Articles

Box Behken design for optimization of COD removal from Palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane Said, Muhammad; Abbad, Muneer ba; Sheik Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab
Indonesian Journal of Environmental Management and Sustainability Vol 3 No 1 (2019): March
Publisher : ARTS Publishing

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (685.771 KB) | DOI: 10.26554/ijems.2019.3.4.39-46

Abstract

The optimization of COD removal from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using the Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane was investigated. Experimental conditions for reduce the COD value of POME were achieved successfully using the Box Behken design. The values of affecting factors (POME concentration, pH and Transmembrane pressure were optimized according to the polynomial regression model. The predicted conditions to produce lower COD values were found to be POME concentration (vol. %) =28.30, pH =10.75 and Transmembrane pressure= 0.69 kPa. The predicted of COD value was 24.137 mg/l which in good agreed with experiment value as 25.763 mg/l was obtained.      
KINETICS APPROACH OF BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING INDIGENOUS ISOLATED BACTERIA Yudono, Bambang; Said, Muhammad; Sabaruddin, .; Napoleon, Adipati; Fanani, Zainal
Journal of Tropical Soils Vol 16, No 1: January 2011
Publisher : UNIVERSITY OF LAMPUNG

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5400/jts.2011.v16i1.33-38

Abstract

The bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil was investigated using a microscale Landfarming. The Indigenousbacteria, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Bacillus megaterium, and Xanthobacter autotrophicus were isolated from the contaminated sites Sungai Lilin Jambi Pertamina Ltd and used further in the bioremediation experiments. The biodegradation rates of petroleum contaminated soil in the presence of the isolated bacteria were studied by using the chemical kinetics approach. The reaction orders were studied by using the differential method and the reaction rate constants were studied by using the integral method. The results showed that the reaction orders were 1.0949, 1.3985, 0.8823, and the reaction rate constants were 0.0189, 0.0204, 0.0324 day-1, respectively. Considering the values of reaction orders and reaction rate constants, the biodegradation rate of contaminated soil by usingeach bacteria had significantly different value; Xanthobacter Autotrophicus bacteria could degrade the petroleumoil sludge fastest than the others.Keywords: Biodegradation, indigenous bacteria, kinetics, petroleum oil
Bentonite intercalated organometallic complex as adsorbent of procion red Vitanesa, Lora; Purba, Radja Nardo; Lesbani, Aldes; Said, Muhammad
Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 2 No 1 (2017): January
Publisher : ARTS Publishing

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (454.92 KB) | DOI: 10.26554/sti.2017.2.1.9-16

Abstract

Insertion of bentonite with organometallic compounds [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3 (NO3)]as adsorbent of procion red with comparison weight ratio of bentonite: organometallic compounds [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3 (NO3)] i.e.: (2.5:1), (1:1), (1:2) and (1:3) has been done. The results of insertion bentonite were characterized using FT-IR spectrophotometer, XRD, and XRF. Furthermore, the product of optimum insertion was used as an adsorbent of procion red. The spectrogram from FT-IR shows the process of insertion was not optimum for every weight ratio. Characterization using XRD showed the optimum insertion process ratio (1:2) and (1:3) was indicated the presence of diffraction appearing at 2θ region by a shift in the diffraction angles 5.00 and 39o  from the original activated bentonite of 20.8o. Characterization using XRF analysis in the ratio (1:3) shows percentage of metal oxide Cr2O3 increase to 82.28%, so at the ratio of 1:3, the process insertion of organometallic compounds into the bentonite has stated success base on its highest percentage. The adsorption process of insertion bentonite organometallic compounds [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3 (NO3)] ratio (1: 3) shows the magnitude of the rate of adsorption (k) at 0.004 min-1, the adsorption capacity (b), the largest at a temperature of 70oC at 72.99 mol/g, the largest adsorption energy (ΔG) at a temperature of 60oC i.e. 17.05 kJ / mol, the largest enthalpy (ΔH) is 105720.8 kJ/mol, entropy (ΔS) 315 kJ/mol and pH 11 has the biggest value of procion red adsorped, i.e. 33.38 mg/L. Keywords: Bentonite, Organometallic compound [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3(NO3)].Adsorption, Procion Red
Polystyrene Plastic Waste Conversion into Liquid Fuel with Catalytic Cracking Process Using Al2O3 as Catalyst Kholidah, Nurul; Faizal, Muhammad; Said, Muhammad
Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 1 (2018): January
Publisher : ARTS Publishing

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (406.334 KB) | DOI: 10.26554/sti.2018.3.1.1-6

Abstract

The increase in energy consumption and an increase in the plastic waste generation are two major problems that arise along with economic growth and the increase in population. Styrofoam is one type of polystyrene plastic waste that can be processed into liquid fuels by cracking process. In this study, the cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste into liquid fuel carried by the catalytic cracking process using Al2O3 as a catalyst. This study aimed to determine the effect of the catalyst weight, length of cracking time and range of temperature in the catalytic cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste into liquid fuel toward the mass and characteristics of liquid fuels produced and to determine the composition of liquid fuels produced. The catalytic cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste with catalyst was done in the fixed bed type reactor by heating the reactor with a heater, where the process took place at temperature of 150°C, 200°C, 250°C and 300°C and the length of the process was varied into 20, 40, and 60 minutes and the catalyst weight was also varied, which were 4%, 6% and 8%, while the styrofoam weight was 250 grams. From the research, the highest mass of liquid fuel derived from polystyrene catalytic cracking process was in the amount of 48.8 grams and liquid yield percentage of 19.5% at temperature of  250°C, cracking time of 60 minutes and weight of 8% catalyst, while the characteristics of liquid fuel that were approaching the characteristics of gasoline was at temperatures of 250°C, cracking time of 60 minutes and weight of 6% catalyst, in which each value of density of 0.763 g/ml, specific gravity of 0.778 and oAPI gravity of 50.2. While other liquid fuels obtained from the cracking of polystyrene were still within the tolerance range characteristic properties of gasoline. Liquid fuels produced from the catalytic cracking process was analyzed using a GC-MS, in which the analysis results indicated that liquid fuels were included in the gasoline fraction.
WAKTU TUNDA VERSUS LOSS PADA MIRA DAN LMIR DALAM MENGHADAPI KONGESTI PADA JARINGAN MPLS Said, Muhammad
Elektronika Telekomunikasi & Computer Vol 4, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Elektronika Telekomunikasi & Computer

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Abstract

Adanya peningkatan kebutuhan kapasitas internet mendorong setiap provider berusaha untuk memaksimalkan resource jaringan yang telah tersedia. Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) memberikan unjuk kerja yang baik dalam hal pengiriman paket, karena MPLS memiliki mekanisme label switching yang mempercepat waktu forwarding paket menuju ke hop selanjutnya. Pemilihan routing yang tepat dapat mempengaruhi peningkatan kinerja MPLS. Minimum Interference Routing Algorithm (MIRA) dan Light Minimum Interference Routing (LMIR) adalah algoritma routing yang digunakan untuk menyeimbangkan penggunaan resource pada jaringan MPLS dengan cara mencari jalur alternatif dengan interferensi seminimal mungkin. Interferensi yang dimaksud disini adalah berkurangnya kapasitas maksimum dari suatu link akibat adanya Label Switched Path (LSP) yang menggunakan link tersebut. Algoritma MIRA bekerja dengan mencari nilai maximum flow, sedangkan LMIR bekerja dengan mencari lowest capacities.Penelitian ini mensimulasikan unjuk kerja MIRA dan LMIR dalam menghadapi kongesti pada jaringan MPLS. Adapun parameter yang diuji adalah waktu tunda dan loss serta hubungan antara loss dan waktu tunda untuk ukuran paket 128 hingga 262144 byte.Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa algoritma LMIR mempunyai loss yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan algoritma MIRA. Meskipun demikian, waktu tunda algoritma MIRA lebih kecil daripada algoritma LMIR.Kata Kunci : Minimum Interference, Maximum Flow, Lowest Capacities
Peningkatan Kualitas Batubara Terhadap Sub-Bituminus Dengan Metode Froth Flotation Said, Muhammad; Fanani, Zainal
Jurnal Penelitian Sains Vol 11, No 3 (2008)
Publisher : Faculty of Mathtmatics and Natural Sciences

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Abstract

Penelitian tentang kualitas batubara sub-bituminus dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode flotasi. Peningkatan kalor pembakaran batubara diperoleh dengan mengoptimalkan kadar karbon tertambat melalui penurunan kandungan air lembab, kadar abu dan zat terbang tereduksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kondisi optimum peningkatan kalor pembakaran batubara dengan variasi ukuran partikel dan variasi volume frother. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ukuran partikel optimum 40 mesh dan volume trother optimum 5 mL. Kondisi optimum tersebut meningkatkan kadar karbon tertambat dimana persentase kenaikan 38,31%, dengan persentase penurunan kadar air lembab sebesar 93,18%, kadar abu dari sebesar 84,17% dan zat terbang sebesar 8,74%, sehingga kalor pembakaran batubara meningkat dari 26,19 kJ/g menjadi 29,13 kJ/g.
RETHRETHINKING ISLAMIC THEOLOGY Mengagas Teologi Sosial dalam konteks Pluralisme dan Multikulturalisme (Perspektif Pemikiran Teologi Fethullah Gulen) Said, Muhammad
ESENSIA: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin Vol 16, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : ESENSIA: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin

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Abstract

This article elaborate about the neccesity of renewal Islamic theology in the context of pluralism and multiculturalism. One of contemporary Muslim schoolars, Fethullah Gulen, could be considered among the most influential Muslim theologians in the context of modern world. His works focus on redef ining the nature of Islamic discourse in the contemporary world by doing interreligious and intercultural dialogue. Today, we need to shift our paradigm from classical kalam which dogmatic, abstract, and exclusive, to be more practical theology, based on contemporary needs of human life, by presenting as what is called “social theology”. It’s important to note that Gulen’s theological discourse distinguished for his support of democracy, humanisme, openness to globalization, progressiveness in integrating tradition with modernity, and to make sense of pluralistic-piety.
DAKWAH SEBAGAI UJUNG TOMBAK PENANGANAN RADIKALISME AGAMA DI INDONESIA Said, Muhammad
Tasamuh: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 10, No 1 (2018): Dakwah Dan Tantangannya
Publisher : P3M STAIN Sorong

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.32489/tasamuh.227

Abstract

Radicalism in Islam gives depict about the existing of group that exclusive and militant. The attitude without compromise, not respect other people who different faith and crude are “the truth” that they chose. They do not care the destructive reason of their action. Moreover, they do the crude by the naming of religion whereas they are not well confessor of religion. Look at this problem, the writer feels to obligate to reflect back, why Islam is the religion “rahmatan lil ‘alamin”, the religion that loved the peace is becoming the object of all the disturbance action in radical sight. There are two factors of arisen Radical Islam in Indonesia. The first internal factor occurs because the existing of diversion the religion norms. Secondly, external factor for the Muslim whether is occurred by controller or hegemony from western does not support toward applying of Islamic law in the life. The obligation of the rule and public organization of preaching in Indonesia for together handles the radicalism problem of religion so that the goal of preaching to share the conciliation messages, Islam as the welfare religion and the mercy can realize for all the people.
HUBUNGAN GAYA KEPEMIMPINAN DEKAN DENGAN SEMANGAT KERJA DOSEN DAN KARYAWAN FAKULTAS EKONOMI UNIVERSITAS TRIDINANTI PALEMBANG Said, Muhammad
JURNAL KOMPETITIF Vol 2, No 1: Edisi Januari-Juni 2013
Publisher : JURNAL KOMPETITIF

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Abstract

This study aims to determine to find out how much the relationship between Dean leadership style with employee morale and lecturer at the Faculty Economics, University of Tridinanti Palembang. In this study used probability sampling with a sample of 25 people.. From the results of statistical analysis known to a significant degree of leadership style variables (X) of 0.003 (p â�¤ 0.05), indicating that leadership styles have a significant effect on morale. Correlation coefficient between the variables of Leadership Styles (X) with a variable work�  spirit�  (Y) of 0.570 or 57%, this suggests there is quite a strong correlation between two variables. Thus the organization's goals will be reached in case of cooperation between leaders and subordinates, because the success or failure of a leader will be influenced by his subordinates, and leader ability to build the morale of subordinates is required. Key word: Leadership Style and Employee Morale
ANALISI PERUBAHAN POLA KONSUMSI RUMAH TANGGA : DAMPAK PERUBAHAN HARGA BBM (STUDI KASUS KECAMATAN KEMUNING PALEMBANG) Said, Muhammad
JURNAL KOMPETITIF Vol 4, No 2: Edisi Juli-Desember 2015
Publisher : JURNAL KOMPETITIF

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Abstract

ABSTRACT This study aims to determine how the effect of the reduction in fuel subsidies or subsidized fuel price increase the consumption pattern of low-income households, medium and high in the city of Palembang. Rising fuel prices, led to declining real incomes of households that ultimately every household will adjust their consumption patterns on the type of food and non-food. Changes in consumption patterns of food to non-food indicates a decrease levels of household welfare. The method used to obtain primary data is done by simple random sampling method is sampling with every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected into the sample of primary data in the form of questionnaires were collected by in-depth interviews (depth interview) in the group of households that group of low-income households to obtain more specific information in order to answer the research problem. While secondary data mainly comes from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in order to complete the Primary or comparison of data obtained. Processing the data using SPSS version 17 by first testing the validity and reliability of the data used before and after the increase in fuel prices. The results showed that the low-income community was hit hard by rising fuel prices. The result is a substitution effect where there is a change in the pattern of consumption of non-food consumption into food consumption as a result of rising the fuel price� Key Word: consumption patterns, consumption of food, consumption of non- food