Articles

Found 20 Documents
Search

Pengaruh Kecukupan Dana, Daya Dukung Kas, Infleksibilitas Pergeseran Aktiva Inverstasi, dan Efisiensi Pengelolaan Terhadap Profitbilitas Dana Pensiun Di Indonesia Sardjono, Sardjono
Manajemen Krida Wacana vol. 1 no. 2 (2001)
Publisher : Manajemen Krida Wacana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

STUDI KOMPARASI ANTARA METODE LATIHAN AEROBIKA DENGAN METODE LATIHAN SIRKUIT DALAM MENINGKATKAN KONDISI FISIK Sardjono, Sardjono
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan CAKRAWALA PENDIDIKAN, EDISI 2,1984,TH.IV
Publisher : LPPMP Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21831/cp.v2i2.7475

Abstract

Akhir-akhir ini banyak orang melakukan kegiatan olahraga pada pagi hari. Bermacam-macam metode latihan digunakan untuk meningkatkan kondisi fisiknya. Dua metode latihan yang berkembang pesat, ialah metode Aerobika dan metode Sirkuit. Dalam uraian ini akan dianalisis tentang perbedaan dan persamaan kedua metode itu. Faktor-faktor yang dianalisis ialah: tujuan, bentuk dan pelaksanaan latihan, unsur-unsur kondisi fisik yang dikembangkan, lama waktu dan frekuensi latihan, intensitas latihan dan prinsip-prinsip pembebanan. Metode yang digunakan ialah metode analisis. Setiap faktor dianalisis dan ditarik kesimpulan sementara. Kesimpulan-kesimpulan diambil berdasarkan kesimpulan dari setiap faktor.
Kinetika Pertumbuhan Aspergillus oryzae KKB4 pada Substrat Padat serta Aktivitas Enzim Kasar Ekstraseluler untuk Mereduksi Aflatoksin B Sardjono, Sardjono
Agritech Vol 28, No 4 (2008)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (633.361 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9785

Abstract

Previous research indicated that Aspergillus oryzae KKB4 be able to degrade aflatoxin B  (AFB1) and it was found 1that extracelular enzymes take a role on degrading and detoxify AFB1 in submerged culture system. Fungal fermenta-tion in solid-state culture more advantage compare to submerged culture system, because of the medium composition is simple and relatively cheaper than submerged culture. Agricultural waste usually used for solid-state culture system for fungal fermentation. The growth kinetics of Aspergillus oryzae KKB4 in solid-state culture and its extracellular enzyme activity were observed in this research. Rice bran was used for growth medium. The inoculated rice bran were aseptically distributed over petridishes containing 29-30 g of inoculated rice bran. Incubation was carried out in an incubator at 27 oC and relative humidity of 87-95 %. Kinetic parameters were studied, i.e. biomass, measured by bio- mass protein and viable plate count method, spore concentration, carbondioxide production rate (CPR), lost of water and dry matter, and the activity of crude extracellular enzyme againts AFB1. Crude extracellular enzyme was extractedfrom fermented rice bran by using 0.05M phosphate buffer and pure AFB1 was used as substrate. The reaction was conducted at 30 oC for 1 hr. It was shown that growth pattern was different between viable plate count and biomass protein. The biomass protein increased until the end of fermentation, and the maximum biomass protein was 2.628 mg/g dry matter. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.022/hr, and the highest carbon dioxide production rate (CPR) was0.0324 mmole/g/day found in the third day of fermentation. The metabolic activities also be shown by the rate of dry matter lost. The highest rate of dry matter lost also found in the third day of fermentation, and the correlation between dry matter lost and CPR was expressed in equation of y = 1.185 x + 0.0079. This result indicated that metabolic activi- ties (CPR, lost of dry matter) was able to be used as the growth parameter. The activity of crude extracellular enzyme associated with the fungal growth, and the highest activity was observed in the third day fermentation, it was 1.699 µg AFB1/ml/hr, or 0.888 µg AFB1/g biomass protein/hr.ABSTRAKPenelitian terdahulu menunjukkan bahwa Aspergillus oryzae KKB4, mampu mendegradasi aflatoksin B  (AFB1)  dan 1diketahui bahwa enzim ekstraseluler berperan dalam mendegradasi dan detoksifikasi AFB1 dengan menggunakansistem kultur rendam. Fermentasi jamur dengan substrat padatmemiliki beberapa keunggulan dibandingkan dengan kultur rendam, terutama karena media yang digunakan lebih murah. Hal ini disebabkan karena dapat mengguna- kan limbah pertanian sebagai media fermentasi. Dalam penelitian ini dilihat kinetika petumbuhan Aspergillus oryzae KKB4 pada substrat padat dan aktivitas enzim kasar ekstraluler terhadap penurunan AFB1. Sebagai media fermentasi digunakan dedak steril. Setelah inokulasi, dedak didistribusikan secara aseptis pada cawan petri sebanyak 29-30 gram tiap petri. Inkubasi dilakukan pada suhu 27 ºC dan RH 87-95 %. Parameter kinetik yang dipelajari adalah pertumbu-han biomasa yang diukur dengan protein biomasa, viable count, konsentrasi spora, laju produksi CO , kehilangan air 2dan kehilangan bahan kering serta aktivitas total enzim ekstriaseluler kasar terhadap AFB1. Enzim kasar diekstraksidari dedak terfermentasi dengan menggunakan buffer fosfat 0,05 M. Reaksi degradasi AFB1 dilakukan pada suhu 30ºC selama 1 jam dengan menggunakan AFB1 murni sebagai substrat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbu- han biomasa berbeda antara yang diukur dengan viable plate count dan dengan pengukuran protein biomasa. Pada hasil plate count menunjukan pertumbuhan biomasa terjadi sampai hari ketiga fermentasi dan relatif konstan setelah periode tersebut, sedangkan dengan protein biomasa pertumbuhan terjadi sampai hari kelima fermentasi, dan terus sedikit meningkat pada periode berikutnya dengan maksimum protein biomasa 2,628 mg/g bahan kering. Laju pertum- buhan spesifik adalah 0,022/jam, dan laju produksi CO  tertinggi adalah 0,0324 mmol/g/hari dan dicapai pada hari 2ketiga fermentasi. Aktivitas metabolisme juga ditandai dengan laju kehilangan bahan kering, degan laju tertingi pada hari ketiga fermentasi 0,035 g/g bahan kering/hari. Hubungan antara kehilangan bahan kering dengan produksi CO dinyatakan dengan persamaan y = 1,185 x + 0,0079. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas metabolik (laju produksi CO  dan jalu kehilangan bahan kering) dapat dipakai untuk mengukur pertumbuhan biomasa. Aktivitas total enzim ekstraseluler tertinggi juga dicapai pada hari ketiga fermentasi, yakni 1,699 µgAFB1/ml/jam, atau 0,888 µg AFB1/gprotein biomasa/jam.
Isolation of Rhizopus oryzae From Rotten Fruit and Its Potency For Lactic Acid Production in Glucose Medium with and without Addition of Calcium Carbonate Kurniawati, Titik; Indrati, Retno; Sardjono, Sardjono
Agritech Vol 34, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (352.379 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9507

Abstract

Studies on lactic acid production by filamentous fungi Rhizopus oryzae have been explored in the world. Unfortunately, these studies are still limited in Indonesia, particularly studies in lactic acid production by indigenous strain R. oryzae. Four strains obtained from rotten avocado and guava were potential in producing lactic acid (AT1, JT1, AT2, and AT3). Rhizopusoryzae AT3 was used for lactic acid production using 100 g/l glucose medium with and without addition of 7.5 g/l calcium carbonate (CaCO3) at initial fermentation. Addition of CaCO3 increased lactic acid concentration of 59.30%, the concentrations were 11.61 g/l and 18.495 g/l in glucose medium and glucose medium with CaCO3 addition, respectively. Glucose+CaCO3 medium also showed higher productivity, reached continuously from 1 day (0.059 g/l/h) until 5 days fermentation (0.154 g/l/h), whereas highest productivity in glucose medium was reached at 1 day fermentation (0.124 g/l/h) and continued to decrease until 5 days fermentation (0.065 g/l/h).
The Effect of Phytic Acid, Zinc and Soybean Extract on The Growth and Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus Sardjono, Sardjono
Agritech Vol 30, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (507.786 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9685

Abstract

It has been reported that aflatoxin contamination in soybean was relatively low, but it was not guaranteed that soybean products is free from aflatoxin contamination. Naturally, soybean containing phytic acid and it bound zinc and protein. Zinc (Zn) is an important mineral for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Previous research indicated that some soybean products such as kecap was contaminated by aflatoxin. It might be Aspergillus flavus involved during kecap fermentation and it produced phytase for phytic acid degradation. Zinc will be released and available for aflatoxin biosynthesis. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of phytic acid, Zn and soybean extract on the growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by Aspergillus flavus. Five kind of medium were used in the experiment, Glucose Ammonium Nitrate (GAN) medium, a special medium for aflatoxin production, GAN without Zn, GAN supplemented with phytic acid, GAN supplemented with soybean extract instead of glucose and soybean extract supplemented with phytic acid. Two and a half milliliter of spore suspension ��07spores/ml) was inoculated into 250 ml of each medium in 1 liter flask. Incuba�tion was done in shaker incubator at room temperature. The growth of mold and AFB� production were analy�ed on 3 and 6 days incubation time. The result indicated that phytic acid lowering the growth of mold in the early 3 days, but not at all after 6 days incubation. It seems that phytic acid delays the aflatoxin production. Lack of Zn in the medium brought about the lowering of aflatoxin production. Even glucose concentration in soybean extract medium was lower than in GAN medium, the growth of the mold was not inhibited but lower on glucose affect on decreasing of AFB1 production.
Occurrence and Detoxification of Mycotoxinsin Food Sardjono, Sardjono
Agritech Vol 23, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1037.814 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.13517

Abstract

-
Aspergillus Proteolitik Indigenous dari Koji dan Kemampuannya Mendegradasi Aflatoksin B1 Sardjono, Sardjono; Rahayu, Endang Sri; Raharjo, Sri; Kuswanto, Kapti Rahayu
Agritech Vol 24, No 3 (2004)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1733.858 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.13461

Abstract

Legume and cereals are always exposed to the danger of fungal contamination. Among such fungi, some species of the genus Aspergillus are potential of aflatoxins producer. Aflatoxin BI (AFB1) which is the most carcinogenic mycotoxins , known very stable under cooking condition and other processing factors. The removal of AFB1 by degradation or detoxification is critical to reduce risk to human health. Microbiological degradation is a promising method for AFB1 degradation compared to others. The aim of this research was to isolate the proteolytic Aspergillus strain from "koji" and to determine its ability to degrade AFB). Out of 18 strains of Aspergillus, 16 strains were found proteolytic and only 5 strains had no afiatoxigenic properties, but all of them were able to degrade AFB1. There were no spesific pattern of the rate of AFBI degradation. Strain of KKB4 was identified as Aspergillus oryzae, that possess the highest ability to degrade AFB1. Two kind of substances were formed after degradation which were more polar than AFB1. The rate of AFB) uptake by Aspergillus oryzae KKB4 was similar with that of mycelia! growth. Aflatoxin BI inhibits mycelium growth, vesicle and conidial head formation.
Pengurangan Aflatoksin B (AFB ) dengan Proses Fermentasi Menggunakan Rhizopus Oligosporus MK-1 pada Pembuatan Bumbu Pecel Rubak, Yuliana Tandi; Rahayu, Endang S.; Sardjono, Sardjono
Agritech Vol 28, No 4 (2008)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (517.55 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9787

Abstract

Aflatoxin B  is the most harmfull mycotoxin for human health because of the toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity 1and mutagencity. Aflatoxin is the common mycotoxin contaminant in grains, nuts and their products such as “bumbupecel”. Bumbu pecel is a kind of spice used for serving vegetable foods called “pecel” which is very popular in In-donesia. Biological reduction of aflatoxin is an important process in order to degrade aflatoxin in foods. The aim of this research was to modify the steps of bumbu pecel production to reduce aflatoxin B  content through fermentation of peanut by Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1. The research was carried out in two steps that were modifying process inbumbu pecel production and sensory test for modified bumbu pecel. Modification process consisted of bean soaking, germ pealing, washing, steaming, fermentation of Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 and roasting. Aflatoxin analysis was carried out by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). The result indicated that fermentation process by Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 reduced 88.95 % aflatoxin B accumulatively in three days fermentation. Aflatoxin reduction 1was greater with the of length fermentation time and correlated with the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1. Twodays fermentation did not affect the sensory characteristic of bumbu pecel.ABSTRAKAflatoksin B  adalah mikotoksin yang paling berbahaya untuk kesehatan manusia, karena bersifat racun, karsinogenik, teratogenik dan mutagenik. Aflatoksin adalah mikotoksin yang sering mencemari biji-bijian, kacang-kacangandan juga produk biji-bijian maupun kacang-kacangan seperti bumbu pecel. Bumbu pecel adalah bumbu yang digu- nakan bersama sayuran yang biasa disebut “pecel” yang sangat popular di Indonesia. Reduksi biologis aflatoksin adalah proses yang sangat penting untuk menurunkan kandungan aflatoksin selama fermentasi kacang oleh Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1. Penelitian ini terdiri dari 2 tahap yaitu modifikasi proses produksi bumbu pecel dan uji sensoris terhadap bumbu pecel yang telah dimodifikasi. Modifikasi proses meliputi perendaman biji, pengupasan kulit biji, pen- cucian, perebusan, fermentasi Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 dan penyangraian. Analisis aflatoksin menggunakan ELISA (Enzym Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses fermentasi menggunakan Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 menurunkan kadar aflatoksin B  sekitar 88,95 % selama 3 hari proses fermentasi. Semakin lama proses fermentasi, maka penurunan kadar aflatoksin juga semakin banyak dan berhubungan dengan pertumbuhanRhizopus oligosporus MK-1. Fermentasi selama 2 hari tidak berpengaruh terhadap karakter sensoris bumbu pecel.
Skrining Lactobacillus plantarum Penghasil Asam Laktat untuk Fermentasi Mocaf Noor, Zulafa; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Indrati, Retno; Sardjono, Sardjono
Agritech Vol 37, No 4 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (376.361 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.18821

Abstract

This study was aimed to select the best isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum from 6 (six) of local isolates obtained from culture collections isolated from traditional foods. Selection of isolates was based on the growth rate, the number of cells, changes in pH and lactic acid production during cell growth on the MRS-broth at 37 °C for 24 hours. The results showed that the growth rate of each isolate varied, as measured by the length of the log phase, ranging from 8-20 h. It showed that some isolates quite fast towards a stationary phase and some quite slow. The number of cell ranged from 8.81 to 9.74 log CFU/mL, while the pH at the beginning of cell growth from 5.2 to 5.8, and at the end of growth from 3.4 to 3.7. Lactic acid production by the end of the growth (24 h) is 0.76 to 0.98%. The results showed isolate of L. plantarum UA3 was best having the fastest growth rate (8 h of log phase), the highest cell number (9.74 log CFU/mL), and the highest lactic acid produced (0.92 %) for 14 h incubation on MRS-broth at 37 °C. Application of selected isolate of L. plantarum UA3 on solid substrate fermentation using media grated cassava yield in 0.92% lactic acid after fermentation for 60 h, with a cell number of 9.54 log CFU/mL. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk memilih isolat Lactobacillus plantarum terbaik dari 6 (enam) macam isolat lokal yang diperoleh dari koleksi kultur yang berasal dari makanan tradisional. Pemilihan isolat didasarkan pada kecepatan pertumbuhan, jumlah sel, perubahan pH dan produksi asam laktat selama pertumbuhan pada media MRS-broth pada suhu 37 °C selama 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kecepatan pertumbuhan setiap isolat bervariasi, yang diukur dari lamanya fase log, yaitu berkisar antara 8–20 jam. Ini memperlihatkan bahwa beberapa isolat cukup cepat menuju fase stasioner dan beberapa lagi cukup lambat. Jumlah sel berkisar antara 8,81–9,74 log CFU/mL, sedangkan pH pada awal pertumbuhan sekitar 5,2–5,8, dan pada akhir pertumbuhan 3,4–3,7. Produksi asam laktat pada akhir pertumbuhan (24 jam) adalah 0,76–0,98%. Dari hasil tersebut isolat L. plantarum UA3 merupakan isolat terbaik dengan fase pertumbuhan log yang tercepat (8 jam), jumlah sel tertinggi (9,74 log CFU/mL), dan menghasilkan asam laktat paling tinggi (0,92%) pada inkubasi selama 14 jam dalam media MRS-broth suhu 37 °C. Aplikasi dari isolat terpilih L.plantarum UA3 dalam fermentasi substrat padat menggunakan media kasava parut menghasilkan asam laktat sebesar 0,92% setelah fermentasi selama 60 jam, dengan jumlah sel 9,54 logCFU/mL.
Evaluasi Perlakuan Pendahuluan Menggunakan Kalsium Hidroksida untuk Biokonversi Jerami Padi Menjadi L-Asam Laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 Widyahapsari, Dhina Aprilia Nurani; Indrati, Retno; Setyabudi, Sigit; Sardjono, Sardjono
Agritech Vol 36, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (622.937 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.16587

Abstract

L-lactic acid can be used as a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA). PLA is a biodegradable biomaterial commonly used for biodegradable plastics. Lactic acid can be produced from lignocelluloses materials such as rice straw. Rice straw is composed of cellulose and hemicellulose that can be hydrolyzed to fermentable sugar by cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes then converted to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae. As most cellulose and hemicellulose present in lignocellulose biomass are not readily accessible for these enzyme, pretreatment is required to alter the structure of lignocellulose substrates. This research aimed to investigate the effect of lime pretreatment on rice straw bioconversion to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae AT3. Rice straw was pretreated with lime (Ca(OH)2) at 85 °C for 16 hours. Unpretreated and pretreated rice straw were hydrolyzed using crude enzyme that produced by Trichoderma reesei Pk1J2. Enzyme production was carried out by solid state fermentation using rice straw and rice brand as substrate. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out in flasks. Each flask was added with unpretreated or pretreated rice straw, buffer citrate solution and crude enzyme then hydrolyzed for 0-96 hours. Hydrolysate was fermented by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 for 0-6 days by using adsorbed carrier solid-state fermentation method with polyurethane foam as inert support material. Lime pretreatment at 85 °C for 16 hour led to significant solubilisation of lignin and hemicellulose. It involved lignocellulose structure modified that enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and resulted higher reducing sugars than unpretreated rice straw. The high reducing sugars was not related to high lactic acid yields. Fermentation of pretreated rice straw hydrolysate by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 did not only produce L-lactic acid but also other compound. On the other hand, fermentation of unpretreated rice straw hydrolysate only produced L-lactic acid. ABSTRAKPolimerisasi asam laktat menjadi polylactic acid untuk menghasilkan biodegradable plastic membutuhkan asam laktat dengan isomer spesifik. Rhizopus oryzae adalah mikroorganisme yang spesifik menghasilkan L-asam laktat. Selain itu Rhizopus oryzae dapat menggunakan limbah pertanian seperti jerami padi sebagai substrat. Komponen utama jerami padi merupakan lignoselulosa yang dapat dihidrolisa secara enzimatis menjadi komponen gula sederhana penyusunnya dan selanjutnya dapat dikonversi menjadi L-asam laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae. Namun struktur lignoselulosa sangat kompak dan rapat, sulit untuk dihidrolisa secara enzimatis sehingga diperlukan adanya perlakuan pendahuluan untuk merombak struktur lignoselulosa agar mudah dihidrolisa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan pendahuluan menggunakan kalsium hidroksida (Ca(OH)2) terhadap biokonversi jerami padi menjadi L-asam laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3. Perlakuan pendahuluan pada jerami padi dilakukan menggunakan (Ca(OH)2) disertai pemanasan suhu 85 °C selama 16 jam. Jerami padi dengan dan tanpa perlakuan pendahuluan dihidrolisa secara enzimatis menggunakan crude enzyme yang diproduksi oleh Trichoderma reesei Pk1J2. Produksi crude enzyme dilakukan dengan fermentasi substrat padat dengan campuran jerami padi dan dedak sebagai substrat. Hidrolisat jerami padi dengan dan tanpa perlakuan pendahuluan selanjutnya difermentasi oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 menggunakan metode adsorbed carrier solid state fermentation dengan polyurethane foam (PUF) sebagai bahan pendukung. Perlakuan pendahuluan menggunakan Ca(OH2) disertai pemanasan suhu 85 °C selama 16 jam dapat merubah komposisi lignoselulosa jerami padi yaitu dengan melarutkan lignin dan hemiselulosa. Perubahan komposisi lignoselulosa memudahkan kerja crude enzyme dalam menghidrolisa jerami padi sehingga menghasilkan gula reduksi lebih tinggi dibandingkan jerami padi tanpa perlakuan pendahuluan. Tingginya gula reduksi tidak serta merta meningkatkan yield L-asam laktat yang dihasilkan. Fermentasi hidrolisat jerami padi dengan perlakuan pendahuluan oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 menghasilkan yield L-asam laktat lebih rendah dibandingkan hidrolisat jerami padi tanpa perlakuan pendahuluan. Namun pada jerami padi dengan perlakuan pendahuluan dihasilkan senyawa lain selain asam laktat.