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PENGATURAN TEKANAN UDARA PANAS PADA ALAT PEMBUAT ASAP CAIR MENGGUNAKAN TEKNIK MODIFIKASI GATE VALVE Gunawan, Indra; Hasbi, Hasbi; Rejo, Amin
AUSTENIT Vol 4, No 02 (2012): AUSTENIT 04022012
Publisher : AUSTENIT

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Abstract

Pemanfaatannya buah kelapa di Wilayah Sumatera Selatan masih terbatas pada olahan buah kelapa saja sebagai bahan baku pembuatan minyak kelapa dan kebutuhan rumah tangga. Tempurung kelapa sebagai limbah pertanian, jika diolah dengan baik maka akan menjadi sumber nafkah, karena tempurung kelapa memiliki potensi yang baik untuk digunakan sebagai bahan baku industri, salah satunya asap cair (liquefied smoke). Penelitian tentang pembuatan dan pemanfaatan asap cair (liquefied smoke) telah banyak dilakukan sebelumnya namun memiliki banyak kelemahan, diantaranya kurang efektif dan efisien, biaya produksi yang mahal serta sulit pengoperasiaannya. Oleh karena itu, dalam penelitian ini diusulkan pembuatan alat pembuat asap cair yang lebih sederhana, murah dan efisien dengan pengaturan tekanan udara panas mengunaakan teknik modifikasi gate valve. Alat pembuat asap cair yang telah dimodifikasi telah diuji coba dan mampu meningkatkan hasil produksi asap cair 59,3 % pada suhu 2000 C. 
Pemanfaatan tepung dari kulit secang, kunyit dan kulit manggis untuk kompon karet ., Rahmaniar; Rejo, Amin; Priyanto, Gatot; Hamzah, Basuni
Jurnal Dinamika Penelitian Industri Vol 25, No 1 (2014): JURNAL DINAMIKA PENELITIAN INDUSTRI
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Palembang

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Abstract

This research aims to obtain the optimal concentration in the variations of natural dyes and examines the characteristics of the resulting rubber compound. Research and laboratory testing conducted at Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Palembang and PT. Kobe Internasional Mandiri Bandung. This study used dye concentration in 5 phr and 4 (four) color variation that were Formula A: Flour mangosteen peel, Formula B: Meal turmeric, Formula C: Flour wooden cup and Formula D: Synthetic dyes as the control. Parameters observed were Hardness, Shore A (ASTM D 2240-1997), tensile strength, kg / cm 2 (ISO 37, 1994), elongation at break (%), 50 PPHM ozone resistance, 20%, 24 h, 40 ° C and total color difference. The results showed that the best treatments was formula C: Flour wooden cup with Hardness test results of 44 shore A, the voltage dropped by 129 kg / cm 2, Elongation at break of 845%, the ozone resistance of rubber compounds showed no cracks and the total color difference was 26,74.Key word : rubber compound, dyes, wooden cup, turmeric, mangosteen rind.AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi optimal variasi bahan pewarna alami dan mengkaji karakteristik kompon karet yang dihasilkan. Penelitian dan pengujian laboratorium dilaksanakan di Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Palembang dan PT. Kobe Internasional Mandiri Bandung. Penelitian ini menggunakan konsentrasi pewarna 5 phr dan 4 (empat) variasi pewarna yaitu Formula A : Tepung kulit manggis, Formula B : Tepung kunyit, Formula C : Tepung kayu secang dan Formula D : Pewarna sintetis sebagai kontrol. Parameter yang diamati Kekerasan, Shore A (ASTM D. 2240-1997), tegangan putus, kg/cm2 (ISO 37, 1994), Perpanjangan Putus (%), ketahanan ozon 50 pphm, 20%, 24 jam, 40°C dan total perbedaan warna. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Perlakuan yang baik adalah formula C : Tepung kayu secang dengan hasil uji Kekerasan sebesar 44 shore A, Tegangan putus sebesar 129 kg/cm2, Perpanjangan putus sebesar 845 %, ketahanan ozon menunjukkan kompon karet tidak retak dan total perbedaan warna yaitu 26,74.Kata kunci : kompon karet, pewarna, kayu secang, kunyit, kulit manggis.
Ketahanan usang kompon karet dengan bahan ekstrak kayu secang, silika pasir kuarsa dan kalsium karbonat kulit kerang ., Rahmaniar; Rejo, Amin; Priyanto, Gatot; Hamzah, Basuni
Jurnal Dinamika Penelitian Industri Vol 26, No 1 (2015): JURNAL DINAMIKA PENELITIAN INDUSTRI
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Palembang

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Abstract

The objectives of this study were to find out the effect of temperature and long storage to the characteristic of dock pads on the basis of National Standard of Indonesia 06-3568-2006 and to obtain the aging resistance of rubber compound. The usage formula of rubber compound was treatment A3P4 (9 phr of the extract of caesalpinia sappan wood and the mixture of quartz sand silica : calcium karbonat clamshell 75:25 phr). The experimental design uses some various temperatures of 60 oC, 70 oC and 80 oC and variation of time from one day until 7 days. The tested parameters were the hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break . The result of the study showed that the obtained hardness were 65-68 shore A, tensile strength were 26-30 N/mm2 and the elongation at break were 263-496%. The variety analysis showed that the hardness gave lack significant effect, meanwhile the temperature and time gave significant effect for the tensile strength parameter as well as the interaction. Futhermore, elongation at break parameter affected significantly toward the temperature, the time and intraction between them, Activated energy (EA) of the rubber compound hardness 5,994 K.kal/mol., the tensile strength was 6,915 K.kal/mol and elongation at break was 66,775 K.kal/mol, finally the aging resistance of rubber compound for the storage temperature of 60 oC was 48,08 days.Keywords : the extract of caesalpinia sappan wood, after ageing, rubber compound, calcium karbonat clamshell, quartz sand silicaAbstrakTujuan penelitian mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan lama penyimpanan terhadap karakteristik kompon bantalan dermaga sesuai SNI 06-3568-2006 dan mendapatkan umur usang kompon karet. Formula kompon karet yang digunakan perlakuan A3P4 (9 phr ekstrak kayu secang dan campuran silika pasir kuarsa : kulit kerang = 75:25). Rancangan percobaan dengan variasi suhu 60 oC, 70 oC dan 80 oC dan variasi waktu 1 hingga 7 hari. Parameter yang di uji Kekerasan, tegangan putus dan perpanjangan putus. Hasil penelitian untuk kekerasan 65-68 shore A, tegangan putus 22-30 N/mm2 dan perpanjangan putus 263-496%. Analisa keragaman untuk kekerasan memberikan pengaruh yang tidak signifikan, untuk parameter tegangan putus perlakuan suhu dan waktu berpengaruh secara signifikan sedangkan interaksi berpengaruh signifikan. Untuk parameter perpanjangan putus berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap suhu, waktu dan interaksi keduanya. Energi aktivasi (EA) kompon karet kekerasan 5,994 K.kal/mol, tegangan putus 6,915 K.kal/mol dan perpanjangan putus 66,775 K.kal/mol. Umur usang kompon karet untuk variasi suhu penyimpanan 60 oC memberikan waktu 48,08 hari.Kata Kunci : ekstrak kayu secang, ketahanan usang, kompon karet, kulit kerang, silika pasir kuarsa
Profil gelatinisasi formula pempek “lenjer” Karneta, Railia; Rejo, Amin; Priyanto, Gatot; Pambayun, Rindit
Jurnal Dinamika Penelitian Industri Vol 25, No 1 (2014): JURNAL DINAMIKA PENELITIAN INDUSTRI
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Palembang

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Abstract

This research aims to determine the gelatinization profiles of pempek lenjer dough from several formulas, with comparising fish with tapioca flour treatment. During the heating occured an increase in viscosity caused by the swelling of the irreversible starch granules in the water caused by the kinetic energy of water molecules which is stronger than the attraction of starch molecules so that the water could get into the starch granules. Gelatinization profile result showed that the higher the addition of tapioca flour on the pempek dough the lower the initial gelatinization temperature (63°C), the lower the maximum viscosity (100 BU) is more compact the gel, paste stability was relatively low (41 BU) and the higher the reverse viscosity (31 BU), the development of the granules became larger, but the greater the the possibility of retrogradation.Keywords: dough, formulation, gelatinization, amilography properties, pempekAbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil gelatinisasi adonan pempek lenjer dari beberapa formula, dengan perlakuan perbandingan ikan dengan tepung tapioka. Selama pemanasan terjadi peningkatan viskositas yang disebabkan oleh pembengkakan granula pati yang irreversible dalam air, karena energi kinetik molekul air lebih kuat dari daya tarik molekul pati sehingga air dapat masuk ke dalam granula pati. Hasil profil gelatinisasi menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi penambahan tepung tapioka pada adonan pempek maka suhu awal gelatinisasi semakin rendah (63°C), viskositas maksimum semakin rendah (100 BU) gel lebih kompak, stabilitas pasta relatif rendah (41 BU) dan viskositas balik semakin tinggi (31 BU) pengembangan granula lebih besar, tetapi kemungkinan retrogradasi semakin besar.Kata kunci: adonan, formula, gelatinisasi, sifat amilografi, pempek
ANALISIS TEKNIS DAN FINANSIAL SISTEM PENYIMPANAN GABAH DI SUMATERA SELATAN Ginting, Ervan Dinata; Rejo, Amin; Panggabean, Tamaria
Jurnal Teknik Pertanian Sriwijaya Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

This research objective was to analysis the technical and financial variety of grain storage systems in South Sumatra. This study used description method through observation and the data analysis the technical and financial. The Hermetic storage system of puddy grain have a theoritical capacity (KT) was 70 kg, the effective capacity (KE) was 50 kg, the efficiency of equipment (EA) was 71.42%, depreciation of puddy grain 6%, BEP price production was Rp 3.557/kg, BEP for volume production 1.253,74 kg, NPV Rp. 2.420.893, Net B/C ratio 1.18 and IRR 53%. The barn system  have KT was 768.000 kg, KE was 200.000 kg, EA was 26,04%, depreciation of puddy grain 18%, BEP price production was Rp 3.048/kg, BEP for volume production 124.976,10 kg, NPV Rp. 433.782.041, Net B/C ratio 1,31 and IRR 51%. The rice plant system have KT was 1.024.000 kg, KE was      700.000 kg, EA was 68,36%, depreciation of puddy grain 18%, BEP price production was  Rp 2.889/kg, BEP for volume production 414.525,51 kg, NPV Rp. 1.784.722.815, Net B/C ratio 1,33 dan IRR 56,06%.  The sacks system have KT was 25 kg, KE was 20 kg, EA was 80%, depreciation of puddy grain was 10%, BEP price production was Rp 3.583/kg, BEP for volume production 145,11 kg, NPV Rp. 240.005, Net B/C ratio 1,14 dan IRR 55,65%. Based on the investment criteria of sensitivity analysis increased the cost of 10%, and sensitivity analysis of decrease the prices of 10% of storage systems still fit for use because NPV > 0 and Net B/C ratio > 1.  Keywords : Technical analysis, analysis of financial, analysis of sensitivity
Slab Quality and Environmental Degradation with The Addition of Additives and Coagulant Zulyanti, Afriyani; Rejo, Amin; Haskari, Farry Apriliano; Vachlepi, Afrizal
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment Vol 2, No 2 (2017): Water As A Vital Resource for Life
Publisher : Program Pascasarjana Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Abstract : This research used ammonium chloride at doses of 0%, 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% with 0% dose, 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% while formic acid and liquid smoke coagulants.  The objective of this research is to determine the effects of the addition of additives (NH4Cl) and the type of coagulants on the quality slab degradation. The observed parameters were the value of dry rubber content (%), initial plasticity (Po), plasticity retention index (PRI), ash content (%), volatile matter (%) and Mooney viscosity. The results showed that doses ammonium chloride and coagulants affected to the value of dry rubber content (%), initial plasticity (Po), plasticity retention index (PRI), ash content (%), volatile matter (%) and Mooney viscosity. The treatment dose 0.45% ammonium chloride with coagulant has the best combination treatment reason it produced slab with dry rubber content 46.517%, initial plasticity 45, plasticity retention index 94, ash content 0.278%, volatile matter 0.604% and Mooney viscosity 72.Keywords: Ammonium chloride, coagulants and slab. Abstrak (Indonesian) : Penelitian ini menggunakan amonium klorida dengan dosis 0%, 0,15%, 0,30% dan 0,45% sedangkan jenis koagulan asam format dan asap cair.  Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan zat aditif (NH4Cl) dan jenis koagulan terhadap degradasi mutu sleb.  Parameter yang diamati adalah kadar karet kering (%), plastisitas awal (Po), indeks retensi plastisitas (PRI), kadar abu (%), kadar zat menguap (%), viskositas Mooney. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan dosis amonium klorida dan jenis koagulan berpengaruh nyata terhadap kadar karet kering (%), plastisitas awal (Po), indeks retensi plastisitas (PRI), kadar abu (%), kadar zat menguap (%), viskositas Mooney. Perlakuan dosis amonium klorida 0,45% dengan koagulan asam format merupakan perlakuan terbaik menghasilkan kadar karet kering 46,517%, plastisitas awal 45, indeks retensi plastisitas 94, kadar abu 0,278% , kadar zat menguap 0,604% dan viskositas Mooney 72.Kata Kunci: Amonium klorida, koagulan dan sleb.
Penentuan Difusivitas Panas Pempek Lenjer Selama Perebusan Menggunakan Metode Numeri Karneta, Railia; Rejo, Amin; Priyanto, Gatot; Pambayun, Rindit
Agritech Vol 35, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (229.831 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9415

Abstract

The knowledge of thermal diffusivity coefficient is important in order to determine the proper or optimum time for pempek lenjer processing. Formula and temperature will affect thermal diffusivity. The research objective was to numerically determine thermal diffusivity coefficient of pempek lenjer during boiling. The measured variables were sample temperature measured at pempek center point (r0) = 0 cm, r1= 1 cm, r= 2 c, and time for boiling pempek. Data was analyzed by using 9 and 12 models through computer program of Engineering Equation Solver (EES) Ver 8.91. The results showed that thermal diffusivity coefficient of pempek lenjer for formula 1, 2, 3, and 4 were between 0.321 and 1.515 .10 -7 m2/s, between 0.297 and 1.389.10-7 m2/s, between 0.378 and 1.471. 10-7 m/s and between 0.2778 and 1.620. 10-7 m2/s respectively .ABSTRAKKoefisien difusivitas panas pada perebusan pempek lenjer harus diketahui, karena dapat ditentukan waktu pengolahan pempek yang tepat (optimal). Formula dan suhu akan mempengaruhi koefisien difusivitas panas.Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan koefisien difusivitas panas pada perebusan pempek lenjer secara numerik. Variabel yang diukur adalah suhu sampel pada titik pusat (r0) = 0 cm, r1= 1 cm, r2= 2 cm, dan lama pemasakan pempek. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan model difusivitas panas di titik sembarang dan model difusivitas panas di titik pusat, dengan program computer Engineering Equation Solver (EES) Ver 8.91.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa koefisien difusivitas panas pempek lenjer pada formula 1 adalah interval 0,321 - 1,515. 10-7 m/s, pada formula 2 adalah 0,297 - 1,389. 10-7 m2/s, pada formula 3 adalah 0,378 - 1,471. 10-7 m/s, dan formula 4 adalah 0,2778 - 1,620. 10-7 m2/s.
Optimasi Konsentrasi Ekstrak Kayu Secang dan Campuran Pasir Kuarsa dengan Kulit Kerang yang Digunakan pada Pembuatan Kompon Karet Rahmaniar, Rahmaniar; Rejo, Amin; Priyanto, Gatot; Hamzah, Basuni
Agritech Vol 36, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (599.155 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.12863

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This study aimed to obtain the optimum concentration of Sappan Wood Extract, Quartz Sand and Clamshell mixture. For this purpose, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the factors which influenced the quality of rubber compound. There were two factors to be observed in this study. They were the concentration of Sappan ood Extract (8 phr, 9 phr and 10 phr) and the mixture Quartz Sand and Clamshell (63:37, 73:27 and 83:17). The observed parameters were the hardness, the tensile strength and the elongation at break. The results of the study showed that the optimum hardness was reached at the treatment combination of 8.55 phr for the Sappan Wood Extract and 77.7:22.3 for the mixture of Quartz Sand and Clamshell mixture. Furthermore, the optimum tensile strenght was obtained at the treatment combination of 8.48 phr for the Sappan Wood Extract and 60.3:39.7 for the mixture of quartz sand and seashell. Finally, the optimum elongation at break was reached at the treatment combinatioan of 9,55 phr for the sappan wood extract and 70.65:29.35 for the mixture of of quartz sand and clamshell. Based on these three parameters, the optimum usage of sappan wood extract, quartz sand and clamshell mixture in the making of rubber compound was reached in the proportion of 8.48 phr–9.55 phr for the sappan wood extract, and 60:39.7; 77.7:22.3 for the mixture of quartz sand and clamshell.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi ekstrak kayu secang dan campuran pasir kuarsa dan kulit kerang yang optimum. Metode Respon Surface Methodology (RSM) digunakan untuk mengoptimalkan faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap mutu kompon karet. Dua faktor yang diteliti terdiri dari konsentrasi ekstrak kayu secang (8, 9 dan 10 phr) dan campuran pasir kuarsa dan kulit kerang (63:37, 73:27 dan 83:17). Parameter yang diamati adalah kekerasan, tegangan putus dan perpanjangan putus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kekerasan yang optimum dicapai pada kombinasi perlakuan ekstrak kayu secang dan campuran silika pasir kuarsa dan kulit kerang 8,55phr dan 77,7:22,3. Tegangan putus yang optimum dicapai pada kombinasi perlakuan ekstrak kayu secang dan campuran pasir kuarsa dan kulit kerang 8,48 phr dan 60,3:39,7, sedangkan parameter perpanjangan putus yang optimum dicapai pada kombinasi perlakuan ekstrak kayu secang dan campuran pasir kuarsa dan kulit kerang 9,55 phr dan 70,65:29,35, sehingga kondisi optimum penggunaan konsentrasi ekstrak kayu secang dan campuran pasir kuarsa dan kulit kerang pada pembuatan kompon karet berdasarkan ke tiga parameter tersebut dicapai dengan proporsi ekstrak kayu secang dan campuran pasir kuarsa dan kulit kerang optimum 8,48-9,55 phr dan 60:39,7; 77,7:22,3 phr.
Model Perubahan Komposisi Gas CO2 dan O2 Buah Salak Pondoh (Salacca edulis, Reinw) pada Pengemasan Plastik Polietilen dalam Atmosfir Termodifikasi Rejo, Amin; Raharjo, Budi; Tranggono, Tranggono
Agritech Vol 21, No 1 (2001)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (997.847 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.13635

Abstract

Storing fruit with high concentration of carbondioxyde and low concentration of oxygen could be utilized to retard respiration rate, moisture loss, fruit repening, enzyme activities and microbial growth. Mathematical models were developed for respiration of salak pondoh (Salacca edulis Review., cultivar pondoh), permeability of polyethylene plastic packaging and gas exchange in packaging. The apparatus used in the experiment was a packaging tube covered with 0.08 mm thick polyethylene tube was flowed with modified atmosphere. Spectrophotometry and gas chromatography were used to assay the gas, and data obtained from model and from experiment were compared. The results showed that the models can predict the respiration rate RCO2 = 11.75 CCO2-0.08 CO21.47 e-0.22 (t) and RCO2 = 16.946 CCO2-0.485 O20.264 e-0.063 (t) , permeability of polyethylene plastic packaging DCO2 = 0.623 e-9.074 (67.13/R 1/T) and DO2 = 0.077 e-21.144 (75.79/R 1/T) and gas exchange in packaging (Cm+1 = Cm + ΔCn).
Klasifikasi Tingkat Kematangan dan Kemasakan Buah Durian dengan Model Neural Network Rejo, Amin; Purwadaria, Hadi K.; Budiastra, I Wayan; Suroso, Suroso; Susanto, Slamet; Nazaruddin, Yul Y
Agritech Vol 21, No 4 (2001)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1138.713 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.13583

Abstract

This study was aimed to develop the model to predict the maturity and ripeness of durian based on its physical and chemical characteristics using neural network. The physicochemical and acoustic characteristics measurement was fed into the model as the inputs, which provided the levels of maturity and ripeness as the output of the model. The results suggested that the physico-chemical properties and the acoustic charcteristic decreased with the increase of both maturity and ripeness level of durian. The total solid soluble, the water content and the total sugar increased according to the fruits maturity. The total acids increased in the beginning of durian maturing process and then decreased when the maturity and ripeness level reached the mature-over ripened stage. Data training were done by model of neural network: model 4 output, with various node in the hidden layer 4, 6, 8 and 10 nodes. The results recommended that the best model to be applied was model 4 output with 4 nodes in the hidden layer and iteration 1000 and 5000 with the model accuration 87.5 % - 100%.