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Penatalaksanaan Perioperatif pada Bedah Dekompresi Mikrovaskular: Sajian Kasus Serial Firdaus, Riyadh; Suarjaya, I Putu Pramana; Rahardjo, Sri
Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Abstract

Dekompresi mikrovaskular (microvascular decompression/MVD) adalah terapi definitif dari spasme hemifasial, yakni suatu gangguan gerakan neuromuskular wajah. Spasme ini ditandai dengan kontraksi involunter berulang pada otat yang diinervasi oleh N. fasialis (N.VII) akibat penekanan oleh arteri, tumor atau kelainan vaskular lainnya. Prevalensinya mencapai 9–11 kasus per 100.000 populasi sehat, dan paling sering terjadi pada usia 40–60 tahun. Meskipun bukaan operasi MVD kecil yaitu di sekitar retroaurikula tetapi teknik anestesi-nya menggunakan prinsip-prinsip pembedahan fossa posterior. Bukaan lapangan operasi yang baik, kewaspadaan terhadap rangsangan ke batang otak maupun nervus kranialis dan kewaspadaan terhadap penurunan perfusi otak merupakan pilar-pilar utama tatalaksana anestesia pada MVD. Disajikan empat kasus spasme hemifasial dengan keadaan khusus. Kasus pertama operasi dilakukan pada pasien geriatri, pasien kedua dengan riwayat hipertensi, pasien ketiga dengan leher pendek dan asma, pasien terakhir dengan diabetes mellitus serta hipertensi. Pemantauan kestabilan hemodinamik, kedalaman anestesia dan relaksasi otot merupakan aspek penting yang menyertai tata laksana anestesi pada kasus ini.Perioperative Management in Microvascular Decompression Surgery: Case Series ReportMicrovascular decompression (MVD) is the definitive surgery for hemifacial spasm. The symptoms is described as a repetitive involuntary muscle contraction which innervated by N.fascialis caused by compression of the nervus by enlarged artery, tumor or vascular malformation. Its happened to 9-11 people from 100.000 population, especially in 4th to 6th decades. Although MVD operation only need small opening in retroauricula area but it still use posterior fossa operation principles. They are sufficient work field, awareness of impulse to brain stem and cranial nerves, and decrease of cerebral perfusion pressure. We present four cases of hemifacial spasm, with variety of considerations. The first case was a geriatric patient, the second was with history of hypertension, the third patient has short neck and also history of hypetension and asthma and the last is with diabetes mellitus and history of hypertension. Hemodynamic monitoring, deepness of anesthesia and adequate muscle relaxation is important parameter of anasthetical management of these cases.
Penatalaksanaan Anestesi pada Operasi Epilepsi Mangastuti, Rebecca Sidhapramudita; Rahardjo, Sri; Wrgahadibrata, A Himendra
Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Abstract

Kejang adalah perubahan fungsi otak secara mendadak dan sementara akibat aktifitas nueron yang abnormal sehingga terjadi pelepasan listrik serebral yang berlebihan. Aktivitas ini dapat bersifat parsial atau general, berasal dari daerah spesifik korteks serebri atau melibatkan kedua hemisfer otak. Kejang disebabkan oleh banyak faktor, yaitu penyakit serebrovaskuler (stroke iskemik, stroke hemoragik), gangguan neurodegeneratif, tumor, trauma kepala, gangguan metabolik, infeksi susunan saraf pusat (SSP) seperti ensefalitis, meningitis. Penyebab lain adalah gangguan tidur, stimulasi sensori atau emosi, perubahan hormon, kehamilan, penggunaan obat-obatan yang menginduksi kejang (teofilin dosis tinggi, fenotiazin dosis tinggi), antidepresan (maprotilin atau bupropion), kebiasaan minum alkohol. Berdasarkan International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) dan International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE) pada tahun 1981, epilepsi adalah suatu kelainan otak yang ditandai adanya faktor predisposisi yang dapat mencetuskan bangkitan epileptik, perubahan neurologis, kognitif, psikologis dan adanya konsekuensi sosial yang diakibatkannya. Diagnosa epilepsi ditegakkan melalui anamnesa, pemeriksaan fisik dan electroencephalography (EEG). Umumnya, epilepsi diterapi dengan obat antiepilepsi atau anti konvulsan. Apabila kejang tidak teratasi dengan obat oral, dapat dilakukan terapi invasif atau pembedahan, berupa non brain epilepsy surgery atau brain epilepsy surgery. Di Inggris, diperkirakan 0,5–2% total penduduk, menderita epilepsi, dimana 13% memerlukan terapi invasif atau pembedahan. Studi retrospektif, membuktikan, pengobatan invasif atau pembedahan pada epilepsi yang tidak respons terhadap obat oral, telah berhasil mengurangi serangan kejang. Penatalaksanaan anestesi pada epilepsi merupakan tantangan tersendiri bagi dokter anestesi. Diperlukan pemilihan gas, anestetika intravena dan teknik anestesi yang tidak memicu serangan kejang selama operasi. Interaksi dan efek samping obat anti epilepsi harus diperhitungkan saat anestesi.Anesthesia Management on Epilepsy SurgeySeizures are sudden changes in brain function and activity of abnormal neuron activity causing cerebral excessive electrical discharges. May be partial or general, comes from a spesific region of the cerebral cortex or both hemispheres. Caused by cerebrovascular disease (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke), neurodegenerative disorders, tumors, head trauma, metabolic disorder, central nervous system infection (encephalitis, meningitis). Another factor are sleep disorder, sensory of emotional stimulation, hormonal changes, pregnancy, use of drugs induce seizures (theophyline high-dose, phenothiazine high-dose), antidepresants (maprotilin or bupropion), drinking alkohol.International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE) in 1981, epilepsy is a brain disorder that can trigger epileptic seizures, neurological changes, cognitive, psychological and social consequences resulting. Diagnose is anamnesa, physical examnination and electroencephalography. Treated with antiepileptic drugs or anticonvulsant. If the seizures are not resolved, can be invasive or surgical therapy (non brain epilepsy surgery or brain surgery). In UK, 0,5 - 2% suffer from epilesy, 13% require surgical therapy. A retrospective study, prove that invasive treatment has succeeded. Management of anesthesia is a challenge for anesthesiology. Election necessary gas, intravenous and anesthesia techniques that do not trigger a seizure. Interaction and side effects of anti epileptic drugs should be calculated. 
Ekstraksi Daun Gedi (Abelmoschus manihot L) Secara Sekuensial dan Aktivitas Antioksidannya Teroreh, Mercy; Rahardjo, Sri; Hastuti, Pudji; Murdiati, Agnes
Agritech Vol 35, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (644.321 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9338

Abstract

Gedi’s leave is one of the raw material in tinutuan porridge, a traditional food from Manado Indonesia. The leaves was extracted by various solvent to dissolve all of the compound. The aim of this study was to compare the profile and antioxidant activities of the extract in various sequence of solvent. Hexane, aseton, and methanol were used to dissolve a non polar, semi polar and polar component, respectively. All of the extract were analysed for its antioxidant activities. The profile of extract were indicated by total phenol and total flavonoid meanwhile antioxidant activities was measured by radical scavenging activity DPPH, metal chelating and singlet oxygen quenching. The result indicated the sequence of hexane – aseton – methanol contain the highest of total phenol and flavonoid compare to the others with 10.67±0.49 mg GAE/g extract and 2.33±0.026 mg quersetin/g extract. The sequence also showed the highest of antioxidant activities at 150 μg/mL extract with 67.47%; 48.07% and 38.66% for percentage of inhibition DPPH, value of metal chelating and singlet oxygen, respectively.ABSTRAKDaun Gedi (Abelmoschus manihot L) merupakan salah satu bahan utama tinutuan, makanan tradisional Manado.Penelitian tentang profil dan aktivitas antioksidan dari daun Gedi telah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi dan membandingkan profil dan aktivitas antioksidan dari daun gedi yang diekstraksi secara sekuensial dengan pelarut heksana, aseton dan metanol. Ekstrak daun gedi selanjutnya dianalisis kandungan total fenolik dan flavonoid, sedangkan aktivitas antioksidannya dilakukan secara in vitro meliputi penangkal radikal bebas DPPH, pengkelat logam dan penstabil oksigen singlet. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak sekuensial heksanaaseton-metanol (ESHAM) memiliki total fenol dan total flavonoid yang tertinggi dibandingkan dengan ekstrak lainnya,masing-masing sebesar 10,67±0,49 mg GAE/g ekstrak dan 2,33±0,026mg kuersetin/g ekstrak. ESHAM juga memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang paling tinggi, dengan persentase penghambatan DPPH sebesar 67,47%; persen pegkelat logam sebesar 48,07% dan persen penghambatan oksigen singlet sebesar 38,66% pada konsentrasi 150μg/mL esktrak. Kesimpulan senyawa fenolik pada daun gedi bersifat polar sehingga menghasilkan aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi pada pelarut polar.
Aplikasi Mikroemulsi β-Karoten untuk Menghambat Kerusakan Fotooksidatif Vitamin C pada Sari Buah Jeruk Ariviani, Setyaningrum; Rahardjo, Sri; Hastuti, Pudji
Agritech Vol 31, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (122.514 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9743

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Orange juice were known have high ascorbic acid content, but susceptible towards photodegradation during storage and display. The objectives of this research were to determine β–carotene microemulsion inhibitory effect on ascorbic acid photooxidation in orange juice and to examine the effect of β–carotene microemulsion application on the sensory qualities. Results of this research showed that β–carotene microemulsion at β–carotene level of 6 ppm (2 % w/w of the system) efectivelly inhibited photooxidation of ascorbic acid in orange juice under 8 hours illumination of 2000 lux fluorescent light. The β–carotene microemulsion was proved as potential inhibitor of asorbic acid photodegradation in orange juice, and the inhibitory effectiveness found to be higher than that of empty microemulsion and free β–carotene. Application of β–carotene microemulsion on orange juice enhanced the juice color and appearance quality when its added after pasteurization.ABSTRAKSari buah jeruk merupakan produk pangan yang kaya vitamin C, tetapi rentan terhadap kerusakan fotooksidasif selama penyimpanan dan display. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan kemampuan mikroemulsi β-karoten dalam menghambat kerusakan fotooksidatif vitamin C sari buah jeruk dan pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik sensorisnya. Hasil penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa mikroemulsi β-karoten pada konsentrasi β-karoten 6 ppm (2 % b/b terhadap sari buah jeruk) terbukti efektif menghambat fotooksidasi vitamin C sari buah jeruk yang dipapar cahaya fluoresen 2000 lux selama 8 jam. Mikroemulsi β-karoten terbukti mampu berperan sebagai penghambat kerusakan fotooksidatif vitamin C sari buah jeruk yang potensial, dengan penghambatan yang lebih tinggi dibanding mikroemulsi  maupun β-karoten. Aplikasi mikroemulsi β-karoten ke dalam sari buah jeruk meningkatkan kualitas warna dan kenampakan sari buah jika penambahannya dilakukan setelah pasteurisasi.
Venous Air Embolism (VAE) during Craniotomy of Supratentorial Meningioma in Supine Position Sutawan, Ida Bagus Krisna Jaya; Bisri, Tatang; Rahardjo, Sri; Lalenoh, Diana
Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15562/bjoa.v1i3.26

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AbstractVenous Air Embolism (VAE) is one of the most serious complications in neuroanesthesia case. The highest number of VAE incident is during neurosurgery procedure with sitting position, even tough VAE may occur during craniotomy of supratentorial tumor in the supine position. VAE occurs due to the pressure differential between open vein in the surgical field and right atrium. A 46 years old woman underwent craniotomy for supratentorial meningioma in the supine position. Intraoperative, the patient was experiencing a decrease in end-tidal CO2 pressure about 6 mmHg in 5 minutes. Therefore, management of acute VAE was proceed to the patient, such as informed the surgeon immediately, discontinued N2O and increased flow of O2, modified the anesthesia technique, asked the surgeon to irrigate the surgical field with fluids, gave compression on jugular vein, aspirated the right atrial catheter, prepared drugs to support the hemodynamic, and changed the patient’s position if possible. 
Optimal time of administration of fentanyl in reducing hemodynamic response in endotracheal intubation Taqwin, Guntur Muhammad; Artika, Gusti Ngurah; Rahardjo, Sri
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 46, No 02 (2014)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (591.348 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedScie004602201404

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Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubations are frequently conducted in general anesthesia.However, it can stimulate symphatic and sympatoadrenal activities. Several non andpharmacological interventions have been used to reduce the symphatic stimulation. Fentanyl isone of the opioid drugs that frequently used to decrease the cardiovascular responses after theintubations. In order to obtain an optimal effect, fentanyl should be administered in appropriatetime. This study was conducted to compare the time of fentanyl administration at 2, 5 and 7minutes before endotracheal intubation to reduce hemodynamic responses. This was anobervational study with a prospective cohort design on patients who were going to undergoelective sugical using general anesthesia followed laryngoscopy intubation in Dr Sardjito GeneralHospital and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The patients were then divided into 3groups i.e patients who received fentanyl 1.5 μg/kg body weight (BW) intravenously (IV) 2minutes (Group A), 5 minutes (Group B) and 7 minutes (Group C) before laryngoscopy intubations.The hemodynmic responses including sistolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), meanarterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) were monitored andrecorded every 1 minute during 7 minutes period. The result showed that fentanyl administration5 minutes before laryngeal intubation was more effective in the decrease hemodynamic responsethat those 2 and 7 minutes. Significantly different in SBP in 2, 3, 4 and 7 minutes observationswas observed (p<0.05). Furthermore, significantly different in MAP in 2, 3 and 4 minutesobservation and in RPP in 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 minute observation were also observed (p<0.05). Nosignificantly different was observed in HR during observation (p>0.05). In conclusion, theadministration of fentanyl 1.5 μg/kg BW IV at 5 minutes before intubation is more effectiveagainst hemodynamic responses in endotracheal intubation.
Formulasi dan Stabilitas Mikroemulsi O/W sebagai Pembawa Fucoxanthin Suhendra, Lutfi; Rahardjo, Sri; Hastuti, Pudji; Hidayat, Chusnul
Agritech Vol 32, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (231.714 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9617

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The objective of this study was to obtain a clear and stable oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion containing fucoxanthinwhich is intended for aqueous food system application. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used as the oil phase andcombination of Tween 80, Tween 20 and Span 80 were selected as nonionic surfactant having high, medium, and lowHLB (Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance) values, respectively. The o/w microemulsions were formulated to have the Þ nalHLB values of 13.5, 14.0, and 14.5. For each HLB value, three different microemulsion formulas were determined. Allof the formulated microemulsions were then subjected to oven heating at 105 oC for 5 hour, centrifugation at 4500 rpmfor 30 min, incubation at different pH (3.5, 4.5, and 6.5), water dilution, and photooxidation to evaluate its stability.The most stable microemulsion was then selected and used to deliver fucoxanthin as a hydrophobic antioxidant inaqueous system. Photo-oxidation was performed by exposing the microemulsions under ß uorescent light at 4,000 luxfor up to 4 hours at room temperature. Peroxide values were measured every hour using ferric thiocyanate method.Stable o/w microemulsions were obtained when its HLB value was 14.5, the ratio of oil:surfactants was 3:17, andthe ratio of (oil + surfactants) : water was 35 : 65. The ratio of Tween 80 : Tween 20 : Span 80 was 92.0 : 2.5: 5.5. Fucoxanthin microemulsion was remained stable at pH range from 3.5 to 6.5 even after heating treatment,centrifugation, and water dilution. However, there were increased peroxide values of these microemulsions after being subjected to photooxidation. The presence of fucoxanthin (over 12 ppm) in the microemulsion could not effectively inhibit photooxidation of the o/w microemulsion.ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh mikroemulsi minyak dalam air (o/w) yang mengandung fucoxanthinyang stabil dan jernih untuk diaplikasikan dalam sistem makanan aqueous. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) digunakansebagai fase minyak dan kombinasi Tween 80, Tween 20 dan Span 80 sebagai surfaktan non ionik yang masingmasingmempunyai nilai HLB (Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance) tinggi, medium dan rendah. Formulasi mikroemulsio/w ditentukan nilai HLB akhir masing-masing 13,5; 14, dan 14,5. Masing-masing nilai HLB tersebut ditentukan tigaformula yang berbeda. Semua formulasi mikroemulsi kemudian dipanaskan dalam oven pada suhu 105 oC selama 5jam, disentrifugasi pada kecepatan 4500 rpm selama 30 menit, diinkubasi pada pH yang berbeda (3,5; 4,5 dan 6,5),diencerkan dengan akuades dan stabilitas diuji secara fotooksidasi. Mikroemulsi paling stabil selanjutnya dipilih dandigunakan untuk pembawa fucoxanthin sebagai antioksidan hidrofobik dalam sistem aqueous. Fotooksidasi ditentukandengan menempatkan mikroemulasi di bawah sinar ß ouresensi 4000 lux selama 4 jam pada suhu ruang. Angkaperoksida diukur setiap jam menggunakan metode feri thiosianat. Mikroemulsi o/w yang stabil diperoleh pada HLB14,5 dengan rasio minyak : surfaktan = 3 : 17 dan rasio minyak + surfaktan : air = 35 : 65. Rasio Tween 80 : Tween 20: Span 80 adalah 92.0 : 2.5 : 5.5. Mikroemulsi fucoxanthin yang diperoleh stabil pada pH 3,5 sampai 6,5 dan bahkansetelah perlakuan pemanasan, sentrifugasi dan pengenceran. Namun angka peroksida meningkat selama fotooksidasi.Fucoxanthin dalam mikroemulasi lebih dari 12 ppm tidak efektif untuk menghambat fotooksidasi dalam mikroemulsio/w. 
Penatalaksanaan Anestesi pada Pasien Cedera Kepala Berat akibat Hematoma Epidural Akut disertai Kehamilan Aulyan Syah, Bau Indah; Suarjaya, I Putu Pramana; Rahardjo, Sri; Saleh, Siti Chasnak
Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 6, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24244/jni.v6i3.54

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Penanganan cedera kepala berat selalu bertujuan untuk mempertahankan tekanan perfusi otak (TPO) dan mencegah peningkatan tekanan intrakranial yang dapat menyebabkan cedera otak sekunder. Pada pasien dengan kehamilan, janin juga harus dipantau. Hiperventilasi harus dihindari karena berefek buruk terhadap perfusi otak dan aliran darah plasenta. Seorang wanita, 25 tahun, 60 kg, 160 cm datang ke rumah sakit akibat trauma kepala karena kecelakaan lalu lintas yang dialami kurang dari 1 jam sebelum masuk rumah sakit dengan GCS E4M6V4. Pasien dalam keadaan hamil G1P0A0 dengan usia kehamilan 28–30 minggu. Di unit gawat darurat terjadi penurunan kesadaran mendadak hingga GCS E1M5V1 sehingga dilakukan intubasi endotrakhea disusul dengan pemeriksaan CT Scan dengan hasil hematoma epidural dekstra dan hematoma subarachnoid disertai midline shift. Pasien kemudian menjalani operasi evakuasi hematoma epidural dengan anestesi umum kemudian di rawat di unit perawatan intensif dengan pipa endotrakhea masih dipertahankan. Denyut jantung janin (DJJ) masih terdengar dan dilakukan observasi ketat DJJ selama perawatan di ICU. Namun setelah beberapa hari di ICU, janin dinyatakan meninggal. Ringkasan: Pasien cedera kepala berat dengan hematoma epidural dan subarachnoid disertai kehamilan telah menjalani operasi anestesi umum dengan tetap memperhatikan pemeliharaan tekanan perfusi otak (TPO) dan mempertahankan kondisi janin dalam batas normal. Meskipun pada akhirnya janin tidak bisa diselamatkan akibat lamanya perawatan ibu dengan ventilator.Anesthesia Management for Patients in Pregnancy with Severe Head Injury Due to Acute Epidural Hematoma Management of severe head injury cases, in any given situation, is targeted to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and preventing increase of intracranial pressure that possibly cause secondary brain injury. In a case of pregnancy, besides considering the maternal status, fetus condition is equally important to observe. Hyperventilation should be avoided due to its possible detrimental effect to both the brain perfusion and placental blood flow. A 25 year old female, 60 kg, 160 cm, was taken to the hospital due to head trauma caused by a traffic accident, roughly about an hour prior to hospitalization. GCS was E4M6V4. The patient was in her 28 – 30 week of pregnancy (G1P0A0). Sudden decrease in consciousness occurred and GCS lowered to E1M5V1. Endotracheal intubation was then prompted. Epidural haematoma subarachnoid haematoma with midline shift revealed in CT scan. The patient underwent epidural hematoma evacuation with general anesthesia then transferred to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with ETT maintained. Fetal heart rate remains heard, followed with close monitoring of the fetal heart rate during treatment in the ICU. After 3 days in ICU, fetus died. Summary: A pregnant patient with severe head injury of epidural and subarachnoid bleeding, has undergone an operation with general anesthesia. The fetus was unfortunately cannot be saved due to the patient long ventilator treatment.
Oksidasi Minyak dalam Emulsi O/W : Mekanisme dan Pengendaliannya Sibuea, Posman; Rahardjo, Sri; Santoso, Umar; Noor, Zuheid
Agritech Vol 24, No 4 (2004)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2343.726 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.13455

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Oxidation can alter the flavor and nutritional quality of foods and produces toxic and color compounds, which make foods less acceptable or unacceptable to consumers. Consequently, lipid oxidation has been extensively studied in bulk fats and oils, and there is a fairly good understanding of the mechanisms and the factors that affect oxidation in such systems. On the other hand, lipid oxidation is still not well understood in systems in which the fat is dispersed as emulsion droplets, although a large number of foods exit partially or entirely in the form of emulsions. This article reviews discusses the major factors that influence of the mechanism and controlling lipid oxidation in 0/W (oil-in-water) emulsions.
Aktivitas Antioksidan Kulit Biji Kakao dari Hasil Penyangraian Biji Kakao Kering pada Derajat Ringan, Sedang dan Berat Utami, Ratri Retno; Supriyanto, Supriyanto; Rahardjo, Sri; Armunanto, Ria
Agritech Vol 37, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (430.958 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.10454

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Cocoa bean shell is waste from chocolate industry that containing polyphenol 5.78 % and can be used as natural antioxidant source. The most important step in cocoa processing is roasting. Roasting is needed for developing the chocolate flavor. Chocolate industries do their roasting with low, medium and high degree, depend on product’s necessity. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of roasting degree toward cocoa bean shell antioxidant activity. Cocoa bean roasted at low degree (110 ºC for 60 minutes), medium (140 ºC for 40 minutes) and high (190ºC for 15 minutes). Cocoa bean shell polyphenol was extracted with acetone 70 %. Yield, total phenolic, DPPH free radical scavenging activity as IC50 and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation was analyzed from crude polyphenol extract. The result shows that the increasing of roasting temperature leads to low yield. Cocoa bean shell polyphenol extract with high roasting degree has the lowest yield (8.07 % b/b). While cocoa bean shell polyphenol extract using medium roasting degree has the highest total phenolic and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of 21.23 ± 0.39 mg GAE/g dry extract and IC50 74.31 ± 0.72 μg/mL, respectively. Cocoa bean shell polyphenol extract is able to inhibit the linoleic acid oxidation. Roasting enhance the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation compared to extract without roasting about 6%. For the future study, it is needed to identify the cocoa bean shell antioxidant compound during roasting. ABSTRAKKulit biji kakao merupakan limbah dari industri pengolahan cokelat yang mengandung polifenol sebesar 5,78 %, sehingga berpotensi untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber senyawa antioksidan alami. Tahapan penting dalam pengolahan biji kakao kering adalah penyangraian yang berguna untuk pengembangan citarasa khas cokelat. Industri pengolahan cokelat melakukan penyangraian dengan derajat ringan, sedang dan berat, berdasarkan produk yang dikehendaki. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh derajat penyangraian terhadap aktivitas antioksidan kulit biji kakao. Biji kakao kering disangrai pada derajat ringan (110 ºC selama 60 menit), sedang (140 ºC selama 40 menit) dan berat (190 ºC selama 15 menit). Polifenol kulit biji kakao diekstrak menggunakan aseton 70 %. Ekstrak polifenol kering dianalisis rendemen, total fenolik, RSA DPPH yang dinyatakan sebagai IC50 dan penghambatan oksidasi asam linoleat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi suhu penyangraian, rendemen yang diperoleh semakin kecil. Ekstrak polifenol kulit biji kakao dengan penyangraian derajat berat mempunyai rendemen paling kecil (8,07 % b/b). Ekstrak polifenol kulit biji kakao dengan penyangraian derajat sedang mempunyai total fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan penangkap radikal DPPH paling tinggi yaitu sebesar 21,23 ± 0,39 mg EAG/g ekstrak kering dan nilai IC50 74,31 ± 0,72 μg/mL. Ekstrak polifenol kulit biji kakao mampu menghambat oksidasi asam linoleat. Penyangraian meningkatkan aktivitas penghambatan oksidasi asam linoleat sebesar 6 % bila dibandingkan dengan ekstrak polifenol kulit biji kakao tanpa penyangraian. Perlu dilakukan penelitian selanjutnya untuk identifikasi senyawa antioksidan kulit biji kakao dari hasil penyangraian.