Setyo Sri Raharjo
Pharmacology Laboratory, School of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta

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Path Analysis on the Determinants of Adherence to Anti Tuberculosis Drug Treatment in Kaur District, Bengkulu, Indonesia Hamidi, Surahman; Raharjo, Setyo Sri; Wijaya, Mahendra
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 4, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Drug treatment compliance was the behavior of patients to take medication and undergo treatment according to the rules determined by professional health personnels. Many factors influenced the compliance with treatment for tuberculosis patients. This study aimed to examine determinants of drug treatment compliance among tuberculosis patients.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted at 16 community health centers in Kaur Regency, Bengkulu, Indonesia, from January to February 2019. A sample of 206 study subjects was selected by purposive sampling. The dependent variable was drug treatment adherence. The indepen­dent variables were age, gender, education, income, knowledge, role of drug taking supervisor, side effect of drug treatment, distance to health service, drug availability, family support, and tenure. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis.Results: Adherence to anti tuberculosis treatment was directly and positively affected by age (b= 2.96; CI 95%= 1.12 to 4.79; p= 0.002), gender (b= 1.48; CI 95%= 0.02 to 2.95; p= 0.047), education (b= 2.18; CI 95%= 0.24 to 4.11; p= 0.027), income (b= 0.85; CI 95%= 0.76 to 2.45; p= 0.031), knowledge (b= 2.27; CI 95%= 0.32 to 4.22; p= 0.023), the role of drug taking supervisor (b= 3.46; CI 95%= 1.57 to 5.36; p<0.001), drug availability (b= 0.04; CI 95%= -6.07 to 6.16; p= 0.989), and family support (b= 2.97; CI 95%= 1.30 to 4.64; p<0.001). It was negatively affected by the side effects of the drug (b= -3.07; CI 95%= -4.90 to -1.24; p= 0.001), distance to health service (b= -1.86; CI 95%= -3.61 to -0.11; p= 0.037), and tenure (b= -2.16; CI 95%= -3.95 to -0.38; p= 0.017). Adherence to anti tuberculosis treatment was indirectly affected by income, knowledge, and role of drug treatment supervisor.Conclusion: Adherence to anti tuberculosis treatment is directly and positively affected by age, gender, education, income, knowledge, the role of drug taking supervisor, drug availability, and family support. It is negatively affected by the side effects of the drug, distance to health service, and tenure.Keywords : treatment adherence, tuberculosis, determinants, path analysisCorrespondence: Surahman Hamidi. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: surahmanhamidi@student.uns.ac.id. Mobile: 085267­456713.Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2019), 4(3): 205-214https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2019.04.03.08
The Effects of Exclusive Breastfeeding and Contextual Factor of Village on Stunting in Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia Sugiyanto, Joko; Raharjo, Setyo Sri; Dewi, Yulia Lanti Retno
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 4, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Background: Basic Health Research Results of 2018 stated that 30.8% of Indonesian children experienced Stunting. Stunting problems describe the existence of chronic nutritional problems, which can be influenced by a variety of interrelated factors. This study aimed to examine the determinants of stunting Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case control design. It was conducted at 15 sub-districts in Bontang, East Kalimantan, from February to April 2019. A sample of 225 children was selected by purposive sampling. The dependent variable was stunting. The independent variables were exclusive breastfeeding, history of infection, low birth weight (LBW), economic status, maternal education, maternal height, basic sanitation, and Community Based Total Sanitation (CBTS) urban village status. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multilevel multiple logistic regression.Results: The risk of stunting decreased with maternal height ≥150 cm (b = -1.37; 95% CI= -2.41 to -0.32; p = 0.010), maternal education ≥senior high school (b = -1.83; 95 % CI= -2.79 to -0.87; p<0.001), exclusive breastfeeding (b= -1.67; 95% CI= -3.28 to -0.06; p= 0.042), and high economic status (b= -1.33; 95% CI= -2.23 to -0.41; p= 0.004). It was increased with number of family members >4 (b= 1.32; 95% CI= 0.41 to 2.22; p= 0.004), history of infectious disease (b= 2.23; 95% CI= 1.32 to 3.14; p<0.001), poor environmental sanitation (b= 1.83; 95% CI= 0.64 to 3.02; p= 0.003), and LBW (b= 1.30; 95% CI= 0.04 to 2.56; p= 0.043). Subdistricts had neglected contextual effect on the incidence of stunting with ICC <1%.Conclusion: The risk of stunting decreases with maternal height ≥150 cm, maternal education ≥senior high school, exclusive breastfeeding, and high economic status. It is increased with number of family members >4, history of infectious disease, poor environmental sanitation, and LBW. Subdistricts has neglected contextual effect on the incidence of stunting.Keywords: stunting,exclusive breastfeeding, multilevel analysisCorrespondence: Joko Sugiyanto. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Indonesia. Email: jksgnt@gmail.com.Mobile: 081254261020Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2019), 4(3): 222-233 https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2019.04.03.10
EFEK HYPOTHYROIDISME TERHADAP KETERLAMBATAN USIAN MENARCHE JUSUP, SINU ANDHI; RAHARJO, SETYO SRI; SUBANDONO, JAROT; LISTYANINGSIH, ENDANG
Smart Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2019): Smart Medical Journal
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sebelas Maret

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.13057/smj.v2i2.34602

Abstract

ABSTRAK Pendahuluan : Hormon Tiroid memiliki peran yang penting terhadap perkembangan dan fungsi organ reproduksi wanita. Pasien wanita dengan hipotiroidisme seringkali mengalami abnormalitas pada sistem reproduksi, termasuk terlambatnya usia menarche, gangguan siklus haid dan gangguan kesuburan. Mekanisme abnormalitas menstruasi pada hipotiroidisme belum sepenuhnya diketahui. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui gangguan fungsi sistem reproduksi lebih awal, sehingga penanganan gangguan reproduksi lanjut dapat di cegah.Metode : Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional analitik dengan metode cross sectional. Penelitian ini dilakukan di kecamatan Ngargoyoso, kabupaten Karanganyar dengan jumlah sampel 80 sampel yaitu 40 sampel untuk kelompok hipotiroidisme (+) dan 40 sampel untuk kelompok hipotiroidisme (-). Diagnosis hipotiroidisme dilakukan dengan menggunakan Zulewski?s Clinical Scoring dengan kriteria WHO/ICCIDD. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan uji t. Hasil : Pada group hipotiroidisme (+) kelompok usia terbanyak usia 40-45 tahun (35%). Mayoritas memiliki pekerjaan petani (40%) dan ibu rumah tangga (37,5%). Pendidikan terakhir SLTP (40%) dan diikuti dengan pendidikan terakhir SD (32,5%).Rata rata usia menarche pada group hipotyroidisme (+)  (14,08 tahun ), lebih tinggi dibanding group hipotyroidisme (-)  (12,53 tahun), namun secara statistik perbedaan usia menarche pada kedua group itu tidak signifikan (p=0,098).Kesimpulan Status hipotyroidisme (+) tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap permulaan usia menarche.  Kata Kunci: hipotiroidisme; menarche;hormon thyroidABSTRACT Introduction. Thyroid hormones have an important role in the development and function of the female reproductive organs. Female patients with hypothyroidism often experience abnormalities in the reproductive system, including the late age of menarche, menstrual cycle disorders and fertility disorders. The mechanism of menstrual abnormalities in hypothyroidism is not yet fully known. The aim to know the reproductive system dysfunction earlier, so treatment of advanced reproductive disorders can be prevented. Method. This study was an observational analytic study with case control method. This research was conducted in Ngargoyoso sub-district, Karanganyar district. The samples were womens 20-45 years old,  40 samples for the hypothyroidism (+) group  and 40 samples for the hypothyroidism (-) group. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism was done using Zulewski?s Clinical Scoring with WHO / ICCIDD criteria. Patients with a score of 5 or more indicate hypothyroidism, while a score of 0-2 indicates euthyroid.  The data obtained were analyzed using the t test.Results. In the hypothyroidism (+) group  the most age group was 40-45 years old (35%). The majority have farmer jobs (40%) and housewives (37.5%). Whereas the last education was junior high school (40%) and was followed by the last primary education (32.5%). The average age of menarche in the hypothyroidism (+) group (14.08 years), was higher than the hypothyroidism (-) group  (12.53 years), but statistically the age difference in menarche in the two groups was not significant (p = 0.098).Conclusion. Hypothyroidism status didn?t significantly influence the onset of menarche. Hypothyroidism has no significant effect on the late age of menarcheKeywords: hypothyroidism; menarche; thyroid hormone