Ristiyanto Ristiyanto
Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit Salatiga

Published : 9 Documents
Articles

Found 9 Documents
Search

DISTRIBUSI SPASIAL KASUS DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE (DBD), ANALISIS INDEKS JARAK DAN ALTERNATIF PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR DI KOTA SAMARINDA, PROVINSI KALIMANTAN TIMUR Boewono, Damar Tri; Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto; Widiarti, Widiarti; Widyastuti, Umi
Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Vol 22, No 3 Sep (2012)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/MPK/article/view/2907

Abstract

Abstract Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) happens to be a public health problem in Samarinda city, East Kalimantan Province. Dengue was reported endemic in the entire six subdistricts of the city. Various vector control programs have been conducted by the Health Office, yet the dengue cases were still occurred on the previous years. Comprehensive research was conducted to determine the spatial distribution of DHF cases using geographical information system (GIS) mapping, in relation to positive larvae of the breeding habitat distributions. The study was carried out in five endemic areas namely Pelita village Samarinda Utara Subdistrict, Sambutan village Samarinda Ilir Subdistrict, Sidodadi village Samarinda Ulu Subdistrict, Harapan Baru village Samarinda Seberang Subdistrict and Karang Asam Ilir village Sungai Kunjang Subdistrict. The aim of the study was to determine the specific vector control strategies based on spatial DHF cases and breeding habitat distributions and distance index analyses, larvae free index and insecticide susceptible status of dengue vector of Ae. aegypti against the insecticides which were used for vector control programs. The study revealed that average ABJ in the study areas was 35.85-64.16% and lower the national standar of 95%. Dengue vector of Ae. aegypti was found to be resistant to Malathion, Permethrin, Lambdasihalothrin and Bendiocarb insecticides. Thus an alternative insecticide should be considered. Dengue cases distribution in Samarinda city were found in  clusters/gregorious. Distance index analyses indicated that the transmissions were due to mosquito behaviour. Community empowement is needed to encourage the potential groups (PKK, Dasa Wisma, public health caders, posyandu), to participate on the vector control program.   Keywords: DHF, Spatial distribution, Cases Distance Index, Samarinda City.     Abstrak Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD) masih menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat Kota Samarinda, Provinsi Kalimantan Timur dan dilaporkan endemis di enam wilayah kecamatan. Berbagai cara pengendalian telah dilakukan oleh Dinas Kesehatan Kota, tetapi kasus DBD masih ditemukan sepanjang tahun.  Penelitian komprehensif telah dilakukan untuk menentukan distribusi spasial kasus DBD dengan pemetaan menggunakan Sistem Informasi Geografi (SIG), berkaitan dengan habitat positif jentik. Penelitian dilakukan dilima (5) wilayah kalurahan endemis yaitu: Desa Pelita Kecamatan Samarinda Utara, Desa Sambutan Kecamatan Samarinda Ilir, Desa Sidodadi Kecamatan Samarinda Ulu, Desa Harapan Baru Kecamatan Samarinda Seberang dan Desa  Karang Asam Ilir  Kecamatan Sungai Kunjang. Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan strategi pengendalian vektor spesifik berdasarkan distribusi spasial/ pemetaan kasus DBD dengan sistem informasi geografi (SIG), Index jarak (distance index) kasus DBD, angka bebas jentik (ABJ) serta status kerentanan nyamuk vektor Ae. aegypti terhadap insektisida. Hasil survei jentik ditemukan bahwa rata-rata ABJ di daerah penelitian jauh lebih rendah daripada standar nasional 95,0%. Uji susceptibility vektor DBD Ae. aegypti telah resisten terhadap insektisida Malathion, Permethrin, Lambdasihalothrin dan Bendiocarb, sehingga diperlukan insektisida alternatif. Distribusi kasus DBD Kota Samarinda ditemukan mengelompok distance index rata-rata 75 meter sebagai indikasi penularan lebih disebabkan perilaku nyamuk vektor. Pemberdayaan masyarakat sangat diperlukan sebagai usaha memberikan motivasi kepada kelompok masyarakat potensial seperti PKK, Dasa Wisma, kader kesehatan dan posyandu, untuk berpartisipasi dalam program pengendalian vektor DBD.   Kata kunci: DBD, Distribusi spasial, Jarak indeks kasus, Kota  Samarinda
DETERMINAN PERILAKU PADA KEJADIAN LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KABUPATEN DEMAK, JAWA TENGAH TAHUN 2008 Pujiyanti, Aryani; Trapsilowati, Wiwik; Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto
Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Vol 24, No 3 Sep (2014)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (287.427 KB)

Abstract

AbstrakPerilaku manusia dapat menjadi faktor pemicu terjadinya leptospirosis sebagai re-emerging zoonosis di Kabupaten Demak. Tujuan penelitian adalah menggambarkan determinan perilaku penderita pada kejadian luar biasa leptospirosis (KLB) di Kabupaten Demak, Tahun 2008. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian deskriptif dengan rancangan cross-sectional. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara. Sampel adalah penderita leptospirosis periode 1 Januari – 1 April 2008. Hasil menunjukan mayoritas penderita berusia produktif. Lebih dari 50% penderita tidak tahu bahaya leptospirosis. Kaporit dipahami sebagai penjernih air bukan desinfektan. Lebih dari 50% penderita memiliki aktivitas kontak dengan sumber penularan leptospirosis. Mayoritas penderita tidak memakai alas kaki dan sarung tangan sebagai pelindung diri dari penularan leptospirosis. Bangkai tikus lebih banyak dibuang di sungai (59,3%), sedangkan perilaku pengendalian tikus yang efektif belum banyak dilaksanakan (68,5%). Kewaspadaan penderita terhadap leptospirosis masih rendah karena adanya persepsi leptospirosis tidak berbahaya dan pengetahuan tentang leptospirosis yang masih kurang. Responden mendukung penggunaan kaporit tetapi untuk menjernihkan air bukan sebagai desinfektan. Perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat, pengendalian tikus serta penggunaan alat pelindung diri untuk mencegah leptospirosis masih kurang. Rekomendasi yang diberikan adalah perlu peningkatan edukasi kesehatan tentang bahaya leptospirosis, aktivitas berisiko, penggunaan kaporit dan teknik pengendalian tikus yang benar.Kata kunci : leptospirosis, perilaku, determinan, kejadian luar biasaAbstractHuman behavior could be a trigger factor for leptospirosis as a re-emerging zoonoses in Demak Regency. Objective of this study was to describe patients behavioral determinants in leptospirosis outbreaks in Demak Regency, 2008. Research was a descriptive study with cross – sectional design. Data was collected with interview. Samples were leptospirosis patients from 1 January to 1 April 2008. Results showed the majority of respondents were in productive age. More than 50% of patients did not know the  danger  of  leptospirosis.  Chlorine  was  understood  as  water  purifier  instead  of  disinfectant.  More than 50% of patients had activity contact with source of transmission. The majority of respondents did not wear shoes and gloves as protective of transmission of leptospirosis. Respondents dumped dead rats in the river (59.3%), while effective rat control behavior had not been widely implemented (68.5%). Precautions against leptospirosis on patients was still low due to perception of leptospirosis were harmless and knowledge of leptospirosis were still lacking. Respondents supported the use of chlorine to purify water but not as disinfectant. Behavior of clean and healthy lifestyle, rat controls and the use of personal protective equipment were lacking. Increasing health education about the dangers of leptospirosis, risky activities, use of chlorine and effective rat control techniques were reccomended.Keywords : leptospirosis, behavior, determinants, outbreak
PENGUATAN KEBIJAKAN ONE HEALTH DAN JEJARING LABORATORIUM DALAM DETEKSI DINI LEPTOSPIROSIS DI INDONESIA Handayani, Farida Dwi; Pratamawati, Diana Andriyani; Widjajanti, Wening; Muhidin, Muhidin; Yuliadi, Bernadus; Safitri, Aprilia; Hidayati, Nur; Mulyono, Arief; Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 47 No 4 (2019)
Publisher : Sekretariat Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (687.584 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/bpk.v47i4.1928

Abstract

Abstract International Leptospirosis Society stated Indonesia as a country with high leptospirosis incidence and ranked third in the world for mortality. Rikhus Vektora, in 2015 - 2017 in 25 provinces in Indonesia, showed that positive leptospirosis rats were found in all regions. However, Health Service Providers (PPK) both at the basic and advanced levels stated that they were unable to carry out a diagnosis of leptospirosis cases. Meanwhile, the data also showed that in the provinces where no leptospirosis cases reported, there were Leptospira bacteria found in captured rats both in settlements and remote areas. This condition causes leptospirosis like the phenomenon of the iceberg that is seen as no cases while the facts in the field of many people infected with late treatment. One Health approach in cross-sector leptospirosis data integration from a related department is needed in determining priorities for the prevention of leptospirosis. It is necessary to establish a laboratory network to obtain faster information regarding the enforcement of the diagnosis of leptospirosis cases. The proposed policy recommendations are the discovery of leptospirosis cases with capacity building for doctors and health workers through clinical lectures, cross-sector joint surveillance, and strengthening of laboratory networks for early enforcement of leptospirosis diagnose. Keywords: leptospirosis, one-health, laboratory, early detection, Indonesia Abstrak International Leptospirosis Society menyatakan Indonesia sebagai negara dengan insidens leptospirosis tinggi dan peringkat ketiga dunia untuk mortalitas. Hasil Riset Khusus Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (Rikhus Vektora) pada tahun 2015 - 2017 di 25 provinsi di Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa di setiap provinsi ditemukan persentase tikus positif bakteri Leptospira. Namun, penyedia Pelayanan Kesehatan (PPK) baik yang ada di tingkat dasar maupun lanjutan menyatakan belum mampu untuk melakukan penegakkan diagnosa kasus leptospirosis. Sementara itu, data juga menunjukkan bahwa pada beberapa provinsi yang menyatakan tidak ada kasus leptospirosis ditemukan adanya bakteri Leptospira pada tikus yang ditangkap baik pada ekosistem yang dekat dengan pemukiman maupun yang jauh dari pemukiman. Kondisi ini menyebabkan leptospirosis seperti fenomena gunung es yaitu terlihat tidak ada kasus sementara fakta di lapangan banyak orang terjangkit yang terlambat diobati. Pendekatan ?One Health? dalam integrasi data leptospirosis lintas sektor (Dinas Kesehatan, Dinas Peternakan, Dinas Pertanian) diperlukan dalam penentuan prioritas penanggulangan leptospirosis. Selain itu, perlu dibuat jejaring laboratorium agar didapatkan informasi lebih cepat terkait penegakan diagnosis kasus leptospirosis. Rekomendasi kebijakan yang diusulkan adalah penemuan kasus leptospirosis dengan capacity building dokter dan tenaga kesehatan dengan cara ceramah klinis, surveilans bersama lintas sektor dan penguatan jejaring laboratorium untuk penegakan dini diganosa leptospirosis. Kata kunci: leptospirosis, one-health, laboratorium, deteksi dini, Indonesia
INFEKSI GANDA LEPTOSPIRA DAN HANTAVIRUS PADA RATTUS NORVEGICUS DI MAUMERE FLORES, NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR Mulyono, Arif; Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto; Putro, Dimas Bagus Wicaksono
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 13 Nomor 2 Desember 2017
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (487.93 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v13i2.268

Abstract

Infection of Leptospirosis and Hantavirus are increased which related to global warming. Rattus norvegicus is reservoirs of both of diseases infections. Dual infection of Leptospira and Hantavirus in R. norvegicus become risk factor of Leptospira and Hantavirus infection in the human. The objective of this study is to figure out the prevalence of Dual infection in R. norvegicus. This study was descriptive research with cross-sectional design. The population of study was R. norvegicus in Maumere City, Flores. The rats  (n=114) were trapped from perimeter and buffer area of Maumere Port, Flores in August to November 2014. Leptospira in R. norvegicus detected by PCR used specific primers for 16S rRNA gene and Hantavirus by nested ? PCR used specific primers for the L segment. The data was analysed using descriptive analysis. The prevalence of Leptospira in R. norvegicus was 4.3%, hantavirus was 22,8% and dual infection of Leptospira and Hantavirus was 1.8%. The transmission dual infection of leptospirosis and Hantavirus are potentially occured in Maumere.
ANALISIS SPASIAL TIKUS POSITIF LEPTOSPIRA PATOGENIK DAN JENIS HABITATNYA DI PROVINSI PAPUA BARAT Nugroho, Arief; Martiningsih, Ika; Hidayati, Nur; Muhidin, Muhidin; Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto
BALABA: JURNAL LITBANG PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERSUMBER BINATANG BANJARNEGARA Volume 15 Nomor 1 Juni 2019
Publisher : Health Research and Development Unit of Banjarnegara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1558.209 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/blb.v15i1.443

Abstract

Leptospirosis is a disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira and is still a health problem in the community. Until now, West Papua Province has not reported any cases of leptospirosis. This study aims to examine whether there is a grouping pattern of Leptospira harboring rats and identify the habitat types of positive rat Leptospira. This research was descriptive observational research using a cross-sectional approach. Research locations are in Manokwari, Fakfak, and Raja Ampat districts in West Papua Province. The catching of rats was carried out in locations of forest ecosystem settlements, near forest settlements, non-forested far from settlements, non-forests near settlements, coastal remote settlements, and beaches near settlements. Leptospira in rats was detected by examination of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The results showed  278 rats were caught. The number of Leptospira positive rats in three districts by  PCR was 34 (12.2%) and MAT were 13 (4.7%). Leptospira positive habitat types were settlements, yards, and secondary forests. The SaTScan results were obtained by six positive Leptospira rat clusters. There were no significant results which showed that no spread of  Leptospira in the clusters. The presence of Leptospira in rats should be  a warning for leptospirosis transmission risk at the study site.
LEPTOSPIROSIS CASE FINDING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF LEPTOSPIROSIS SURVEILLANCE IN SEMARANG CITY, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto; Handayani, Farida Dwi; Mulyono, Arief; Joharina, Arum Sih; Wibawa, Tri; Budiharta, Setyawan; Budiharta, Setyawan; Supargiono, Supargiono
Vektora : Jurnal Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit Vol 10 No 2 (2018): Vektora : Jurnal vektor dan reservoir penyakit
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP) Salatiga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22435/vk.v10i2.284

Abstract

Leptospirosis is primarily a disease of wild and domestic animals, and may be transmitted to humans through direct or indirect contact with infected animal urine. Leptospirosis is endemic in part of Indonesia territory. This work aimed to find the leptospirosis cases in Semarang city, one of the endemic leptospirosis in Indonesia by active and passive case finding. The leptospirosis were screened in the community base active case finding and passive case finding in primary health care center and hospitals, by using modified WHO-SEARO criteria and laboratory confirmation test. There were 191 cases detected with modified WHO-SEARO criteria, and among those cases only 31 cases confirmed by laboratory test, either by using Rapid Detection Test (RDT), Microscopic Agglutinations Test (MAT) or Polymerase chained reaction (PCR). It was found that leptospirosis was not correlated with rainfall season. Fever, headache and myalgia were the most common symptoms experienced by >90% patients. Active case finding add no more than 7% probable leptospirosis and 14% confirmed cases to the traditional passive case finding.  It was conclude that leptospirosis case finding is still challenging in the endemic area, such as Semarang city. The application of modified WHO-SEARO criteria as diagnostic tool may be needed to be further evaluated.   Keywords: Leptospirosis, Surveillance,  Case finding,  Endemic, Detection 
CATATAN BARU KELELAWAR PEMAKAN NEKTAR (MACROGLOSSUS SOBRINUS) SEBAGAI RESERVOIR LEPTOSPIROSIS DARI INDONESIA Mulyono, Arief; Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto; Pujiyanti, Aryani; Joharina, Arum Sih; W.P, Dimas Bagus
Vektora : Jurnal Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit Vol 10 No 2 (2018): Vektora : Jurnal vektor dan reservoir penyakit
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP) Salatiga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22435/vk.v10i2.581

Abstract

Epidemiologically bats are important sources of leptospirosis transmission because of their size, abundance, distribution, and their connectivity with domestic animals. The research objective was to detect and identify pathogenic Leptospira species from bats in Wonogiri Regency, Central Java and in Muaro Jambi Regency, Jambi. This research is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted from February to March 2017. Detection of Leptospira in bats by PCR technique using specific primers for the 16S rRNA gene. Identification of Leptospira species by comparing the sequence of research results with sequences from GenBank using the BLAST program. Results showed 68 caught bats consisting of 7 genera and 11 species. Bats that detected positive Leptospira were 8 bats consisting from 3 species (Macroglossus sobrinus, Cynopterus brachyotis and Eonycteris spelaela). Detection of pathogenic Leptospira in M. sobrinus is a new record in the world esspecially in Indonesia . Identification of Leptospira sequences from bats showed that one sequence had 98% homology with L. borgpetersenii and another sequence had 97% homology with L.kircheneri.
FAKTOR RISIKO PERILAKU MASYARAKAT PADA KEJADIAN LUAR BIASA LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KABUPATEN KEBUMEN TAHUN 2017 Pratamawati, Diana Andriyani; Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto; Handayani, Farida Dwi; Kinansi, Revi Rosavika
Vektora : Jurnal Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit Vol 10 No 2 (2018): Vektora : Jurnal vektor dan reservoir penyakit
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP) Salatiga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22435/vk.v10i2.1069

Abstract

Local health agency in Kebumen Regency reported that an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred in the beginning 2017. Based on the data obtained from the agency showed that a total of 60 leptospirosis cases has been successfully investigated in Kebumen Regency for January ? April 2017. Among those cases, 40 patients were reported positive RDT and 6 patients were died (CFR value =10,00). The aim of this study was to determine a relationship between behavioral factors of people in Kebumen Regency with occurrence of leptospirosis and the risk factor scale of the disease. The descriptive analytic study with case control design was applied. Samples were collected using the purposive sampling method and the number of sample observed in the present study was 42 people. All data were analysed using Chi Square and Odds Ratio (OR) calculation. The results revealed that three variables of people behaviour in Kebumen Regency had positive association to occurrence of leptospirosis. They were no foot protection (barefoot) when doing activity in the yard (OR=0,25) and paddy fields (OR=0,16). Another variable was open wound without any treatment or cover (OR=0,12). It is highly recommended that staffs from local health agency should educate people for wearing sandal or other foot protections properly, particularly for those who work in the yard and paddy field. The open wound must be covered and treated in order to prevent leptospira infection.
DETEKSI VIRUS HEPATITIS E (HEV) DAN HANTAVIRUS PADA INANG RESERVOIR (TIKUS) DI KABUPATEN KLATEN DAN KENDAL, PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH Mulyono, Arief; Sari, Tika Fiona; Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto; Yuliadi, Bernadus; Royandi, Edi; Pratiwi, Ayu Pradipta
Vektora : Jurnal Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit Vol 11 No 2 (2019): Vektora : Jurnal Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP) Salatiga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22435/vk.v11i2.2104

Abstract

Rats are animal reservoirs and harbours of several zoonotic pathogens diseases in humans. At least, there are 68 viruses of zoonotic agents that can be transmitted by rats. Two common types of viruses attackinghumans are Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Hantavirus. Early detection of those viruses is fundamentally required in order to prevent disease transmissions to humans. The aim of the study was to detect and count the percentage of rats infected by HEV and Hantavirus in Kendal and Klaten Districts, Central Java Province. The research design used in this study was descriptive design with cross-sectional approach. The target population was rats distributed in Klaten and Kendal Districts. In addition, the research subject was trapped rats. Detection of Hantavirus was carried out using ELISA method and detection of HEV was conducted using nested reverse transcription PCR (nested RT-PCR). A total of 73 rats was successfully captured consisting of 2 genus and 4 species e.g. Rattus novergicus, R. tanezumi, R. tiomanicus and Bandicota indica. The trapped rats infected by HEV were 3.7% and 41.3% for Klaten and Kendal, respectively. However, the seropositive of Hantavirus was only found in Kendal District (20.5%). Rat control is necessary to prevent transmission of HEV and Hantavirus.