Ekowati Rahajeng
Peneliti Pusat Teknologi Intervensi Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Dyspeptic Syndrome in Urban Population of Jakarta Simadibrata, Marcellus; Abdullah, Murdani; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Fauzi, Achmad; Makmun, Dadang; Manan, Chudahman; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Santi, Aan; Rahajeng, Ekowati
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2, August 2010
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

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Abstract

Background:  Dyspeptic syndrome is experienced by many patients who visit general practitioners and gastroenterologist. In Indonesia, a small number of epidemiological data about dyspeptic syndrome are available. The aim of this study was to obtain data on prevalence, characteristics and factors/lifestyle associated with dyspeptic syndrome in urban population of Jakarta. Method: The study was conducted by interview to 1,645 respondents representing the population of Jakarta in the year 2007 using the Steps WHO version 1.4 instruments. The selection of respondents was performed by multistage cluster random sampling, i.e. each municipality is represented by one district and each was represented by a number of villages and respondents interviewed at random. Dyspeptic syndrome is defined whenever there is one or more complaints of nausea, vomiting, belching, epigastric pain, no appetite, early satiety, bloating. Scoring was performed for each category of questions using wstep1 method prior to the analysis. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square test or t-test. Results: Of the 1,645 respondents, the prevalence of dyspeptic syndrome was 58.1%. The most apparent clinical complaint ranges consecutively, i.e. nausea 30.1%, epigastric pain 28.7%, bloating 23.8%, etc. Dyspeptic syndrome is significantly more often experienced by female respondents (p < 0.001). Dyspeptic syndrome were more common in respondents who have less/no fruit (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.049) intake. Dyspeptic syndrome is more common in respondents with anxiety and depression (p < 0.001) also in respondents who consume non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prevalence of dyspeptic syndrome in Jakarta urban population is 58.1%. Dyspeptic syndrome was more common in female, respondents who have less / no fruit and vegetables intake, in respondents who experienced anxiety and depression and respondents who consume NSAIDs. Keywords: dyspeptic syndrome, Jakarta, urban population, prevalence
PENGARUH KONSUMSI KOPI TERHADAP KEJADIAN DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2 (Studi Follow up Gangguan Toleransi Glukosa di Depok Jawa Barat Tahun 2001-2008) Rahajeng, Ekowati
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 33, No 2 (2010): September 2010
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Abstract

EFFECT OF COFFEE CONSUMPTION FOR THE INCIDENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS(Follow up Study for Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Depok, West Java 2001-2008)Coffee consumption is known to increase the risk of the incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Effect of coffee consumption on the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes has been investigated in 289 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) through prospective cohort studies since 2001 in Depok City, West Java. Coffee drinking habits was collected through measure of caffeine content were consumed. Caffeine content was measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) using the method High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Diagnosis of IGT determined based on examination results of fasting blood glucose levels ie lower 126 mg / dL and 2 hours after 75 g glucose load blood glucose levels ie 140-199 mg / dL. Diagnosis of diabetes melitus determined by the basis of the results of clinical examination and results of fasting blood glucose levels, ie ≥ 126 mg / dL and/or results of blood glucose 2 hours after glucose load, ie ≥ 200mg/dl. The follow-up study, to confirm these effects was conducted in 2008. Multinomial logistic multivariate analysis of coffee consumption habits and all variables equally harmful risk of incident type 2 diabetes suggests that coffee consumption with caffein content of 240-359,9 mgcaffein had high risk of type 2 diabetes with RR value 3.88 (95% CI 1.20, 8.75), and RR for coffee consumption with caffein content >= 360 mg caffein daily was 5.46 (95% CI 1.57, 11.86). Another factors was contribut to the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is high fat consumption with RR 4.64 (95% CI 1.90, 10.28), obesity with RR 4.04 (95% CI 1.31, 8.27 ), and hypertriglyceride with RR 4.99 (95% CI 1.55, 10.19). High fiber consumption, and high physical activity was found to prevent Type 2 diabetes with RR 0.37 (95% CI 0.10, 0.70) and RR 0.42 (95% CI 0.18, 0.68).Keywords: coffee consumption, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
SURVIVAL RATE PENYANDANG HIPERTENSI DENGAN KONSUMSI NATRIUM RENDAH TERHADAP KEJADIAN STROKE Rahajeng, Ekowati; Riyadina, Woro
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 39, No 2 (2016): September 2016
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Abstract

Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Several studies have shown that stroke can be prevented through modifiable risk factors. The adequate treatment of hypertension may reduce the risk of stroke. Lifestyle modification such as reducing salt intake in hypertension management have demonstrated lowering blood pressure, enhancing the effectiveness of antihypertension drugs and also reducing stroke risk. This study aims to verify the survival rate of hypertension with lower sodium intake (<2000 mg per day) on the incidence of stroke. The study was conducted through a prospective cohort study (4 years of follow-up) in 1082 people with confirmed hypertension. Stroke were confirmed by neurologist. The consumption of sodium, sugar and fat were collected through 24-hour dietary recall. Hypertension survival rate was calculated using Life Table Survival analysis. This study has demonstrated evidence of the higher survival rate of hypertension with low sodium intake on the incidence of stroke, with the difference 2-year survival rate is 3 percent higher and 4-year survival rate is 5 percent higher. Sodium consumption of <2000 mg per day in people with hypertension has prevented a 78 percent incidence of stroke. Therefore, the intervention programs to reduce of the consumption of salt or sodium in Indonesia should be prioritized.
SURVIVAL RATE PENYANDANG HIPERTENSI DENGAN KONSUMSI NATRIUM RENDAH TERHADAP KEJADIAN STROKE Rahajeng, Ekowati; Riyadina, Woro
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 39, No 2 (2016): September 2016
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (382.598 KB)

Abstract

Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Several studies have shown that stroke can be prevented through modifiable risk factors. The adequate treatment of hypertension may reduce the risk of stroke. Lifestyle modification such as reducing salt intake in hypertension management have demonstrated lowering blood pressure, enhancing the effectiveness of antihypertension drugs and also reducing stroke risk. This study aims to verify the survival rate of hypertension with lower sodium intake (<2000 mg per day) on the incidence of stroke. The study was conducted through a prospective cohort study (4 years of follow-up) in 1082 people with confirmed hypertension. Stroke were confirmed by neurologist. The consumption of sodium, sugar and fat were collected through 24-hour dietary recall. Hypertension survival rate was calculated using Life Table Survival analysis. This study has demonstrated evidence of the higher survival rate of hypertension with low sodium intake on the incidence of stroke, with the difference 2-year survival rate is 3 percent higher and 4-year survival rate is 5 percent higher. Sodium consumption of <2000 mg per day in people with hypertension has prevented a 78 percent incidence of stroke. Therefore, the intervention programs to reduce of the consumption of salt or sodium in Indonesia should be prioritized.
Dyspeptic Syndrome in Urban Population of Jakarta Simadibrata, Marcellus; Abdullah, Murdani; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Fauzi, Achmad; Makmun, Dadang; Manan, Chudahman; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Santi, Aan; Rahajeng, Ekowati
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2, August 2010
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (0.036 KB) | DOI: 10.24871/112201066-70

Abstract

Background:  Dyspeptic syndrome is experienced by many patients who visit general practitioners and gastroenterologist. In Indonesia, a small number of epidemiological data about dyspeptic syndrome are available. The aim of this study was to obtain data on prevalence, characteristics and factors/lifestyle associated with dyspeptic syndrome in urban population of Jakarta. Method: The study was conducted by interview to 1,645 respondents representing the population of Jakarta in the year 2007 using the Steps WHO version 1.4 instruments. The selection of respondents was performed by multistage cluster random sampling, i.e. each municipality is represented by one district and each was represented by a number of villages and respondents interviewed at random. Dyspeptic syndrome is defined whenever there is one or more complaints of nausea, vomiting, belching, epigastric pain, no appetite, early satiety, bloating. Scoring was performed for each category of questions using wstep1 method prior to the analysis. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square test or t-test. Results: Of the 1,645 respondents, the prevalence of dyspeptic syndrome was 58.1%. The most apparent clinical complaint ranges consecutively, i.e. nausea 30.1%, epigastric pain 28.7%, bloating 23.8%, etc. Dyspeptic syndrome is significantly more often experienced by female respondents (p < 0.001). Dyspeptic syndrome were more common in respondents who have less/no fruit (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.049) intake. Dyspeptic syndrome is more common in respondents with anxiety and depression (p < 0.001) also in respondents who consume non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prevalence of dyspeptic syndrome in Jakarta urban population is 58.1%. Dyspeptic syndrome was more common in female, respondents who have less / no fruit and vegetables intake, in respondents who experienced anxiety and depression and respondents who consume NSAIDs. Keywords: dyspeptic syndrome, Jakarta, urban population, prevalence
PENGARUH KONSUMSI KOPI TERHADAP KEJADIAN DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2 (Studi Follow up Gangguan Toleransi Glukosa di Depok Jawa Barat Tahun 2001-2008) Rahajeng, Ekowati
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 33, No 2 (2010): September 2010
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (394.304 KB)

Abstract

EFFECT OF COFFEE CONSUMPTION FOR THE INCIDENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS(Follow up Study for Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Depok, West Java 2001-2008)Coffee consumption is known to increase the risk of the incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Effect of coffee consumption on the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes has been investigated in 289 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) through prospective cohort studies since 2001 in Depok City, West Java. Coffee drinking habits was collected through measure of caffeine content were consumed. Caffeine content was measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) using the method High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Diagnosis of IGT determined based on examination results of fasting blood glucose levels ie lower 126 mg / dL and 2 hours after 75 g glucose load blood glucose levels ie 140-199 mg / dL. Diagnosis of diabetes melitus determined by the basis of the results of clinical examination and results of fasting blood glucose levels, ie ≥ 126 mg / dL and/or results of blood glucose 2 hours after glucose load, ie ≥ 200mg/dl. The follow-up study, to confirm these effects was conducted in 2008. Multinomial logistic multivariate analysis of coffee consumption habits and all variables equally harmful risk of incident type 2 diabetes suggests that coffee consumption with caffein content of 240-359,9 mgcaffein had high risk of type 2 diabetes with RR value 3.88 (95% CI 1.20, 8.75), and RR for coffee consumption with caffein content >= 360 mg caffein daily was 5.46 (95% CI 1.57, 11.86). Another factors was contribut to the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is high fat consumption with RR 4.64 (95% CI 1.90, 10.28), obesity with RR 4.04 (95% CI 1.31, 8.27 ), and hypertriglyceride with RR 4.99 (95% CI 1.55, 10.19). High fiber consumption, and high physical activity was found to prevent Type 2 diabetes with RR 0.37 (95% CI 0.10, 0.70) and RR 0.42 (95% CI 0.18, 0.68).Keywords: coffee consumption, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
OBESITAS SENTRAL PADA ORANG DEWASA: STUDI KOHOR PROSPEKTIF DI KOTA BOGOR Sudikno, Sudikno; Riyadina, Woro; Rahajeng, Ekowati
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 41, No 2 (2018): September 2018
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Abstract

Central obesity is one of the public health problems in developing countries. This study aims to analyze the dynamic risk factors for central obesity in adults. This study used secondary data "Cohort Study of Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factors" observing period for six years. The study design was a prospective cohort. The subjects were all household members aged 25 years and above with the criteria remaining in the study area, healthy, non-physically disabled, non-pregnant, having normal abdominal circumference (male ≤ 90 cm and female ≤80 cm) on baseline study, not suffering from non-communicable diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) at the baseline of the study, and completeness of the data. The number of subjects at the baseline of the study were 1510, consisting of 613 men and 897 women. The results showed that a cumulative incidence of central obesity during the 6-year observation period of 837 (55.4%). Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that the risk factors for central obesity in adults were gender, age group, marital status, and physical activity. This study concluded that female subjects with physical inactivity had more central obesity compared to male subjects with physical inactivity.ABSTRAK Obesitas sentral merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan masyarakat di negara berkembang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor risiko dinamis terjadinya obesitas sentral pada orang dewasa. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder “Studi Kohor Faktor Risiko Penyakit Tidak Menular (FRPTM)” periode pemantauan selama enam tahun. Desain penelitian adalah kohor prospektif. Subjek adalah semua anggota rumah tangga yang berumur 25 tahun ke atas dengan kriteria tetap tinggal di wilayah penelitian, sehat, tidak cacat fisik, subjek perempuan tidak hamil, memiliki lingkar perut normal (laki-laki ≤ 90 cm dan perempuan ≤80 cm) pada awal studi, tidak menderita penyakit tidak menular (hipertensi, diabetes mellitus, kanker, strok, PPOK) pada awal studi, dan kelengkapan data. Jumlah subjek pada awal penelitian 1510 orang, yang terdiri dari 613 laki-laki dan 897 perempuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kumulatif insiden obesitas sentral selama 6 tahun periode pengamatan sejumlah 837 orang (55,4%). Hasil analisis multivariat cox regression menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko terjadinya obesitas sentral pada orang dewasa adalah jenis kelamin, kelompok umur, status kawin, dan aktivitas fisik. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa subjek perempuan dengan aktivitas fisik kurang lebih cepat mengalami obesitas sentral dibandingkan subjek laki-laki dengan aktivitas fisik kurang. Kata kunci: faktor risiko, obesitas sentral, dewasa
Determinan Penyakit Stroke Riyadina, Woro; Rahajeng, Ekowati
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 7 No. 7 Februari 2013
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (586.56 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v7i7.31

Abstract

Penyakit stroke merupakan penyebab kematian dan kecacatan kronik yang paling tinggi pada kelompok umur diatas usia 45 tahun terbanyak di Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi determinan utama yang berhubungan dengan penyakit stroke pada masyarakat di kelurahan Kebon Kalapa Bogor. Analisis lanjut terhadap 1.912 responden subset baseline data penelitian ?Studi Kohort Faktor Risiko Penyakit Tidak Menular? Data dikumpulkan dengan metode wawancara pada penduduk tetap di kelurahan Kebon Kalapa, Kecamatan Bogor Tengah, Bogor tahun 2012. Diagnosis stroke berdasarkan anamnesis dan pemeriksaan dokter spesialis syaraf. Variabel independen meliputi karakteristik sosiodemografi, status kesehatan dan perilaku berisiko. Data dianalisis dengan uji regresi logistik ganda. Penyakit stroke ditemukan pada 49 (2,6%) orang. Determinan utama stroke meliputi hipertensi (OR = 4,20; IK 95% = 2,20 ? 8,03), penyakit jantung koroner (OR = 2,74; IK 95% = 1,51 ? 4,99), diabetes melitus (OR = 2,89; IK 95% = 1,47 ? 5,64), dan status ekonomi miskin (OR = 1,83 ; IK 95% = 1,03 ? 3,33). Pencegahan penyakit stroke dilakukan dengan peningkatan edukasi (kampanye/penyuluhan) melalui pengendalian faktor risiko utama yaitu hipertensi dan pencegahan terjadinya penyakit degeneratif lain yaitu penyakit jantung koroner dan diabetes melitus.Stroke disease is the leading cause of death and chronic disabi lity in most over the age of 45 years in Indonesia. The aim of study was to identify the major determinants of stroke disease in Kebon Kalapa community in Bogor. A deep analyze was conducted in 1.912 respondents based on the subset of baseline data ?Risk Factors Cohort Study of Non Communicable Diseases.? Data was collected by interviews on Kebon Kalapa community, Bogor in 2012. Stroke diagnosis was determined by anamnesis and neu-rological examination with specialist. Independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, health status and risk behavior. Data analysis was performed by multiple logistic regression test. This study revealed that stroke disease was found in 49 people (2.6%). The main determinant of stroke included hypertension (OR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.20 ? 8.03), coronary heart disease (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.51 ? 4.99), diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.89; 95% CI = 1.47 ? 5.64), and low economic status (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.03 ? 3.33). Prevention of stroke should be done by increasing education (campaign) through the control of major risk factors of hypertension and prevention of other degenerative diseases are coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus.
The Empowerment of Integrated Development Post of Non-Communicable Diseases in Efforts to Prevent and Control Non- Communicable Diseases Yandrizal, Yandrizal; Machmud, Rizanda; Noer, Melinda; Hardisman, Hardisman; Afrizal, Afrizal; Lipoeto, Nur Indrawati; Rahajeng, Ekowati; Pramudho, P.A Kodrat
International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS) Vol 5, No 3: September 2016
Publisher : Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (711.931 KB) | DOI: 10.11591/ijphs.v5i3.4799

Abstract

Non-Communicable disease has already been the main cause of death in many countries, as many as 57 million death in the world in 2008, 36 million (63 percent) is because of un-infectious disease, specifically heart illness, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases. Prevention and controlling efforts of un-infectious diseases developing in Indonesia is non-communicable disease integrated development post (Pospindu PTM). This research used combination method approach with exploratory design. Exploratory design with sequential procedure used combination consecutively, the first is qualitative and the second is quantitative method. Public Health Center formed Posbindu PTM has not disseminate yet to all stakeholders. Posbindu PTM members felt benefit by following this activity. Some of them did not know follow the activity because of unknown about it. There was  connection between coming behavior to Posbindu PTM to preventing behavior of non-communicable disease.Percentage for high blood pressure risk indicated 20-25 percent from all visitors. Formulation of its policy implementation started with stakeholder analysis; head of sub district, head of urban village, head of health department in regency/city, head of public health service, head of neighborhood Association, and the head of family welfare development.  Analysis of perception, power and authority found that every stakeholder had authority to manage the member directly or indirectly. It was not implemented because of the lack knowledge of stakeholders about the Posbindu PTM function.They would play a role after knowing the aim and advantage of the post by motivate the people to do early detection, prevention and control the non-communicable disease. The members were given wide knowledge about  early detection, preventing  and control the un-infectious disease, measuring and checking up their healthy continuously so that keep feeling the advantage of coming to the post.