Articles

STABILITAS HASIL DAN GANGGUAN PENYAKIT PADA ENAM GENOTIPE TOMAT DI BAWAH NAUNGAN Ulinnuha, Zulfa; Chozin, Muhamad Achmad; Santosa, Edi
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol. 10 No. 1 (2019): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society for Horticulture / Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (562.301 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jhi.10.1.10-19

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Tomato becomes important as under-storey crop in agroforestry in Indonesia. However, farmers claim that there is yield reduction under such system. Hence, six tomato genotypes were planted under 50% reduced sunshine and full sunshine as control using randomized block nested design with genotype as main plot. The study was carried out in December 2016 to March 2017 at Cikarawang Experimental Farm, IPB Bogor. Research aimed to evaluate the production stability of tomato genotypes under shading treatment. Results showed that 50% shading affected tomato production and disease incident. Number of collected-fruit was 15-60% higher under 50% shading except for Apel Belgia and Tora genotypes that tended to decrease. Incident of gemini virus decreased by 80% and its severity decreased by 70% under 50% shading. However, 50% shading reduced tomato yield at rate 24.1% in each harvesting cycle due to a tendency on reduction on individual fruit size, irrespective genotypes. Present study demonstrated that genotype and disease incident determined tomato yield under shading. It needs further evaluation on the cause of low disease infection under 50% shading. Keywords: agroforestry, anthocyanin, disease incident, gemini virus, Solanum lycopersicum
CANOPY ACHITECTURE, BIOMASS AND FRUIT PRODUCTION OF SOLANUM NIGRUM L. AS DETERMINED BY NITROGEN APPLICATION Santosa, Edi; Putriantari, Marcella; Nakano, Hajime; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol. 8 No. 3 (2017): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society for Horticulture / Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (378.118 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jhi.8.3.162-170

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ABSTRACT Demand on fruits of Leunca (Solanum nigrum L.) is increasing in Indonesia due to a rapid expansion of ethnic restaurants, especially Sundanese restaurants. Most fruits come from semi-intensive cultivation in intercropping system, leading to low productivity. In order to improve productivity, nitrogen experiment was carried out at field of Leuwikopo Farm of Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor-Indonesia, during rainy season from December 2013 to April 2014. Four levels of nitrogen, i.e., 0, 60, 120, and 180 kg N ha-1, were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The results revealed that canopy architecture, dry matter and fruit production, and fruit quality were highly affected by nitrogen application. Increasing nitrogen levels increased biomass and fruit production. Plants treated with nitrogen at level of 60 kg ha-1 produced ideal height for local labor and stable weekly fruit production than other levels. Hence, N fertilizer is essential for achieving high productivity of S. nigrum.Keywords: canopy shape, fruit load, indigenous vegetable, leunca, ranti kebo ABSTRAK Permintaan buah Leunca (Solanum nigrum L.) terus meningkat di Indonesia sejalan dengan perkembangan restoran etnis khususnya restoran Sunda. Sebagian besar buah leunca berasal dari tanaman sampingan secara tumpangsari, sehingga produktivitas rendah. Dalam rangka meningkatkan produktivitas, percobaan pemberian nitrogen dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Leuwikopo IPB, Bogor pada musim hujan Desember 2013 sampai April 2014. Nitrogen diberikan empat taraf yaitu 0, 60, 120, dan 180 kg N ha-1, yang disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok dengan empat ulangan. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa bentuk kanopi, produksi bahan kering dan produksi buah serta kualitas buah dipengaruhi oleh pemberian nitrogen. Peningkatan dosis nitrogen meningkatkan bahan kering dan produksi buah. Tanaman dengan perlakuan 60 kg N ha-1 menghasilkan tinggi yang ideal bagi pemanen, dan hasil mingguan yang stabil dibandingkan dengan taraf yang lebih besar. Oleh karena itu, pemupukan nitrogen penting dilakukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas leunca.Kata kunci: beban buah, bentuk kanopi, leunca, ranti kebo, sayuran tradisional
FLOWER DEVELOPMENT AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR SEED PRODUCTION ON AMORPHOPHALLUS MUELLERI BLUME (ARACEAE) Santosa, Edi; Lontoh, Adolf Pieter; Kurniawati, Ani; Sari, Maryarti; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol. 7 No. 2 (2016): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society for Horticulture / Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (524.06 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jhi.7.2.65-74

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ABSTRACTThere are many studies on agronomic and economic advantages of iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume), leading to high demand on seed to support the rapid production expansion in many Asian countries. By contrast, there are few studies on flowering phenology and flower morphology although they affect the seed production. Therefore, we evaluated flowering phenology and flower morphology of 80 plants of A. muelleri grown in a field under 65% artificial shading net at Leuwikopo Experimental Farm IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia from May 2015 to July 2016 in order to improve seed production. A. muelleri produced solitary spadix, with female flowers at the lower part and male flowers at the upper part. Spadix grew slowly for 56-71 days after bud break, and then grew rapidly thereafter for 30-35 days until anthesis. Seed was harvested 9.6 to 10.2 months after anthesis. We devided the development of spadix into seven phases, bud break as stage I and berry maturity as stage VII. Stage VI to VII determined seed production. Seed production was also affected by roots formation and spadix size. There were strong positive correlations between lengths of the female zones with berry production. Some morphological characteristics of spadix were dependent on corm size, thus, it was likely that agronomic improvement to enhance female flower and corm sizes wasimportant in seed production.Keywords: developmental stage, female flower, iles-iles, male flower, seed production ABSTRAKTelah banyak kajian keunggulan agronomi dan ekonomi iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume), sehingga mendorong peningkatan permintaan benih untuk mendukung perluasan areal produksi di banyak negara Asia. Namun demikian, kajian fenologi dan morfologi bunga khususnya terkait produksi benih masih terbatas. Oleh karena itu, kami mengkaji perkembangan dan morfologi 80 bunga iles-iles yang ditanam di bawah paranet 65% di Kebun Percobaan Leuwikopo IPB, Bogor, Indonesia dari Mei 2015 sampai Juli 2016 dalam rangka perbaikan produksi benih. Iles-iles menghasilkan sebuah tongkol bunga dengan bunga betina pada bagian bawah dan bunga jantan pada bagian atas. Tongkol bunga tumbuh lambat 58-71 hari setelah pecah tunas, diikuti tumbuh cepat 30-35 hari hingga antesis, dan biji dipanen 9.6 sampai 10.2 bulan setelahnya. Perkembangan bunga dari pecah tunas hingga buah matang dapat dibagi menjadi tujuh tahap. Tahap VI ke tahap VII menentukan keberhasilan produksi biji iles-iles. Selain itu, keberhasilan produksi biji juga dipengaruhi oleh keberadaan akar dan ukuran tongkol khususnya panjang bagian bunga betina. Beberapa karakter morfologi bunga iles-iles dipengaruhi oleh ukuran umbi saat tanam. Oleh karena itu, perlu perbaikan agronomis untuk meningkatkan ukuran umbi dan ukuran bunga betina guna mendukung produksi benih.Kata kunci: bunga betina, bunga jantan, iles-iles, produksi benih, tahap pertumbuhan
KERAGAAN VARIETAS DAN GALUR PADI TIPE BARU INDONESIA DALAM SISTEM RATUN Susilawati, ,; Purwoko, Bambang Sapta; Aswidinnoor, Hajrial; Santosa, Edi
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol. 38 No. 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy (PERAGI) and Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (172.137 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v38i3.14245

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Eighteen Indonesian new plant type (NPT) of rice varieties and lines were evaluated in a ratoon system. The results showed that ratooning ability was related to the vegetative growth prior to harvest, which gave high ability ratoon growth. New plant type varieties and several lines of rice had better vegetative growth and produced higher ratoon than other genotypes. Ratoons started to develop 2-7 days after harvest, with an average number of leaf 2-4 per tiller. Number of productive tillers of ratoon ranged from 6.0 to 30.0 per hill, with number of grain per panicle ranged from 38.0 to 228.2, and grain weight per hill of ratoon 10.4 to 31.2 g, dependent on genotypes. Maturity of ratoon was also dependent on genotypes. On average, maturity was 68 days after harvest of the main crop. Grouping of ratooning ability based on hierarchical cluster analysis resulted in three groups, namely nine genotypes had high potential, fi ve genotypes had medium potential, and four genotypes had low potential. This study indicated that ratoon is potential to increase rice planting index in Indonesia. The genotypes with high ratoon ability need to be evaluated for agronomic performance in the fi eld. Keywords: new plant type, ratooning ability, rice
PENETAPAN METODE EKSTRAKSI KALIUM TERBAIK UNTUK TANAMAN TOMAT (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.) PADA TANAH ANDISOL Gunawan, Endang; Susila, Anas D.; Sutandi, Atang; Santosa, Edi
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol. 10 No. 3 (2019): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society for Horticulture / Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29244/jhi.10.3.173-181

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Penetapan rekomendasi dosis kalium (K) berdasarkan uji tanah untuk tanaman tomat pada tanah Andisol belum banyak dikaji di Indonesia. Penelitian diawali dengan pembuatan status hara K tanah di Kebun Percobaan IPB Pasirsarongge Cianjur dilanjutkan dengan uji korelasi di rumah plastik PKHT IPB Tajur Bogor pada Desember 2015 sampai Mei 2016. Tujuan penelitian adalah menetapkan metode ekstraksi K terbaik bagi tanaman tomat di tanah Andisol. Status K tanah dibuat dengan larutan kalium sulfat (K2SO4) sebesar 0, ¼X, ½X, ¾X, dan X dimana X adalah 413.4 kg K ha-1 sebagai dosis K maksimum yang ditambahkan untuk mencapai kadar K maksimum dalam larutan tanah. Larutan K2SO4 disiram merata pada bedengan tanah dan diinkubasi selama 4 bulan. Ekstraksi K tanah menggunakan 5 metode yaitu: Bray 1 (HCl 5N), HCl 25%, Morgan Wolf (NaC2H3O2.3H2O), Mechlich (HCl 0.05N + H2SO4 0.025N) dan NH4OAc (NH4OAc, pH 7). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya perbedaan respon tinggi tanaman, bobot kering biomas, kandungan K tanaman terhadap tingkat status hara K tanah. Pola respon kuadratik ditunjukkan pada tinggi tanaman umur 6 dan 7 minggu setelah tanam, dan bobot kering total. Metode ekstraksi K Andisols terbaik untuk tomat adalah NH4OAc dengan nilai koefisien korelasi (r): 0.75. Kata kunci: biomas, K2SO4, metode ekstraksi, NH4Oac, status K
THE FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF AMBON FOREST NUTMEG (MYRISTICA FATUA HOUTT) AND BANDA NUTMEG (MYRISTICA FRAGRANS HOUTT) Karmanah, Karmanah; Susanto, Slamet; Widodo, Winarso Drajad; Santosa, Edi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 25 No. 2 (2020): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18343/jipi.25.2.292

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Ambon Forest nutmeg (Myristica fatua Houtt) is one of the endemic plants in Indonesia. The morphological characteristic of Ambon Forest nutmeg is slightly different from that of Banda nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) i.e., it is not used as spices, but its oil is used as a lamp oil. This study aimed to determine the chemical components and essential oils of Ambon Forest nutmeg derived from its seeds, mace, and flesh compared to Banda nutmeg. Extractions of essential oils were performed using a steam hydro-distillation. Analysis of chemical compositions and contents of essential oil was carried out using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) instrument and SNI 06-2388-2006 method.  The essential oil contents in Ambon Forest nutmeg were relatively low, i.e., 0.63% in the seeds, 0.30% in the mace, and 0.04% in the flesh compared to Banda nutmeg i.e., 1% in the seeds, 40% in the mace, and 3.5% in the fruit flesh. The chemical compositions of essential oils showed that M. fatua Houtt contained 12 compounds in the seeds, 24 compounds in the mace, and 17 compounds in the fruit flesh, while for Banda Nutmeg, the contents of essential oils were  found 18 compounds in the seeds, 10 compounds in the mace, and 15 compounds in the fruit flesh. M. fatua Houtt contained the highest Copaene, i.e., 28.41% in the seeds, 10.42% in the mace, and 23.33% in the fruit flesh. Myristicin, as the main marker compound of nutmeg oil, was also found in Ambon Forest nutmeg i.e., 1.3% in the seeds, 1.16% in the mace, and 5.19% in the fruit flesh. However, these results showed lower contents when compared to Banda nutmeg with Myristicin contents of 8.72% in the seeds, 10.14% in the mace, and 10.46% in the fruit flesh. Keywords: Essential oil, Myristica fatua Houtt, Myristica fragrans Houtt, Nutmeg
TATA KELOLA PANEN DAN PENGANGKUTAN MENENTUKAN HASIL TANDAN KELAPA SAWIT DI KEBUN ADOLINA, SUMATERA UTARA Fauzi Tanjung, Imam; Santosa, Edi
Buletin Agrohorti Vol. 7 No. 3 (2019): Buletin Agrohorti
Publisher : Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29244/agrob.v7i3.30472

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Pemanenan perlu dilakukan dengan baik untuk mendapatkan rendemen minyak yang tinggi dengankadar asam lemak bebas yang rendah. Pengamatan terhadap manajemen panen dilaksanakan di KebunAdolina, Sumatera Utara pada tanggal 5 Februari 2018 sampai 30 Juni 2018terdiri organisasi panen,perencanaan panen, pelaksanaan panen, pengawasan dan evaluasi panen. Secara khusus efisensipengangkutan diamati dengan membandingkan teknis dan waktu muat buah pada hanca. Hasil pengamatanterkait manajemen panen seperti rotasi panen, estimasi dan realisasi dari angka kerapatan panen, jumlahtenaga kerja, kriteria matang panen mengalami deviasi dari standar prosedur operasional (SPO) perusahaan.Hal ini dilakukan untuk mencapai target produksi bulanan saat kerapatan buah menurun akibat pencurian. Dikebun tidak ditemukan adanya losses berupa buah matang tidak dipanen setelah ada perubahan sistem hanca.Selain itu terdapat perbedaan tingkat kepatuhan pemanen pada tanaman yang menggunakan sistem tanamstandar dan big hole. Hasil pengamatan terkait efisiensi pengangkutan menunjukkan adanya perbedaan teknisdan waktu yang nyata antara cara pengangkutan menggunakan jembatan atau tidak.
KELIMPAHAN VEGETASI DAN SIMPANAN BIJI GULMA PADA PERTANAMAN JAGUNG BERBEDA SEJARAH POLA TANAM DI LAHAN KERING Kefi, Andreas; Guntoro, Dwi; Santosa, Edi
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol. 48 No. 1 (2020): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy (PERAGI) and Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v48i1.28383

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Weed management is an important aspect in the dry land; however, weed resides in dry land like East Nusa Tenggara is rarely reported. The study aimed to evaluate weed species and its seed bank on maize fields from the different history of cropping patterns in order to develop effective weed control. The research was conducted in April-June 2019 at farmer fields at Kupang District, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Weeds were evaluated from four maize fields experienced a different history of cropping pattern (L1, L2, L3, and L4), and its seed bank from the depth of 0-10, 11-20, 21-30, and 31-40 cm were evaluated using seedling emergence method. The evaluation revealed 13 species at which 4 species exclusively were found in vegetation analysis, 2 species in the seed bank and 7 species in both vegetation and seed bank analysis. Dominant weed at podzolic L2 and L3 that experienced fallow for two months was Chloris barbata, while without fallow of podzolic L1 and grumusol L4 were Digitaria adscendens and Mazus japonicus, respectively. Cropping history and soil depths affected weed density, but depths of 0-20 cm had the highest density irrespective preceding the cropping pattern. Research implies both vegetation and seed bank analysis should be addressed and integrated in weed management. Keywords: dry land, fallow, weed management, East Nusa Tenggara, vegetation analysis
A Review of Root Pruning to Regulate Citrus Growth Budiarto, Rahmat; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Santosa, Edi; Efendi, Darda
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 01 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (462.852 KB)

Abstract

Root is the important plant organ hiding below the soil that serves as plant supporting structure, water and nutrient supplier and assimilates storage. Root growth occurs in turn with shoot part, forming repeated cyclic pattern because of the photosynthate competition. Root growth regulation is one of the promising practices to boost the yield of fruit tree, especially citrus that is economically important and highly demanded fruit. Root pruning varied based on the scale of intensity and plant growth stage, including air root pruning, knife root pruning and modern pruning using root pruner machine mounted to a tractor. Root pruning to induce the growth of more fi brous root system and to correct root deformation at seedling stage have potentials to improve post-transplant growth. Besides, it has a potential to replace the use of chemical plant growth regulator for a more environmentally friendly practice. The pruning of root impeded the canopy growth, altered the plant water status leading to fl ower promotion. In addition, it is also a promising practice to overcome the alternate bearing on fruit tree, including citrus, through the suppressing of excessive growth and restricting the high fruit load during the ‘on year’ and allowing a better carbohydrate storage for the improvement of yield during the ‘off year’.
OIL PALM YIELD FORECASTING BASED ON WEATHER VARIABLES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK Kartika, Nadia Dwi; Astika, I Wayan; Santosa, Edi
Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Vol 3, No 3: September 2016
Publisher : Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.11591/ijeecs.v3.i3.pp626-633

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Forecasting of oil palm yield has become a main factor in the management of oil palm industries for proper planning and decision making in order to avoid monthly high cost in harvesting. Predicting future value of oil palm yield with minimum error becomes an important issue recently. A lot of factors determine the productivity of oil palm and weather variables play an important role that affect plant growth and development that may reduce yield significantly. This research used secondary data of yield and weather variables available in company administration. It proposed feed forward neural network with back propagation learning algorithm to build a monthly yield forecasting model. The optimization procedure of ANN architecture obtained the best using 60 neurons in input layer, five hidden layers and one neuron in the output layer. Training data were from January 2005 to June 2008 while testing data were from July 2008 to December 2009. ANN architecture using five hidden layers gave the best accuracy with MAE 0.5346 and MSE 0.4707 while the lowest accuracy occurred by using two hidden layers with MAE 1.5843and MSE 4.087.
Co-Authors , Hariyadi , Kholidi, , , Sobir , Susilawati ,, Dulbari - Surono, - Abdoellah, Soetanto Abdul Harris Burhan Achmad Taufiq Ade Wachjar Adolf P. Lonto Adolf Pieter Lontoh, Adolf Pieter Agusta, and Herdhata AHMAD JUNAEDI Akmal, Ajmir Anas D. Susila Anas Dinurrohman Susila Andre, Rahardian ANDRIA AGUSTA Ani Kurniawati Arisa Noguchi, Arisa Arjuna, Rizka Tri Arjuna, Rizka Tri Assyura, Almas Lathuf Atang Sutandi Bambang S. Purwoko Bambang Sapta Purwoko Chairunnisak, Chairunnisak D Ghulam Manar Darda Efendi Denanda, Mega Widya Desta Wirnas Dulbari, . Dulbari, Dulbari Dwi Guntoro Eko Sulistyono Elly Kristiati Agustin, Elly Kristiati Endang Gunawan Erny Yuniarti, Erny fatnan fathorikh, fatnan Fattah, Muhamad Zainul Fauzi Tanjung, Imam Febrihartanti, Anastasia Dwiputri Fifin Nashirotun Nisya FIRDIANSYAH, FARHAN Fitriyah . Gani Tarigan, Abdul Gani GHULAM DZUNUWANUS, GHULAM Ghulammanar, Dzunuwanus Gunar Widiyanto, Gunar Hadi Purnomo HAJRIAL ASWIDINNOOR Herdhata Agusta Herman Wafom Tubur I Wayan Astika Ince Raden Intan Dewi Puspitasari Irfanda, Munandar Irfanda, Munandar Iswandi Anas Karmanah, Karmanah Kartika, Nadia Dwi Kazi Liaquat Hossain Kefi, Andreas Ken Takahata, Ken Kharisma, Atried Khasanah, Siti Uswatun Kuswati, Sundari Laila Kholid Alfirdaus Lavenia, Chindy Fetriffani Lusia Astrika M. Rahmad Suhartanto Manar, Dzunuwanus Marchella Putriantari, Marchella Maryati Sari Maure, Gerson Hans Md. Abdul Wadud Md. Abul Kashem Md. Shajahan Ali Memen Surahman Mohammad Abdul Wadud Muhamad Achmad Chozin Muhammad Achmad Chozin Muhammad Naufal Irfan, Muhammad Naufal Muhammad Thamrin MUNIF GHULAMAHDI Nakano, Hajime nisa', zulfa Nobuo Sugiyama NURUL HIDAYAH Prashayu, Marlitha Nusa Prawati, Utami Priyatno Harsasto PUDJI ASTUTI Puji Astuti Purwanto, Imdad Julian Purwanto, Imdad Julian Putriantari, Marcella Rahmat Budiarto Rd. Selvy Handayani Reylea Adrianda Kusuma, Reylea Adrianda Rianto, Dwi Fajar ristiana ., ristiana ROEDHY POERWANTO Rohman, Fadil Rosdiana, Siska Rosdiana, Siska Sakti, Ginanjar Pramudya Sari, and Maryati Sari, Maryarti Sefdiany, Chauvina Septiani, Melinda Sigit Pramono Siti Halimah Slamet Susanto SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO Sofyan Zaman Stefano, Indra Mario SUBOWO GITOSUWONDO Sugiyanta Sugiyanta Sulistyono, dan Eko Sulistyowati . Swela, Andriani Tantra, Aditya Wira Tantra, Aditya Wira Teguh Yuwono Ulinnuha, Zulfa Wahjar, Ade Winarso D. Widodo Winarso Drajad Widodo Yoko Mine Yonny Koesmaryono Yulianti, Nani Yulianti, Nani Yunus, Ismadi