B Santoso
The State University of Papua

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Fermentation Quality and in Vitro Nutrient Digestibility of Fresh Rice Straw-Based Silage Treated with Lactic Acid Bacteria Santoso, B; Hariadi, B Tj; Sabariah, V; Sraun, T
Media Peternakan Vol. 37 No. 2 (2014): Media Peternakan
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (976.563 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2014.37.2.115

Abstract

The aim of the experiment was to evaluate fermentation characteristics and in vitro nutrient digestibility of fresh rice straw-based silage ensiled with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The first factor was the ratio of fresh rice straw (FRS), tofu waste (TW) and cassava waste (CW) consisted of two levels i.e., 40 : 20 : 40 and 40 : 25 : 35, on dry matter (DM) basis). The second factor was the level of LAB inoculant with two levels ie., 0 and 20 mL/kg FM. The treatments were (A) FRS + TW + CW with the ratio of 40 : 20 : 40, without LAB inoculant; (B) FRS + TW + CW with the ratio of 40 : 20 : 40 + LAB inoculant; (C) FRS + TW + CW with the ratio of 40 : 25 : 35, without LAB inoculant; (D) FRS + TW + CW with ratio of 40 : 25 : 35 + LAB inoculant. Results showed that addition of LAB inoculant in silage increased lactic acid concentration (P0.05) on chemical composition, fermentation quality of silage and in vitro digestibility. It was concluded that mixture silage with ratio of 40 : 20 : 40 with the addition of LAB inoculant had the best fermentation quality and nutrient digestibility than other silages.
Pengaruh Suplementasi Acacia mangium Willd pada Pennisetum purpureum terhadap Karakteristik Fermentasi dan Produksi Gas Metana in Vitro Santoso, B; Hariadi, B Tj
Media Peternakan Vol. 30 No. 2 (2007): Media Peternakan
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of Acacia mangium Willd supplementation to Pennisetum purpureum on fermentation characteristics, protozoal numbers, nutrients degradability and in vitro methane production. Treatments consisted of four composite substrates with P. purpureum and A. mangium Willd ratios at 100:0 (0%), 85:15 (15%), 70:30 (30%), and 55:45 (45%). Crude saponin and total tannin contents of A. mangium were 1.67% and 4.51%, respectively. Methane and gas productions decreased linearly (P < 0.01) in response to acacia levels. Addition of A. mangium at 15%, 30% and 45% decreased CH4 production by 16.2%, 26.8% and 61.1%, respectively as compared to the control. There were linear decreases in total VFA and acetate concentrations (P < 0.01), and propionate production (P < 0.05) in response to increase in acacia addition. Total protozoal populations increased linearly (P < 0.05) with added acacia. In vitro dry matter and organic matter degradabilities of substrate decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with acacia addition. It is concluded that methane production is not essentially associated with protozoal population. A. mangium has a potential use for mitigation of enteric methane production. Key words : Acacia mangium, methan, degradability, in vitro
Methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets Santoso, B; Mwenya, B; Sar, C; Takahashi, J
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (134.729 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i1.561

Abstract

Methane is produced as a result of anaerobic fermentation of the soluble and structural carbohydrates by methanogens in the rumen of ruminant animals. Removal of methane from rumen represents a loss of approximately 7.22% of gross energy intake.  Four ruminally fistulated Cheviot wethers were used in a crossover design to determine methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets. The experimental diets consisted of either timothy silage or timothy hay and a commercial concentrate (85:15, on DM basis). Variables measured were nutrients digestibility, energy balance and methane production. Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose were significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) on sheep fed silage-based diet than those fed hay-based diet. Sheep fed silage-based diet had greater (P&lt;0.01) urinary energy loss, methane and heat production, but lower (P&lt;0.05) fecal energy loss. Methane production, either expressed as g kg-1 dry matter intake or g day-1 was markedly lower (P&lt;0.05) in hay-based diet as compared to silage-based diet. There was a strong relationship between methane production (g day-1) and NDF digested (g day-1) (R2 = 88.4%, P&lt;0.001). Methane production expressed as g kg-1 NDF digested in silage-based diet was higher (P&lt;0.05) than in hay-based diet (66.44 vs 62.70). These results indicate that methane release by sheep increased with increasing NDF digested. Key Words : Methane, Silage, Hay, Neutral detergent fiber, Sheep
Fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice crop residue based silage ensiled with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria Santoso, B; Hariadi, B.Tj.; ., Alimuddin; Seseray, D.Y.
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 16, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (254.211 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v16i1.628

Abstract

Silage is the feedstuff resulted from the preservation of forages through lactic acid fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritive value, fermentation characteristics and nutrients digestibility of rice crop residue based silage ensiled with epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The mixture of rice crop residue (RC), soybean curd residue (SC) and cassava waste (CW) in a 90: 5: 5 (on dry matter basis) ratio was used as silage material.  Three treatments silage were (A) RC + SC + CW as a control; (B) RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculums from rice crop residue; (C) RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculums from king grass.  Silage materials were packed into plastic silo (1.5 kg capacity) and stored for 30 days. The results showed that crude protein content in B and C silage was higher than that of silage A, but NDF content in silages B and C was lower than that of silage A.  Lactic acid concentration was higher (P &lt; 0.01) in silage C compared to silage B and A, thus pH value of silage C was lower (P &lt; 0.01) than silage B and A. Silage C had the highest Fleigh point than that of other silages. Dry matter and organic matter digestibilities were higher in silages B and C (P &lt; 0.01) than that of control silage. It was concluded that the addition of LAB inoculums from king grass to rice crop residue based silage resulted a better fermentation quality compared to LAB inoculums from rice crop residue. Key Words: Silage, Rice Crop Residue, Lactic Acid, In Vitro
Quality evaluation of signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha) ensiled with forage as tannin source Santoso, B; Hariadi, B. Tj
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 13, No 3 (2008)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (84.475 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i3.582

Abstract

This research focused on examining the possibility of using three kinds of plant leaves i.e. Acacia mangium Willd, Persea americana Mill and Psidium guajava as tannin source to signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha) silage. The silages were made from the first cut of signal grass harvested at 50 days. Four treatment silages were TA: grass ensiled without tannin as control, AM: grass ensiled with A. mangium (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight), PA: grass ensiled with P. americana (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight), and PG: grass ensiled with P. guajava (6 g tannin/kg fresh weight). After mixing, the materials were packed into glass bottle silos (225 g capacity), in triplicate, which were ensiled for 30 days. The results showed that dry matter, organic matter and crude protein concentrations in signal grass silage mixed with tannin of A. mangium were higher (P&lt;0.01) compared to other silages. Degradations of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein during ensiling were the lowest in silage with A. mangium tannin additive. This data was supported by good fermentation quality of that silage e.g. low pH value, NH3-N and VFA concentrations, and high lactic acid concentration and Fleigh point as compared to other silages.  It is concluded that addition of tannin from A. mangium leaf at rate of 6 g/kg fresh weight improved fermentation quality and has potential as protein protection agents during the ensilage of signal grass. Key Words: Fermentation, Silage, Tannin, Signal Grass
Komposisi Kimia, Degradasi Nutrien dan Produksi Gas Metana in Vitro Rumput Tropik yang Diawetkan dengan Metode Silase dan Hay Santoso, B; Hariadi, B Tj
Media Peternakan Vol. 31 No. 2 (2008): Media Peternakan
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Six grass species (Pennisetum purpureum, Pennisetum purpureophoides, Sorghum sudanense, Brachiaria brizantha, Imperata cylindrica, and Panicum maximum) were harvested at 49 days and preserved as silage or as hay. Samples of silage and hay were evaluated by an in vitro gas production and in vitro nutrient degradability. Total gas production at 24 and 48 h as well as CH4 were higher (P < 0.01) in silage than in hay. Brachiaria brizantha had the highest (P < 0.01) gas production compared to other species, whereas P. purpureum had the highest CH4 production (mM/g organic matter degraded). Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) degradations were higher (P < 0.01) in silage than hay. When compared with hay, silage had higher (P < 0.01) ammonia-N concentration (20.3 vs. 10.6 mg/100 ml) and higher (P < 0.05) butyric acid concentration (7.9 vs. 7.0 mM). Non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and crude protein contents were positively correlated with gas production (r = 0.51; P < 0.05) and CH4 production (r = 0.64; P < 0.01) at 48 h of in vitro incubation. However total gas and CH4 productions were negatively correlated with neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content. There were positive correlation between DM (r = 0.90; P < 0.01), OM (r = 0.93; P < 0.01), and NDF (r = 0.84; P < 0.01) degradations and gas production. Key words: tropical grasses, methane, silage, hay
Fermentation Characteristics of Rice Crop Residue-Based Silage Treated by Epiphytic and Commercial LAB Santoso, B; Hariadi, B Tj; Alimuddin, .; Seseray, D Y
Media Peternakan Vol. 35 No. 1 (2012): Media Peternakan
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (474.864 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2012.35.1.60

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant from king grass and a commercial inoculant of L. plantarum on fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestibility of rice crop residue-based silage. In experiment 1, mixture of rice crop residue (RC), soybean curd residue (SC) and cassava waste (CW) in a 80 : 10 : 10 (on dry matter basis) ratio was used as silage material. Four treatments silage were (A) RC + SC + CW as a control; (B) RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculant from king grass (2%, v/w) ; (C) RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculant from king grass (3%, v/w); (D) RC + SC + CW + L. plantarum inoculant (2%, v/w). In experiment 2, six Kacang goats were used in a 6 × 3 Youden square experiment and fed elephant grass, rice straw, and rice crop residue-based silage. The results showed that crude protein (CP) content in silages B, C, and D was slightly higher than silage A. Lactic acid concentration was significantly higher (PL. plantarum inoculant.
Kualitas Rumput Unggul Tropika Hasil Ensilase dengan Bakteri Asam Laktat dari Ekstrak Rumput Terfermentasi Santoso, B; Hariadi, B Tj; Manik, H; Abubakar, H
Media Peternakan Vol. 32 No. 2 (2009): Media Peternakan
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides) ensiled with addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) prepared from fermented grass extract (LBFG). Four treatments were napier grass without additive (EG), napier grass with 3% (v/w) of LBFG (EGL), king grass without additive (KG) and king grass with 3% (v/w) of BLEF (KGL). Ensiling was conducted in silos of 225 g capacity at room temperatures (approximately 28 °C) for 30 days. Chemical composition of silage, fermentation products and nutrient digestibility were measured. LBFG added silages were higher (P < 0.01) in LAB population but lower in pH value (P < 0.05) compared to silages without LBFG. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and NDF contents of LBFG added silages tended to have higher value than silages without LBFG. Total and individual VFA concentrations in KGL silage were lower (P < 0.05) than KG silage. In vitro DM and OM digestibility and Fleigh point in both silages with LBFG tended to be higher than silages without LBFG. It was concluded that addition of 3% (v/w) of LBFG improved the fermentation quality of napier and king grass silages, as shown by the lower pH value and NH3-N concentration, and the higher LAB population number. Key words: tropical grasses, lactic acid bacteria, silage, fermented grass extract
Silage Quality of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides) Treated with Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Tannin of Acacia Santoso, B; Hariadi, B Tj; Manik, H; Abubakar, H
Media Peternakan Vol. 34 No. 2 (2011): Media Peternakan
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (314.97 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2011.34.2.140

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the silage quality of king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides) treated with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) prepared from fermented grass extract (FGE) or combined with tannin of acacia. Experiment was arranged to a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications. Treatments were (A) king grass without additive as a control; (B) king grass + 3% (v/w) of FGE; (C) king grass + 3% (v/w) of FGE + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/100 ml); (D) king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w) + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/75 ml); (E) king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w) + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/50 ml), and (F) king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w) + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/25 ml). About 250 g of silage materials were ensiled in 400 ml bottle silos at room temperatures (approximately 28 °C) for 30 days. Variables measured were characteristics of FGE, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of silage. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and the significance differences among means were tested by the Duncan's multiple range test. Results showed that the number of lactic acid bacteria in FGE increased from 0.8 × 107 cfu/ml to 2.9 × 107 cfu/ml after 2 days anaerobic incubation. Concentration of lactic acid in silages with addition of FGE or combined with tannin of acacia (B, C, D, E, and F) were higher (P3-N decreased with increasing concentration of tannin. Butyric acid concentration decreased in silages B, C, D, E, and F as compared to that in silage A. Addition of FGE combined with tannin prepared from acacia leaf improved fermentation quality of king grass silage.
Methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets Santoso, B; Mwenya, B; Sar, C; Takahashi, J
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 12, No 1 (2007): MARCH 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (134.729 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i1.561

Abstract

Methane is produced as a result of anaerobic fermentation of the soluble and structural carbohydrates by methanogens in the rumen of ruminant animals. Removal of methane from rumen represents a loss of approximately 7.22% of gross energy intake.  Four ruminally fistulated Cheviot wethers were used in a crossover design to determine methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets. The experimental diets consisted of either timothy silage or timothy hay and a commercial concentrate (85:15, on DM basis). Variables measured were nutrients digestibility, energy balance and methane production. Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) on sheep fed silage-based diet than those fed hay-based diet. Sheep fed silage-based diet had greater (P<0.01) urinary energy loss, methane and heat production, but lower (P<0.05) fecal energy loss. Methane production, either expressed as g kg-1 dry matter intake or g day-1 was markedly lower (P<0.05) in hay-based diet as compared to silage-based diet. There was a strong relationship between methane production (g day-1) and NDF digested (g day-1) (R2 = 88.4%, P<0.001). Methane production expressed as g kg-1 NDF digested in silage-based diet was higher (P<0.05) than in hay-based diet (66.44 vs 62.70). These results indicate that methane release by sheep increased with increasing NDF digested. Key Words : Methane, Silage, Hay, Neutral detergent fiber, Sheep