Ade Rosmana
Cocoa Research Group, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University

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CONTROL OF COCOA POD BORER AND PHYTOPHTHORA POD ROT USING DEGRADABLE PLASTIC POD SLEEVES AND A NEMATODE, Steinernema carpocapsae Rosmana, Ade; Shepard, Merle; Hebbar, Prakash; Mustari, Anita
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 11, No 2 (2010): October 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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Abstract

Cocoa pod borer (CPB; Conopomorpha cramerella) and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR; Phytophthora palmivora) are serious pest and disease on cocoa plantations in Indonesia. Both pest and disease have been controlled with limited success using cultural practices such as pruning, frequent harvesting, sanitation, plastic sleeving, and chemical pesticides. An experiment was conducted on cocoa plantings in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi during the wet season of 2008/09 to test the effect of pod sleeving (with transparent degradable and non-degradable plastic bags) and nematode application on CPB and PPR infestation. The nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (10,000 active juveniles per pod) was sprayed three times at intervals of 10 and 20 days. Pod damage by CPB was observed at harvest time, while PPR disease incidence was evaluated every week until harvest time. Results showed that all pods in the field were infested by CPB as indicated in control samples. Pod sleeving using both non-degradable and degradable plastics significantly reduced pod damage by CPB, from 62.3% in the control treatment compared to 8.4% in the CPB treatment. A combination of pod sleeving and nematode application had a synergistic reduction of pod damage by CPB resulting in totally healthy pods. Pod sleeving with degradable and non-degradable plastics also reduced pod damage by PPR significantly. Pod sleeving with non-degradable plastic suppressed the disease incidence almost zero until 6 weeks after sleeving and the rate of disease incidence was 3.6% per week. However, with degradable plastic, the disease suppression was even longer (7 weeks after sleeving), indicating that the degradable plastic is more effective. Combination of sleeving and nematode application slightly increased PPR infection. Sleeved pods in general had lower rates of PPR infection compared to pods treated with nematode or untreated pods (control). In these two applications, the rate of disease incidence was 7.8% and 8.3% per week respectively. The study implies that biological control using entomopathogenic S. carpocapsae and degradable plastic sleeves are effective and environmentally-friendly to control C. cramerella and P. palmivora on cocoa.
Identification of a Disease on Cocoa Caused by Fusariumin Sulawesi Rosmana, Ade; Hikmawati, Hikmawati; Asman, Asman
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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A disease presumed to be caused by Fusarium was observed in cocoa open fields with few or without shade trees. Within the population of cocoa trees in the field, some trees had died, some had yellowing leaves and dieback, and the others were apparently healthy. In order to demonstrate Fusarium species as the causal pathogen and to obtain information concerning the incidence of the disease, its distribution and its impact on sustainability of cocoa, isolation of the pathogen, inoculation of cocoa seedlings with isolates and a survey of disease has been conducted. Fusarium was isolated from roots and branches, and inoculated onto cocoa seedlings (one month old) via soil. Symptoms appeared within 3-4 weeks after infection. These symptoms consisted of yellowing of leaves beginning from the bottom until the leaves falldown, and browning internal of vascular tissue. Darkened vascular traces in the petiole characteristic of vascularstreak dieback infection were absent. The occurrence of Fusarium in the field was characterized by the absence of obvious signs of fungal infestation on root of infected trees, yellowing of leaves on twigs, dieback, and tree mortality in severe infestations. Disease incidence could reach 77% and in this situation it was difficult for trees recover from heavy infections or to be regenerated in the farm. The study proves that Fusarium is a pathogen causing dieback and the disease is called as Fusarium vascular dieback (FVD). Its development is apparently enhanced by dry conditions in the field. Key words: Fusarium sp., vascular disease, dieback, FVD, Theobroma cacao L.
Eksplorasi Fusarium Spp yang Berasosiasi Dengan Aquillaria Spp di Kabupaten Nunukan Kalimantan Utara N, Nurbaya; Kuswinanti, Tutik; B, Baharuddin; Rosmana, Ade; Millang, Syamsuddin
Prosiding Seminar Biologi 2015: Seminar Nasional Mikrobiologi Kesehatan dan Lingkungan
Publisher : Prosiding Seminar Biologi

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Fusarium spp adalah salah satu isolat cendawan yang berasosiasi dengan tanaman Aquillaria spp untuk menghasilkan gaharu sebagai hasil hutan bukan kayu. Penelitian ini mengambil sampel dari batang Aquillaria spp yang menunjukkan gejala pembentukan gaharu yang tumbuh secara alami pada ketinggian yang berbeda, mulai dari ketinggian 0-2000 mdpl, yang ada pada empat Kecamatan yaitu: Kecamatan Nunukan Selatan (0-100 mdpl), Lumbis (100-500 mdpl), Krayan Induk (1000-1500 mdpl), Krayan Selatan (1000-2000 mdpl) di Kabupaten Nunukan Kalimantan Utara. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai isolat-isolat Fusarium pembentuk gaharu dari batang Aquillaria spp. Isolat Fusarium diperoleh dengan mengamati pertumbuhan morfologi cendawan pada media PDA. Hasil yang diperoleh diidentifikasi secara molekuler menggunakan jenis primer LSU. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada batang Aquillaria spp yang tumbuh pada ketinggian 0-100 mdpl terinfeksi oleh F. solani, ketinggian 100-500 mdpl terinfeksi oleh Fusarium sp, F. fujikuroi dan F. oxysporum, ketinggian 1000-1500 mdpl terinfeksi oleh F. solani, sedangkan Aquillaria spp yang tumbuh pada ketinggian 1000-2000 mdpl terinfeksi oleh F. solani, F. oxysporum dan F. ambrosiumKata Kunci: Aquillaria spp, cendawan, eksplorasi, Fusarium.
PENGENALAN TANAMAN LOKAL SEBAGAI SUMBER BIOPESTISIDA DI DESA BENTENG ALLA KABUPATEN ENREKANG Sjam, Sylvia; Surapati, Untung; Rosmana, Ade; Vien, Satika Dewi; Melina, .
Jurnal Dinamika Pengabdian (JDP) Vol 3, No 1 (2017): JURNAL DINAMIKA PENGABDIAN VOL. 3 NO. 1 OKTOBER 2017
Publisher : Departemen Budidaya Pertanian Fakultas Pertanian UNHAS

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Sayuran merupakan tanaman yang mempunyai peranan yang sangat penting dalam pemenuhan gizi masyarakat dan mempunyai nilai ekonomis.  Desa Benteng Alla adalah salah satu desa yang berada di Kecamatan Baroko Kabupaten Enrekang yang merupakan salah satu penghasil sayuran terbesar di Sulawesi Selatan dan membudidayakan sayuran dengan teknologi konvensional dengan dengan penggunaan pestisida sintetik yang tinggi antara 1 sampai 2 kali per minggu. Dari hasil wawancara sebelumnya diketahui petani belum memahami dan mengetahui alternatif pengganti pestisida sintetik padahal di desa tersebut terdapat beberapa sumber biopestisida nabati. Masalahnya petani tidak mengenal tanaman sebagai sumber biopestisida nabati dan tidak mengetahui bagaimana cara membuat dan mengaplikasikannya. Berdasarkan hal tersebut diperlukan pengenalan bahan alami tanaman lokal disekitar pertanaman petani sebagai sumber biopestisida untuk dapat dimanfaatkan dalam upaya pengendalian hama dan penyakit pada tanaman sayuran. Tujuan pelatihan ini adalah untuk meningkatkan pengenalan, pemahaman, dan pengetahuan tentang tanaman lokal sebagai biopestisida yang dapat dimanfaatkan dalam budidaya sayuran petani untuk mengurangi penggunaan pestisida sintetik. Ada lima jenis tanaman lokal yang didapatkan antara lain: Toona sureni, Ageratum conyzoides, Chromalaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia, dan Tagetes erecta.Kata kunci: Tanaman lokal, biopestisida nabati, sayuran organik.
Karakterisasi Bakteri Endofit Kitinolitik sebagai Agens Biokontrol Patogen Ganoderma boninense pada Kelapa Sawit [Characterization of Chitinolytic Endophyte Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Ganoderma boninense Pathogen on Oil Palm] Rahma, Rahma; Kuswinanti, Tutik; Rosmana, Ade
Buletin Palma Vol 20, No 1 (2019): Juni 2019
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/bp.v20n1.2019.35-43

Abstract

Basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is one crucial disease in oil palm. The used of chitinolytic bacteria is one part of biological control to suppress G. boninense. This study aimed to isolate and characterize chitinolytic bacteria associated with roots of oil palm which have the potential as agents biocontrol against the pathogens of G. boninense, the caused of basal stem rot disease of oil palm. The study was conducted in North Luwu, East Luwu, and Makassar Districts from January to September 2017. The research was done in  four stages that consist of isolation of endophytic bacterial, testing chitinolytic activity, testing antagonistic and biochemical identification. The results showed that from 14 bacterial isolates obtained, two of them had chitinolytic activity with index of 2,35 and 3,37 respectively. Both of these bacteria can inhibit G. boninense on solid medium by 24,9% and 69,4% respectively and on the liquid medium by 47,5% and 68,5% respectively five days after inoculation. Based on biochemical characterization, these bacteria have similarities with Bacillus sp, and Serratia sp. To be concluded, Serratiasp. is a potential medium to be for controling basal stem rot disease on oil palm.ABSTRAKBusuk pangkal batang yang disebabkan oleh cendawan Ganoderma boninense merupakan salah satu penyakit penting pada kelapa sawit. Pemanfaatan bakteri kitinolitik merupakan salah satu bagian pengendalian hayati untuk mengontrol G. boninense. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengkarakterisasi bakteri kitinolitik yang berasosiasi dengan akar tanaman kelapa sawit yang berpotensi sebagai agens biokontrol terhadap G. boninense, penyebab penyakit busuk pangkal batang kelapa sawit. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Luwu Utara, Luwu Timur, dan Makassar sejak bulan Januari sampai September 2017. Penelitian ini terdiri atas empat tahap, yaitu isolasi bakteri endofit, uji aktivitas kitinolitik, uji antagonis dan identifikasi secara biokimia. Hasil penelitian diperoleh 14 isolat bakteri dimana dua bakteri diantaranya memiliki aktivitas kitinolitik dengan indeks masing masing 2,35 dan 3,37. Kedua bakteri tersebut dapat menghambat G. boninense pada medium padat masing masing 24,9% dan 69,4% serta pada medium cair masing masing 47,5% dan 68,5% lima hari setelah inokulasi. Berdasarkan karakterisasi secara biokimia, bakteri tersebut memiliki kemiripan dengan Bacillus sp, dan Serratia sp. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Serratia sp. berpotensi dalam mengendalikan penyakit busuk pangkal batang pada kelapa sawit.  
PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BUSUK BUAH PHYTOPHTHORA PADA KAKAO DENGAN CENDAWAN ENDOFIT TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM Hakkar, Andi Akbar; Rosmana, Ade; Rahim, Muhammad Danial
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 10 No 5 (2014)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (299.181 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.10.5.139

Abstract

The Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of important diseases affecting the decrease of cacao productivity. The use of endophytic Trichoderma have a big potential for controlling this disease. The rate of PPR incidence in twelve weeks after three times application by spraying of ART-4/G.J.S 09-1559 isolate of Trichoderma asperellum with concentration of 1 g L-1, 2 g L-1, 4 g L-1 was 5.4%, 5.3%, and 3.7%, respectively per week; while the rate of PPR incidence on control was 8.4% per week. Apparently healthy pods pretreated with above concentrations of T. asperellum in field showed 30, 0, and 0% infested by PPR on its surface, respectively after one week incubation in laboratory, compared to a 90% of surface infestation by PPR on control. After 12 week of inoculation, T. asperellum was recovered from pod tissue. This data demonstrated the potential of T. asperellum as bio control agent of PPR disease on cacao.  
PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT HAWAR DAUN PHYTOPHTHORA PADA BIBIT KAKAO DENGAN TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM Azis, Asti Irawanti; Rosmana, Ade; Dewi, Vien Sartika
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 9 No 1 (2013)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (584.793 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.9.1.15

Abstract

Phytophthora leaf blight caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one constraint in cacao seedling in Indonesia. Generally, synthetic fungicides were applied to control this disease but its negative impact is becoming obvious recently. Research was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two Trichoderma asperellum isolates, ARBT-1 and ART-4, to suppress disease development. The two isolates were applied through seed treatment with spore concentrations of 104 mL-1, 105 mL-1, and 106 mL-1. The results showed that disease incidence on seedling treated with different spore concentrations of ARBT-1 was 39.0%, 23.6%, and 21.8%, respectively and those with ART-4 was 30.6%, 25.7%, and 30.8%, respectively, whereas disease incidence reached 90.3% for control at 21 days after inoculation of the pathogen. Observations on cocoa leaf tissues showed that the two isolates were found in leaf tissue, indicating that T. asperellum is an endophyte.Key words: antagonistic fungi, seedling, seed treatment