo-stasioner pada kondisi tidak ideal berdasarkan ciri akses bakteri tersedia dalam jumlah tidak terbatas, dan transportasi substrat adalah homogen. Pada media heterogen, seperti tanah, HAP diserap dalam partikel organik pada pori-pori dengan ukuran kecil sehingga bakteri tanah tidak dapat mengakses HAP. Pada kasus pencemaran dalam skala besar, HAP akan berbentuk semacam tar droplet sehingga membatasi bakteri untuk mendegradasi HAP. Selain bakteri, jenis organisme dan mikroorganisme spesifik pendegradasi HAP dapat ditemukan pada jamur (fungi), cyanobacteria, dan alga.Kata kunci: biodegradasi, hidrokarbon aromatik polisiklik, mikroorganisme, proses metabolisme.ABSTRACTPolycylic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are derived from natural processes and the anthropogenic wastes in the environment. PAHs are pollutants found in the air, soil, and sediments which are developed due to incomplete combustion of the organic materials. This review provides a more detail literature study regarding the microbial growth, the metabolic process, and PAHs microbial biodegradation processes overview. The process of PAHs and the hydrophobic substrate degradation is applied to limit the amount of dissolved aqueous phase through sorption, crystalline, and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) so that the dissolved PAHs are no longer available. microbial growth on PAHs as the sole carbon source can be divided into three phases which are the exponential phase, the advance phase with pseudo-linear growth, and pseudo-stationery phase in a non-ideal condition based on the characteristic of the unlimited bacterial access and the homogenous substrate transport. In the heterogeneous medium, such as soil, PAHs are absorbed into the organic particles of small sized pores so that the PAHs become inaccessible for the soil bacteria. In large scale pollution, the PAHs are in the form of tar droplets which limit the access for soil bacteria to degrade the PAHs. Other than bacteria, the specific organisms and microorganisms to degrade PAHs are found in fungi, cyanobacteria, and algae.Keywords: biodegradation, growth rate, metabolic process, microbial, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.Citation: Kurniawan A., Wirasembada, Y.C., Razaad, I.M.N., Novriansyah, A., Rafi, M., Effendi, A.J.(2018). Hidrokarbon Aromatik Polisiklik pada Lahan Tercemar Limbah Minyak Bumi: Tinjauan Pertumbuhan Mikro-Organisme, Proses Metabolisme dan Biodegradasi, Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 16(1), 9-24, doi:10.14710/jil.16.1.9-24
GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF JAVA TEA (ORTHOSIPHON STAMINEUS) FROM JAVA ISLAND BY FTIR SPECTROSCOPY COMBINED WITH CANONICAL VARIATE ANALYSIS Rafi, Mohamad; Purwakusumah, Edy Djauhari; Ridwan, Taopik; Barus, Baba; Sutandi, Atang; Darusman, Latifah Kosim
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 23 Issue 1 Year 2015
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (645.469 KB)

Abstract

FTIR spectroscopy combined with canonical variate analysis was used for differentiation of java tea (Orthosiphon stamineus) according to their geographical origin. FTIR spectra of all java tea samples were acquired in the mid infrared region (wavenumber range 4000-400 cm-1). Preprocessing signal of FTIR spectra has been carried out prior to canonical variate analysis by standard normal variate. Combination of FTIR spectra in the region 1800-900 cm-1with canonical variate analysis has the power to differentiate java tea samples in terms of geographical origin. The developed method could be used for identification of geographical origin of java tea based on the samples used in this study.
PRODUKTIVITAS AMINO ACID FISH AGGREGATION PADA ALAT TANGKAP BAGAN APUNG DI PERAIRAN PALABUHANRATU, SUKABUMI Yusfiandayani, Roza; Riyanto, Bambang; Rafi, Mohamad; Heriyanto, .
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 24 No. 2 (2019): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (541.427 KB) | DOI: 10.18343/jipi.24.2.135

Abstract

Fish has two chemical sensory/receptor systems that smell (olfactory) and taste (gustatory) odor that adapt to the specific substance of the environment. In general, olfactory is similar to nasal organs for human nostrils. The olfactory receptors detect chemical stimuli in the form of electrical signals. Based on the ability of fish that can respond to chemical stimuli through the sense of smell, a substance can be used to attract the attention of fish. In response to this reality, AFA (Amino Acid Fish Aggregation) can be developed as a fish collecting tool to attract fish bu using amino acid preparation that works though the sense of smell and taste of fish. The objectives of this study were to design and produce a prototype of Amino Acid Fish Aggregation (AFA), to determine the productivity of catches of raft lift net by using AFA, and to calculate the length of the weight of the catch using AFA. The data used were catch data with weights and lengths of fish catch by raft lift net using AFA. The results showed that the AFA prototype which had a size of p x l x t : 35 x 22 x 15 cm and the highest catches was found at 18.00-00.00 WIB by using AFA with raft lift net. The catches using AFA in Palabuhanratu waters amounted to 5 types of fish, namely stolephorus sp., sardinella sp., rastrelliger kanagurta, euthynnus affinis, trichiurus sp., and positive allometrics were found in rastrelliger kanagurta and anchovy, but negative allometrics were found in euthynnus affinis, sardinella sp., and trichiurus sp.
OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACTION CONDITIONS FOR ANDROGRAPHOLIDE USING FRACTIONAL FACTORIAL DESIGN Rafi, Mohamad
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 25 No 3, 2014
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (674.243 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm25iss3pp145

Abstract

Andrographolide is a major bioctive compound found in king of bitter (Andrographis paniculata). In this study, the extraction method and its condition were investigated in order to get an extract with maximum amount of andrographolide by comparing three other extraction methods, i.e. maceration, soxhletation and ultrasonication and also determination for the optimum condition of the selected extraction method. The highest andrographolide amount was found by maceration, so this method was choosen for further optimization of extraction condition. The optimum condition based on the prediction amount from 27 factor combinations was obtained in 360 times of extraction time, 2g/100mL of sample to solvent ratio, and 3fold of extraction frequency with prediction of andrographolide amount was 3.50%. While by using prediction profile, the optimum condition was obtained in 360min of extraction time, 2 g/100mL of sample and solvent ratio, and 4 times of extraction frequency with the amount was 3.47-3.74%.
POTENSI SPEKTROSKOPI FTIR-ATR DAN KEMOMETRIK UNTUK MEMBEDAKAN RAMBUT BABI, KAMBING, DAN SAPI Rafi, Mohamad; Anggundari, Widia Citra; Irawadi, Tun Tedja
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 5 No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Rambut beberapa hewan seperti babi, kambing, dan juga sapi telah digunakan sebagai bahan baku kuas salah satunya kuas untuk produksi makanan seperti kue, roti, dan lainnya. Jika kuas dalam produksi makanan ini terbuat dari rambut babi maka dapat menyebabkan makanan menjadi tidak halal. Oleh karena itu, dalam penelitian ini kami melakukan studi keterlaksanaan penggunaan spektroskopi Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) yang dikombinasikan dengan kemometrik untuk mengembangkan metode identifikasi dan diskriminasi rambut babi, kambing, dan sapi. Spektrum FTIR diukur pada bilangan gelombang 1000-4000 cm-1. Intensitas dari kisaran bilangan gelombang 1215-2007 cm-1 dan 3467-3989 cm-1 dipilih untuk membuat model diskriminasi tiga jenis rambut yang digunakan. Pengelompokan sampel berdasarkan jenis rambutnya dilakukan dengan menggunakan analisis gerombol, analisis komponen utama, dan analisis diskriminan. Model diskriminasi menggunakan AKU dan AD dapat memisahkan ketiga jenis rambut hewan yang digunakan dengan AD memberikan pengelompokan yang lebih terpisah satu sama lainnya. Metode kombinasi FTIR-ATR dan kemometrik dimungkinkan untuk digunakan untuk tujuan identifikasi dan diskriminasi rambut babi, kambing dan sapi.
Identifikasi dan Autentikasi Jahe Merah Menggunakan Kombinasi Spektroskopi FTIR dan Kemometrik Purwakusumah, Edy Djauhari; Rafi, Mohamad; Safitri, Utami Dyah; Nurcholis, Waras; Zaim Adzkiya, Muhammad Agung
Agritech Vol 34, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (210.924 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9526

Abstract

FTIR spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were used for identification and authentication of jahe merah from its related species namely jahe emprit and jahe gajah. FTIR spectra of all samples were recorded in the wavenumber range 4000-400 cm-1 and then subjected for preprocessing signal such as normalization and baseline correction. Combination of FTIR spectra with some chemometrics method such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were used to distinguish the three varieties of ginger. By using discriminant analysis, the three varieties of ginger were classified according to its variety. The developed method could be used for identification and authentication of jahe merah.ABSTRAKSpektroskopi FTIR dan kombinasinya dengan analisis komponen utama dan analisis diskriminan telah digunakan untuk identifikasi dan autentikasi jahe merah dari dua spesies yang berkerabat dengannya yaitu jahe emprit dan jahe gajah. Seluruh contoh dibuat spektrum FTIR pada kisaran bilangan gelombang 4000-400 cm-1 dan diberi perlakuan pendahuluan seperti normalisasi dan koreksi garis dasar. Kombinasi spektrum FTIR dengan beberapa metode kemometrik seperti analisis komponen utama dan analisis diskriminan digunakan untuk membedakan ketiga varietas jahe. Analisis diskriminan dapat mengelompokkan ketiga varietas jahe sesuai dengan jenis varietasnya. Metode yang dikembangkan ini dapat digunakan untuk tujuan identifikasi dan autentikasi jahe merah.
A Simple Photometer and Chemometrics Analysis for Quality Control of Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) Raw Material Heryanto, Rudi; Permana, Derry; Tedjo, Aryo; Rohaeti, Eti; Rafi, Mohamad; Darusman, Latifah Kosim
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 6, No 3 (2017): Edition of September - December 2017
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (759.127 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2017.006.03.349

Abstract

In this paper, we described the use of a light emitting diode (LED)-based photometer and chemometric analysis for quality control of king of bitter or sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) raw material. The quality of medicinal plants is determined by their chemical composition. The quantities of chemical components in medicinal plants can be assessed using spectroscopic technique. We used an “in house” photometer to generate spectra of sambiloto. The spectra were analyzed by chemometric methods, i.e. principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), with the aim of herbal quality classification based on the harvesting time. From the results obtained, based on thin layer chromatography analysis, sambiloto with different collection times (1, 2, and 3 months) contained different amounts of active compounds. Evaluation of sambiloto, using its spectra and chemometric analysis has successfully differentiated its quality based on harvesting time. PCA with the first two PC’s (PC-1 = 60% and PC-2 = 35%) was able to differentiate according to the harvesting time of sambiloto. Three models were obtained by PLS-DA and could be used to predict unknown sample of sambiloto according to the harvesting time