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PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF STAUROGYNE SP. IN FISH DISEASE BACTERIA Nugraha, Media Fitri Isma; Novita, Hessy; Rajamuddin, Muh Alias; Yunita, Rossa; Enggarini, Wening; Reflinur, Reflinur; Maharani, Fasya Hadaina; Elya, Berna
TORANI: Journal of Fisheries and Marine Science VOLUME 2 NOMOR 2, JUNI 2019
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (15.153 KB) | DOI: 10.35911/torani.v2i2.7057

Abstract

This study was aimed to identify the potential use of active compounds extracted from Staurogyne sp as an antibacterial agent to control disease-causing bacteria in fish. Staurogyne sp, an aquatic plant collected from Bantimurung, South Sulawesi were subjected to allelochemical compound. Plant extracts were tested to five bacteria including four types of bacterial pathogen, such as Aeromonas hydrophilla, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Flavobacterium columnare, and one bacterial sensing quoroum, Chromobacterium violaceum. Based on phytochemical analysis, Staurogyne?s extracts derived from both stem and root contained flavonoids, phenols, and antioxidants compounds with the concentration of 0.018 mgQE/g, 0.3471 mgGAE/g, and  1004,391 IC50 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Staurogyne plant extracts derived from both their stem and root has also produced both saponins and glycosides compounds. Plant extracts derived from Staurogyne?s leaves revealed three major chemical compounds such as flavonoids (0.77 mgQE/g), phenol (0.0629 mgGAE/g), and glycosides (+). However, no antioxidants and saponin compounds were detected.  Applying plant extracts as an antibacterial on five disease-causing bacteria causing diseases in aquaculture, such as Aeromonas Hydrophilla, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Streptococcus agalactiae, Flavobacterium columnare, and Chromobacterium violaceum bacterials revealed that at concentration of 0.1 g the Staurogyne sp extracts did not influence all the bacterials growth. However, by application of plant extract at concentration of 0.2 g on the growth media,three out of 5 tested bacterials (Aeromonas hydrophilla, Edwardsiella ictaluri, and Streptococcus agalactiae) showed intermediate inhibition responses on bacterial growth. The growth of remaining two bacterials pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare and Chromobacterium violaceum at 0.2 g plant extract of Staurogyne sp was not affected. This study revealed that the use of active compound derived from Staurogyne sp would be potential to be used in inhibiting disease-causing bacterial in fish in future. However, optimum concentration of the plant extracts, in particular on the inhibition of the growth of disease-causing bacteria in fish is still needed to adjust.Key words: Antibacterial, aquatic plant, Staurogyne sp, fish disease
STUDY OF AQUATIC PLANTS AND ECOLOGICAL- PHYSICS TEMPE LAKE, SULAWESI SELATAN Nugraha, Media Fitri Isma; Julzarika, Atriyon; Radjamuddin, Alias; Reflinur, Reflinur; Yunita, Rossa; Enggarini, Wening; Novita, Hessy
TORANI: Journal of Fisheries and Marine Science VOLUME 2 NOMOR 2, JUNI 2019
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (15.153 KB) | DOI: 10.35911/torani.v2i2.7060

Abstract

Aquatic plants are an indicator of the fertility of an aquatic region. The waters of Lake Tempe are the largest waters of the lake area in South Sulawesi. Lake Tempe is located in the western part of Wajo District, precisely in Tempe District, about 7 km from Sengkang City towards the banks of the Walanae River in southern Sulawesi. The area is about 13,000 ha with a maximum depth of 5.5 m and can reach more than 30,000 ha during floods, and during the dry season, the inundation area reaches only 1,000 ha with a maximum depth of 1 m, located above the continental and Australian and Asian plates. This lake is one of the tectonic lakes in Indonesia. Every year silting the lake occurs. The Tempe hydro vegetation and eco-physical research were carried out in October 2017. The purpose of this study was to record aquatic plant species that live in Tempe Lake and observe ecological changes and physical properties of Lake Tempe. Aquatic plants are expected to be able to filter lake water. The results obtained are physical conditions of sharp-smelling water, unpleasant taste, dark brown, and cloudy color. Chemical indicators of NH3-N waters (0.2976-0.0634), PO4-P (0.0172-0.0844) NO2-N (undetectable), NO3-N (1.7131-1.9335), Sulphate (27.761900 - 37.047620), DO (6.88-7.18) and pH (7.88-8.02). There are 14 species of aquatic plants found in these waters. The most dominant species is water hyacinth. In the case of Tempe lake water vegetation results in siltation of the lake area.Keywords: Aquatic plant, Biodiversity, Species, Tempe lake,
PENENTUAN LOKUS GEN DALAM KROMOSOM TANAMAN DENGAN BANTUAN MARKA DNA Reflinur, Reflinur; Lestari, Puji
Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian Vol 34, No 4 (2015): Desember 2015
Publisher : Pusat Perpustakaan dan Penyebaran Teknologi Pertanian

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Abstract

Kemajuan teknik marka molekuler memberikan kemudahan bagi pemulia tanaman dalam penentuan lokasi gen yang mengendalikan karakter yang diinginkan. Penentuan gen yang mengendalikan sejumlah karakter penting dengan menggunakan marka genetik telah berhasil dilakukan pada berbagai jenis tanaman. Sebelum pemetaan suatu marka molekuler terhadap karakter yang diinginkan, diperlukan pemetaan genetik yang dikonstruksi dari sejumlah marka molekuler. Pemetaan daerah dalam kromosom yang mengendalikan karakter kualitatif dan kuantitatif mendapat perhatian yang sangat besar dalam program pemuliaan. Penentuan gen yang mengendalikan karakter kualitatif maupun kuantitatif memerlukan populasi pemetaan. Metode umum yang digunakan dalam penentuan lokasi gen yang mengendalikan karakter kualitatif ialah bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Pendekatan tersebut terbukti mampu mempercepat penentuan lokasi gen dengan biaya yang relatif rendah. Sebaliknya, penentuan lokasi gen yang mengen-dalikan sifat kuantitatif dilakukan melalui pemetaan  quantitative trait loci (QTL). Dibandingkan penentuan lokasi gen pengendali sifat kualitatif, pemetaan QTL lebih kompleks dan membutuhkan kemampuan analisis statistik untuk menentukan daerah kromosom yang terkait dengan karakter kuantitatif tersebut. Tulisan ini membahas metode penentuan lokasi gen di dalam kromosom yang bertanggung jawab terhadap karakter penting tanaman dengan memanfaatkan marka molekuler dalam pemetaan genetik dan analisis QTL.
Manfaat Sekuen Genom Lengkap dalam Identifikasi Gen: Peranan Kelompok Gen Actin-myosin dalam Sistem Pertahanan Tanaman Reflinur, Reflinur; Utami, Dwinita Wikan
Jurnal AgroBiogen Vol 1, No 1 (2005): April
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian

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Abstract

Complete genome sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) were accomplished in 2000 and 2004, respectively. The availability of high quality genome sequences of A. thaliana and rice amenable for identification and understanding of the structure and functional genes in the plant genome. One of the genes family that have been investigated is the actin-myosin genes. This genes family contributes to signalling process of the plant defence mechanism. This paper focuses on phylogenetic characterization and activation of actin-myosin genes family with emphasis on involvement on the plant defence mechanism.
Keragaman Genetik Isolat Cendawan Pyricularia oryzae Menggunakan Primer Pot-2 (Rep-PCR) Tasliah, Tasliah; Reflinur, Reflinur; Bustamam, Masdiar
Jurnal AgroBiogen Vol 4, No 2 (2008): Oktober
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian

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Abstract

Rice blast (Pyriculariaoryzae) is one of the most important diseases of rice. It canbe very destructive in the field, when the environmentalconditions are favourable. Information on genetic diversity ofthis pathogen could assist plant breeders in determiningstrategy for a successful control of the disease. This studywas conducted to analyze genetic diversity in P. oryzaeisolates by a pair of Pot-2 primers using the rep-PCRtechnique. These primers were designed from a transposonelement of the entire blast fungus genomic DNA. DNAsamples were extracted from 212 isolates of P. oryzaecollected from two endemic areas of the disease inIndonesia, i.e., Tamanbogo, Lampung, and Sukabumi, WestJava, as well as from some non-endemic areas in NorthSumatra and West Sumatra). Results of the study indicatedthat the 212 isolates could clustered into 21 haplotypes. Themost dominant haplotypes as indicated by their highestfrequency of haplotypes were haplotype Pot 2-019 (54.46%)followed by haplotype Pot 2-021 (14.73%) and haplotipe Pot2-016 (6.25%). Regardless of origins of the P. oryzae isolates,we found 6 haplotypes from Tamanbogo (out of 117samples), 13 haplotypes from Sukabumi (out of 77 samples),and 11 haplotypes from North Sumatra and West Sumatra(out of 18 isolates). It seems that genetic diversity of the P.oryzae isolates was not affected by the total number ofsamples/isolates, but rather by place of the origin and ricegenotypes from which the isolates were collected.
Comparison of detergent and CTAB method for isolation of DNA from Salak ( Salacca zalacca (Gaert.) Voss. ‘Pondoh’) Arfa, Namira Nur; Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Reflinur, Reflinur
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry Vol 7, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University & Society for Indonesian Biodiversity

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (324.967 KB) | DOI: 10.14421/biomedich.2018.71.15-20

Abstract

This study conducted in Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Balai Besar Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian (BB- Biogen) Bogor. The aims of this study are to determine and comparing the quantity,  quality and the efficiency of DNA isolation result using detergent method and CTAB method.  The parameters observed in this study are the value of DNA concentration, purity, and visualization result using gel electrophoresis. The samples are the leaves of Salak ‘Pondoh’ (Salacca zalacca (Gaert.) Voss.). Detergent method is a method which was developed by Faculty of Biology UGM, it has simple method and relatively affordable cost. Meanwhile, CTAB method is one of the commonly used methods of DNA isolation protocol with relatively expensive cost.  Detergent method used detergent in the cell wall separation and protein removal in the sample. The CTAB method used Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) for cell membrane separation in the sample. The research methods included DNA isolation with detergent and CTAB methods, PCR analysis and electrophoresis. Data analysis was done quantitatively  using spectrophotometric method and qualitative used electrophoresis method. The result of the study  showed that DNA isolation using  CTAB method showed higher purity compared with detergent method with the purity values ranging from 1,3- 1,4 . Meanwhile, the concentration of DNA in the detergent method was higher than that of CTAB with the highest concentration of 1730 µg/ml. There is no difference between the  quality of genomic DNA isolated by CTAB and detergent methods.
Genetic Diversity Analysis Using Resistance Gene Analog-Based Markers to Support Morphological Characterization of Shallots Herlina, Lina; Reflinur, Reflinur; Nugroho, Kristianto; Terryana, Rerenstradika T.; Sobir, Sobir; Maharijaya, Awang; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal AgroBiogen Vol 14, No 2 (2018): December
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jbio.v14n2.2018.p65-74

Abstract

Shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown in Indonesia. The limited knowledge available on the genetic diversity and the threat of plant disease have been major problems to maintain high shallot production in Indonesia. Development of molecular markers linked to disease resistance is required for molecular breeding activity in this crop. This study aimed to assess the genetic diversity at conserved domain of resistance gene analog (RGA) in a set of 36 Indonesian shallot genotypes to complement morphological characterization. Twelve morphological and fifteen molecular markers traits were investigated in an attempt to characterize and to discriminate the Indonesian shallots genotypes. Characterization at orphological level indicated that phenotypic variance was highest for total bulb weight (TWB, cv = 99.39%) and the least for the plant height (PH, cv = 28.16%). The correlation analysis between traits showed that TWB and number of bulb (NB), TWB and bulb weight per plant (WB), NB and WB, and WB and PH were positively correlated. Molecular analysis revealed a total of 1,512 alleles with an average of 1.946 alleles per locus. The Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0.253 to 0.676 and six out of 15 RGA markers were highly informative with PIC values ≥0.50. Based on cluster analysis, the 36 Indonesian shallot genotypes were clearly discriminated into six major groups. These results revealed that the RGA-based markers could support the morphological characterization in evaluating the genetic diversity of shallots. 
KERAGAMAN GENETIK VARIETAS PADI japonica DAN indica BERDASARKAN MARKA DNA TERKAIT MUTU RASA Lestari, Puji; Reflinur, Reflinur; Handoko, Dody Dwi; Mastur, Mastur
Scripta Biologica Vol 5, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.751

Abstract

PCR-based markers and evaluation of physicochemical properties should be addressed for the improvement of rice varieties with good eating dan eating quality (EQ). This study aimed to examine the genetic diversity of rice varieties based on DNA markers related to physicochemical properties determining EQ. A total of 46 rice varieties consisting of 22 japonica varieties and 24 indica varieties were examined using 43 PCR-based markers. The results showed that polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.04 to 0.38, in support of genetic diversity indices which ranged from 0.04 to 0.50 across total markers. Pairwise genetic similarity matrix ranged from 0.40 to 0.98 with the closest genetic distance was observed between two japonica varieties (Dongjin and Hwaseong) and the most distant one was between japonica and indica (Onnuri/Manmi with Cigeulis/Fatmawati). The unweighted neighbor-joining tree clustered the rice varieties into two major clades, indica and japonica, and subsequent subclades were differentiating according to the individual genetic background. The genetic diversity of rice from different subspecies and DNA markers for EQ can effectively be utilized for basic information and marker-assisted selection (MAS) for the development of improved varieties with good EQ in rice breeding program.
INHERITANCE OF BLAST RESISTANCE (PYRICULARIA GRISEA SACC.) ON INTERSPECIFIC CROSSING BETWEEN IR64 AND ORYZA RUFIPOGON GRIFF UTAMI, DWINITA WIKAN; ASWIDINNOOR, HAJRIAL; MOELJOPAWIRO, SUGIONO; HANARIDA, IDA; REFLINUR, REFLINUR
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol. 13 No. 3 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (48.406 KB) | DOI: 10.4308/hjb.13.3.107

Abstract

Blast disease affected by Pyricularia grisea causes high percentage of yield losses in rice production. The improvement of durable Blast resistance is difficult due to the complexity of the inheritance of this trait. This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic control and inheritance of Blast resistance trait in interspesific population between IR 64 (accepted Indonesian rice type, medium resistant to Indonesian Blast pathogen) and Oryza rufipogon (AA genome; acc. No.IRGC#105491; donor for Blast resistance). Six populations, i.e. P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1, and BCP2, were inoculated with three Indonesian races of Blast pathogen. The disease intensity was determined on the basis of disease leaf area (DLA). The three types of gene interactions (additive, dominance, and epistatis) were significantly involved in this trait. Among the digenic epistasis interactions, all of the additive x additive [i], additive x dominance (j) and dominance x dominance (l) contributed to the trait. Broad-sense heritability ranged from 50.30 up to 91.20%, while the narrow heritability ranged from 16.98 up to 73.20%. The presence of additive gene effect indicated that selection of this trait is promising. Key words: inheritance, Blast resistance, wild rice, Oryza rufipogon
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF INDONESIAN SHALLOTS BASED ON BULB-TUNIC PATTERNS AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS Herlina, Lina; Reflinur, Reflinur; Sobir, Sobir; Maharijaya, Awang; Wiyono, Suryo; Istiaji, Bonjok
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 20, No 1 (2019): June 2019
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/ijas.v20n1.2019.p19-28

Abstract

Variation within bulb tunics has been used to determine the genetic diversity in Allium species, including shallots. However, no such study has been reported for shallots of Indonesia. The study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity of the Indonesian shallots based on the bulb-tunic patterns. Thirty-five shallot genotypes from main production centers in Indonesia were used. The ultrasculptures of the bulb tunics were examined by light microscopy, including the inner surface and cell shape patterns of the bulb tunics. The phenotypic data, i.e. quantitative and qualitative traits were subjected to the descriptive statistics, principal component, correlation, regression, and clustering analyses. The results showed that the bulb-tunic cell patterns were varied, which shared almost identical with 13 Allium species. Total bulb weight per genotype showed the greatest variation (cv = 89.10%) and significant correlation with bulb weight per plant (r = 0.773). The principle component analyses showed the cumulative proportion of 78% of the total morphological variation in all shallot genotypes. Based on clustering analysis, the genetic variation of Indonesian shallots are grouped into twelve clusters with 50% genetic similarity. The study indicates that Indonesian shallots are genetically varied and could be useful for further utilization in their genetic improvement program.