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Journal : NICHE Journal of Tropical Biology

Community structure of algae epiphytic in different leaf litter of mangroves Hariyati, Riche; Suedy, Sri Widodo Agung; Rahadian, Rully
NICHE Journal of Tropical Biology Vol. 1, No. 2, Year 2018
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (195.685 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/niche.1.2.30-34

Abstract

Mangrove is a plant that has the morphological and physiological adaptations to habitats which influenced by a tide. This plant can grow and develop in an environment of high salinity and its soil conditions are less stable and aerobic. Litter mangrove is the main source for the availability of detritus and is the largest component constituent of a food web in a mangrove ecosystem environment. Algae epiphytic microalgae is a group that lives attached to the plant, including the mangrove litter. The study aims to assess the abundance and diversity of epiphytic algae on different types of mangrove leaf litter. The observed mangroves leaf litter were Avicennia alba, Sonneratia sp. and Rhizophora sp. Epiphytic algae were brushed on mangrove leaf litter covering an area of 6.25 cm2 and diluted with distilled water. Samples were observed under a microscope with a magnification of 400 x. Water quality parameters were measured in situ and the organic ingredients, total N and P were analyzed. The results showed that epiphytic algae on each type of mangrove leaf litter were not different. Rhizophora sp is the most abundant and the richest species compared with other types of litter that are equal to 622 individuals / cm2 and 26 species of epiphytic algae. While the abundance of Avicennia alba and Sonneratia sp were 459 ind/cm2 and 321 ind /cm2, in the coastal mangrove areas of Morodemak was found 28 species of epiphytic algae. The common epiphytic algae species found in all types of mangrove litter were Cymbella sp., Coscinodiscus sp., and Synedra ulna. In general, the group of Bacillariophyta (diatoms) is the dominant species in some mangrove leaf. 
Community structure of soil microarthropods in active and passive zones of Ngronggo landfill Salatiga Ari, Psn Masruri Sulistiyanto; Rahadian, Rully; Tarwotjo, Udi
NICHE Journal of Tropical Biology Vol. 2, No. 2, Year 2019
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1934.201 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/niche.2.2.1-6

Abstract

Soil microarthropods play a key role in decomposing organic materials. The objectives of this study were to compare the structure of soil microarthropods communities in the active and passive zones of Ngronggo landfill Salatiga. The sampling of ten soil samples in each active and passive zones was performed for soil microarthropods extraction and soil physical-chemical analysis. Soil microarthropods were extracted using modified Barlese-Funnel. Soil microarthropods data were analyzed to determine abundance, diversity, and similarity. Physical-chemical factors were measured, including soil texture, heavy metal content (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Hg) and organic matter. The results show that all attributes of structure of soil microarthropods communities in active zone are higher than in passive zone, i.e., the density, the species richness, the species diversity, and the evenness. In both zones, the composition of soil microarthropods tend to be different.. Organic matter is likely the most important soil physicochemical factors to form the microarthropod structure in active and passive zones. This study contributes a new information about the role of soil microarthropods in decomposing the disposal waste of material and it would be benefit for developing a bioindicator of waste decomposition in landfill area.
THE TOOL OF RESISTANCE MONITORING OF PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA, (L.) AND ITS FIELD VALIDATION USING EMAMECTIN BENZOATE AND DIAGNOSTIC CONCENTRATION DETERMINATION Tarwotjo, Udi; Situmorang, Jesmandt; Martono, Edhy; Rahadian, Rully
NICHE Journal of Tropical Biology Vol. 3, No. 1, Year 2020
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/niche.3.1.50-54

Abstract

In Indonesia, cabbage pest control is still heavily dependent on the use of insecticides. Although insecticides have many advantages, i.e., reducing the populations of pest quickly, easy to use, and economically advantageous, but it has the negative impact especially the emergence of resistant pest species.The objective of this study are: (1) to monitore the resistance of Plutella xylostella population toward insecticide residues of emamectin benzoate by diagnostic concentration determination, (2) to validate the diagnostic concentration in the field. P. xylostella population were collected from some cabbage farms in Central Java i.e., Bandungan, Sumowono, Cepogo, Kejajar, Kertek, Tawangmangu, Plalar, Puasan, Kaponan, and Keteb.Determination of LC90 was tested using probit analysis. The results showed that five of the eleven tested populations have sensitivity c2 value < c2 table, namely population Selo, Gedongsongo, Gondosuli, Kejajar, and Plalar. The determinated diagnostic concentration is LC90 = 2443.99 ppb with the lowest concentration limits 1213.67 ppb and the highest is 4921.53 ppb, because of the testing results of the sensitivity of all tested populations are still susceptible to emamectin benzoate with mortality > 90% at a concentration of 2000 ppb. The results of validation diagnostic concentration (2443.99 ppb), indicating the mortality percentage caused by eleventh population ranged from 82.76% to 95%, the value of c2 value is smaller than c2 table (df = 1; ? = 0.05) = 3.84. Therefore the diagnostic concentration (ppb 2443.99) is valid for effective monitoring tool for the development of resistance of P. xylostella population. The conventional method to monitor resistance is less sensitive to the resistance emerging occurrence. Therefore, it is necessary to develop monitoring methods which are more sensitive to small changes in the frequency of resistance, by using diagnostic concentration.