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PENGARUH EKSTRAK BAWANG PUTIH TERHADAP KADAR SERUM KREATININ TIKUS HIPERTENSI TWO KIDNEY ONE CLIPP (EFFECT OF ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT TO SERUM CREATININE OF TWO KIDNEY ONE CLIPP HYPERTENSION RAT) Raharjo, Sapto; Bandong, Gustavita Maria; Tien, Tien; Syarif, Andi Noor Kholidha; Chahyadi, Agus; Aritrina, Pranita
MEDULA Vol 7, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Halu Oleo University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (123.047 KB) | DOI: 10.33772/medula.v7i1.11831

Abstract

Background: Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been used both as a food and traditional medicine. Several studies have shown  potential of garlic (Allium sativum) as an antihypertensive. In previous in vitro study found that dipeptide on garlic extract after hydrolyzed by the enzyme papain have ACE inhibitory activity. Induction of hypertension with 2 Kidney One Clip (2K1C) methodcauses the kidneys lose their physiological functions. A.sativum is expected to ameliorate kidney function. This study aimed to analyze creatinine levels in rat induced by 2K1C. Method: These study was an in vivo study with Pre-Post Test Only Control group Design. Before treatment, 30 subjects induced hypertension by 2K1C method. Treatment was conducted for four weeks. The recent study was conducted on 36 Rattus norvegicus, Wistar strain were divided into 6 groups. Measurement of creatinine was conducted by spectrophotometry method. Result: The results showed that there were significant differences in creatinine levels between groups (p < 0.05) both in the pre-test and post-test. The normal group and hypertension group did not have significant differences in creatinine pre- and post-test levels (p > 0.05). A.sativum 75m/kgBB gave the best decrease in creatinine levels up to 1.75 mg/dL compared to the A.sativum 25mg/kgBB and A.sativum group 50 mg/kgBB. There were significant differences in creatinine levels A.sativum 75 mg/kgBB and captopril (p <0.05). Conclusion: There was significant differences in creatinine levels of hypertensive rats between groups and the most effective dose was 75 mg / kg. Keywords: A.sativum, hypertension, creatinine, 2K1C Latar Belakang: Bawang putih (Allium sativum) telah lama digunakan, baik sebagai bahan masakan maupun sebagai obat tradisional. Beberapa studi menunjukkan potensi bawang putih (A. sativum) sebagai antihipertensi. Pada penelitian sebelumnya secara in vitro ditemukan bahwa dipeptida pada ekstrak bawang putih setelah dihidrolisis dengan enzim papain memiliki aktivitas inhibisi terhadap ACE. Induksi hipertensi 2 Kidney One Clip (2K1C) menyebabkan ginjal kehilangan fungsi fisiologisnya. Pemberian A.sativum  diketahui mampu memperbaiki fungsi ginjal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kadar kreatinin pada tikus yang diinduksi 2K1C. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian in vivo dengan menggunakan rancangan Control Group Time Series Experimental. Parameter dalam penelitian ini adalah tekanan darah. Sebelum perlakuan, subjek diinduksi hipertensi dengan metode 2K1C. Perlakuan dimulai pada minggu ke-enam setelah induksi. Perlakuan berlangsung selama empat minggu. Subjek yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus, strain Wistar), sebanyak 36 ekor dibagi dalam 6 kelompok: normal/sehat (tidak diinduksi), hipertensi yang diberi kaptopril, hipertensi yang diberi ekstrak A.sativum 25mg/kgBB, hipertensi yang diberi ekstrak A. sativum 50mg/kgBB, hipertensi yang diberi ekstrak A. sativum 75mg/kgBB, dan hipertensi tanpa perlakuan. Pengukuran kreatinin dilakukan menggunakan metode spektrofotometri. Hasil: Analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan kadar kreatinin signifkan pada setiap kelompok (p < 0.05) baik pre-test maupun post-test. Kelompok normal dan hipertensi tidak memiliki perbedaan signifikan pada kadar kreatinin pre dan post-test (p > 0.05). Kelompok A. sativum 75m/kgBB menunjukkan penurunan kadar kreatinin yang sangat signifikan hingga 1.75 mg/dL dibanding kelompok  A. sativum 25mg/kgBB and A. sativum group 50 mg/kgBB. Terdapat perbedaan kadar kreatinin yang signifikan antara kelompok A. sativum 75 mg/kgBB dan captopril (p <0.05). Simpulan: Terdapat perbedaan kadar kreatinin yang signifikan antar kelompok dan penurunan kadar kreatinin terbaik yaitu pada dosis  75 mg / kg. Kata Kunci: A.sativum, hipertensi, kreatinin, 2K1C
PEMANFAATAN LAHAN TIDUR MELALUI PENANAMAN NILAM DI DESA KOSAMBI KECAMATAN BENUA KABUPATEN KONAWE SELATAN, PROVINSI SULAWESI TENGGARA Raharjo, Sapto; Tien, Tien; La Ode, A Kadir
Jurnal Gema Ngabdi Vol 2, No 1 (2020): Jurnal Gema Ngabdi
Publisher : Universitas Mataram

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29303/jgn.v2i1.79

Abstract

Kosambi is a rural area, located in a high altitude area which belongs to Benua, South Konawe Regency, South East Sulawesi Province. The population is self-help transmigration from the province of South Sulawesi. Kosambi villagers generally burn and / or cut down forests to obtain land that will be used as planting areas. The land is not directly cultivated, but it is left first while collecting capital. This condition has the potential to cause erosion, and forest fires. Through the service funding scheme, the internal Community Partnership Program of Halu Oleo University in 2018 has successfully cultivated ¼ hectares of idle land from total of 2 hectares. Land management is performed through a partnership with patchouli farmers. At this initial stage, the land is only planted with patchouli. Patchouli planting patterns are arranged well so that the photosynthesis process occurs optimally. After six months, in August 2019, the first harvest was carried out. In the first harvest, 15 kg patchouli oil produced with a selling price of Rp. 505,000,- per kilogram. This year, cocoa planting will be tried as a protective crop in the new area planted with patchouli. Patchouli and cacao tree planting programs are expected to generate maximum farmer income in the future
PRODUKSI XILANASE DARI ISOLAT SUMBER AIR PANAS SONAI, SULAWESI TENGGARA, MENGGUNAKAN LIMBAH PERTANIAN Susilowati, Prima Endang; Raharjo, Sapto; Kurniawati, Desi; Rahim, Rahmawati; Sumarlin, Sumarlin; Ardiansyah, Ardiansyah
Jurnal Natur Indonesia Vol 14, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Universitas Riau

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (274.469 KB) | DOI: 10.31258/jnat.14.3.199-204

Abstract

Xylanase is the enzyme with prospec for hydrolysis hemicellulases. Many industry use xylanase thermostable. This processes require enzymes which are operationally stable at high temperature thus allowing e.g. easy mixing, better substrate solubility, high mass transfer rate, and lower risk of contamination. Thermophiles have often been proposed as sources of industrially relevant thermostable enzymes. Thermophilic bacteria, live at hot-springs, are can produced thermostable enzymes. In this work, we studied the bacteria strains isolated from water collected in the Sonai hot-springs of Southeast Sulawesi region and condition production enzyme. Screaning bacteria xylanolitic use semi-quantitative detection at agar plate with xilan, and quantitative detection activity enzyme. Result experinces in the 28 isolates screened, isolat IIA-3 (Pseudomonas sp.) showed the highest xylanase production. Organism efficiently used 2% rice straw as substrates. Pseudomonas sp. was used to hydrolyses rice straw at 50oC, agitation 150 rpm and pH 9.
Isolasi Dan Karakterisasi α-amilase Isolat Bakteri Amilolitik Asidofilik Dari Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumaohai Raharjo, Sapto; Ardiansyah, Ardiansyah; Chahyadi, Agus
Jurnal Akta Kimia Indonesia (Indonesia Chimica Acta) Volume 1 No 1 - December 2008
Publisher : Jurnal Akta Kimia Indonesia (Indonesia Chimica Acta)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20956/ica.v1i1.2451

Abstract

Isolation and characterization α-amylase acidophilic amylolytic bacteria isolate from Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park has been carried out. The aims of these studies are to know the characteristics of acidophilic amylolytic bacteria isolate, the optimum concentration of substrate and temperature α-amylase activity yielded, and specific activity in each enzyme purification steps. Activity of α-amylase was measured with DNS (Dinitrosalisilic acidI) method at λ 550 nm and the rate of protein enzyme was measured with Biuret method at λ 540 nm. The content of this research were obtained the isolate bacteria TR 1 which higher amylolytic activity is the colonies are pale-yellow with convexelevated, undulate, bacill sel, and negative Gram. The maximum activity and protein content obtained with (NH4)2SO4 extracted at 60% (w/v). The specific activity of α-amylase in crude extract was 0.038 U/mg enzyme, after extracted with (NH4)2SO4 60% (w/v) was 0.146 U/mg enzyme with purification fold 3.8, and after dialysis was 0.255 U/mg enzyme with purification fold 3.8, respectively. The optimum concentration of substrate (amylose) was 1.25% (w/v) and the optimum incubation temperature was 45oC.Keywords : Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park, acidophilic amylolytic bacteria, α-amilase
Upgrading Traditional Techniques of Food Fermentation: Kabuto-Making Susilowati, Prima Endang; ., Sanatang; Safitri, Meilani; Raharjo, Sapto
International Journal of Science, Engineering, and Sustainable Technology (IJSESTech) Vol 1, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : International Journal of Science, Engineering, and Sustainable Technology (IJSESTech)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (12.947 KB)

Abstract

The capacity to preserve food is directly related to the level of technological development. The slow progress in upgrading traditional food processing and preservation techniques in Sulawesi Tenggara contributes to food and nutrition insecurity in the sub-region. Simple, low-cost, traditional food processing techniques are the bedrock of small-scale food processing enterprises that are crucial to rural development in Sulawesi Tenggara. While a lot still needs to be done, some successes have been achieved in upgrading traditional sulawesi Tenggara food processing technologies including the mechanization of kabuto (fermented cassava meal) processing.
PENGARUH BEBERAPA KONSENTRASI MOLASE TERHADAP KUALITAS AIR PADA AKUARIUM IKAN BANDENG Putri, Meiza; Muhammad, Fuad; Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq; Raharjo, Sapto
Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 5 No. 2 April 2016
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

In 2013, the national aquaculture production is targeted to support the 14.8 million tons. One kultivan cultivated namely milkfish (Chanos chanos). Artificial feeding may lead to excessive tercernanya can not feed the fish, so that the necessary alternative fermented feed for fish growth. This study aims to assess the effect of several concentrations of molasses to the growth of fish. Research conducted in last August until October 2015. The method used is feeding pellets as much as 1 gram. Giving fermented feed ( molasses ) of 0 % , 2 % , 5 % and 7 % with three replications at 08.00 am today and measurement media quality water on the logs do every single week. Measurements were made using a DO meter, pH meter, thermometer and measuring Ammonia No3, No2, Fosfart, alkalinity and Tom were analyzed at the Laboratory of Physics - Chemistry BBPBAP. Analysis of the data used is using ANOVA test and Duncan Multile Range Test (DMRT). Results showed the effect of several concentrations Award (molasses) containing the bacteria Bacillus sp. and the most optimal pellet feed to the media quality of water present in a concentration of 2%. This is due to the lower molasses, can be absorbed by the fish so it is not the piling at the base of the aquarium. While the concentration of 5% and 7% are less than optimal. It thus allegedly because the feed is too much carbohydrates, can increase the potential for growth of pathogenic bacteria in the bottom of the aquarium
UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN MIKROALGA AIR TAWAR Kristian, Rio; Raharjo, Sapto; Sulastrianah, Sulastrianah
MEDULA Vol 3, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Halu Oleo University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (378.1 KB) | DOI: 10.33772/medula.v3i1.2537

Abstract

Cell or tissue damage due to oxidative stress can be slowed by giving antioxidants. Antioxidants are vital substances that may help protect the body against free radicals by neutralizing or mitigate negative impacts. The human body is naturally equipped antioxidant defenses. but these antioxidants can not completely prevent cell damage. Body still requires antioxidants from the outside. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant potential of microalgae species in freshwater.This research is a descriptive study of the identification of species of freshwater microalgae samples taken with a microscope and testing of extracts from freshwater microalgae species of antioxidant activity using DPPH method. Microalgae extract as much 2,25ml then homogenized with DPPH as 0,75ml in containers with a volume of 3ml. The containers are then incubated for 30 minutes in a dark room. Furthermore, the container is inserted into the spectrophotometer to read absorbance at 519nm wavelength. Results absorbance at the input curves to obtain IC50 values.The results that have identified three species of freshwater microalgae namely Navicula sp., Oscillatoria sp., And Carteria sp. From all three species showed strong inhibition against DPPH with IC50 values sequentially 41.304 ppm, 23.401 ppm and 51.433 ppm. The conclusions of this study are species of freshwater microalgae are obtained, namely Navicula sp., Oscilatoria sp., And Carteria sp. has potential antioxidant activityKeywords: Microalgae, antioxidant, DPPH
UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK METANOL RUMPUT LAUT (KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII) PADA BERBAGAI TINGKAT KONSENTRASI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS Saifuddin, Agus; Raharjo, Sapto; Eso, Amiruddin
MEDULA Vol 3, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Halu Oleo University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (177.821 KB) | DOI: 10.33772/medula.v3i1.2541

Abstract

Red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii contain flavonoids compound which has activity as an anti bacterial. This study aims to determine the difference of inhibition zone of the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by seaweed methanol extract (K. alvarezii) at each concentrations. This research was conducted by post?test only design (one-shot case study) with a variable treatment of the seaweed methanol extract (K. alvarezii) against S. mutans. Extracts were then divided into 7 concentration of 5%, 25%, 50%, 65%, 75%, 85%, and 95%. Data were analyzed to determine the difference of inhibition zone seen from the ANOVA test (analysis of varience) followed by a post hoc test. The results of the bivariate analysis showed there were no difference of inhibition zone of the growth of S. mutans bacteria by seaweed methanol extract of K. alvarezii at the concentration of 65%, 75%, 85%, and 95% (p = 0,143). This research concluded that there were no defference of inhibition zone of the growth of S. mutans bacteria by seaweed methanol extract of K. alvarezii.Keywords : Kappaphycus alvarezii, Streptococcus mutans
HUBUNGAN POLIMORFISME GEN ANGIOTENSINOGEN M235T DENGAN HIPERTENSI ESENSIAL PADA ETNIS SULAWESI TENGGARA Raharjo, Sapto; Chahyadi, Agus; Fadhilah, Aulia; Tien, Tien; Kholidha, Andi Noor; Subijakto, Sjarif
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Riset Kuantitatif Terapan 2017 Vol 1, No 1 (2017): Seminar Nasional Riset Kuantitatif Terapan 2017
Publisher : Prosiding Seminar Nasional Riset Kuantitatif Terapan 2017

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (201.51 KB)

Abstract

Patogenesis penyakit hipertensi esensial dipengaruhi oleh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Gen renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) telah dipelajari secara ekstensif untuk perannya dalam mengontrol tekanan darah. Ada berbagai gen yang mengkode komponen di RAAS yang terlibat dalam pengembangan hipertensi. Polimorfisme gen ini sangat diyakini terkait dengan prevalensi hipertensi. Studi Polimorfisme gen angiotensinogen 235M/T menunjukkan bahwa alel 235T pada orang Asia meningkatkan risiko hipertensi dibandingkan pada orang kulit putih. Penelitian ini  mengevaluasi frekuensi polimorfisme AGT (M235T) dalam kaitannya dengan hipertensi esensial pada etnis di Sulawesi Tenggara. Desain penelitian ini adalah desain cross sectional dengan varian angiotensinogen M235T terhadap Hipertensi Esensial sebagai variabel independen. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan biologi molekuler untuk menginterpretasikan hasil elektroforesis DNA dari sampel yang sebelumnya telah diperiksa menggunakan teknik PCR dan RFLP. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa polimorfisme gen angiotensinogen M235T tidak memiliki hubungan dengan kejadian hipertensi esensial di Etnis Sulawesi Tenggara. Uji chi-square menunjukkan bahwa nilai p lebih besar dari nilai alpha (α) (nilai p 0,275> α (0,005)). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa polimorfisme gen M235T bukan faktor risiko pada pengembangan penyakit jantung hipertensi. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah polimorfisme gen angiotensinogen M235T tidak memiliki hubungan dengan kejadian hipertensi esensial di etnis Sulawesi Tenggara.Kata kunci— Hipertensi Esensial, Gen Angiotensinogen, Polimorfisme Gen.
PEMANFAATAN ENZIM PAPAIN DALAM PEMBUATAN PEPTIDA A. sativum SEBAGAI INHIBITOR ANGIOTENSIN I-CONVERTING ENZYME Raharjo, Sapto; Sulviyana, Nur; Hamra, Yusuf; Cahyadi, Agus
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Riset Kuantitatif Terapan 2017 Vol 1, No 1 (2017): Seminar Nasional Riset Kuantitatif Terapan 2017
Publisher : Prosiding Seminar Nasional Riset Kuantitatif Terapan 2017

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (492.924 KB)

Abstract

Bawang putih (Allium sativum) merupakan salah satu herbal yang digunakan sebagai antihipertensi. Penelitian ini bertujuan meningkatkan kadar peptida dari ekstrak A. sativum menggunakan enzim papain, sehingga mampu meningkatkan penghambatan/inhibisi terhadap aktivitas Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE). Hasil isolasi protein A. sativum memperlihatkan kadar asam amino dan total protein  masing-masing 217,57±6,67 µg L-Tyr/g A. sativum dan 686,05±4,29 µg protein/g A. sativum. Hidrolisis dengan papain mampu menurunkan total protein A. sativum dari 333,12±15,46 µg/mL menjadi 80,09±0,90 µg/mL, atau turun sekitar 4 kali. Hasil tersebut berbanding lurus dengan kadar asam amino yang meningkat sekitar 16 kali, dari 18,26±2,23 µg/mL menjadi 291,60±8,16 µg/mL. Uji penghambatan aktivitas ACE menunjukkan ekstrak peptida A. sativum memiliki daya hambat yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan ekstrak protein A. sativum yang tidak dihidrolisis. Nilai IC50 diperoleh pada konsentrasi 457,087 ppm.Kata kunci— Allium sativum, Antihipertensi, Angiotensin –I converting enzyme.