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Journal : TRI DASA MEGA - Jurnal Teknologi Reaktor Nuklir

OPTIMIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL SHIELD FOR BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE CANCER THERAPY (BNCT) AT KARTINI RESEARCH REACTOR Priambodo, Gani; Nugroho, Fahrudin; Palupi, Dwi Satya; Zailani, Rosilatul; Sardjono, Yohannes
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 19, No 3 (2017): Oktober 2017
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/tdm.2017.19.3.3626

Abstract

A study to optimize a model of neutron radiation shielding for BNCT facility in the irradiation room has been performed. The collimator used in this study is a predesigned collimator from earlier studies. The model includes the selection of the materials and the thickness of materials used for radiation shield. The radiation shield is required to absorb leaking radiation in order to protect workers at the threshold dose of 20 mSv/year. The considered materials were barite concrete, paraffin, stainless steel 304 and lead. The leaking neutron radiation dose rates have been determined using Monte Carlo N Particle Version Extended (MCNPX) with a radiation dose limit rate that is less than 10 µSv/hour. This dose limit is in accordance with BAPETEN regulation related the threshold dose for workers, in which the working duration is 8 hours per day and 5 days per week. It is recommended that the best model for the irradiation room has a dimension 30 cm width, 30 cm length, 30 cm height and a main layer of irradiation room shielding made from the material paraffin which is 68 cm thickness on the left side and bottom of the irradiation room, 70 cm thickness on the right side of the iradiation room, 45 cm thickness on the front of the irradiation room and 67 cm thickness on the top of the irradiation room. The additional layers of 15 cm and 10 cm thickness are used along with paraffin in order to reduce the intensity of primary radiation from piercing the beamport after two primary layers. There is no neutron radiation leakage in this model.Keywords: Radiation shielding, BNCT, MCNPX, radiation dose rate, piercing beamport. OPTIMASI PERISAI RADIASI NEUTRON FASILITAS RUANGAN IRADIASI UNTUK BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE CANCER THERAPY (BNCT) DENGAN SUMBER BEAMPORT TEMBUS REAKTOR KARTINI. Telah dilakukan pemodelan perisai radiasi neutron untuk fasilitas Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) pada sekeliling ruangan iradiasi. Pemodelan mencakup pemilihan bahan dan tebal yang digunakan untuk perisai radiasi. Perisai diharuskan mampu menahan radiasi yang keluar ruangan sehingga dosis radiasi berada di bawah ambang dosis bagi pekerja radiasi sebesar 20 mSv/tahun. Bahan yang dipertimbangkan adalah beton barit, paraffin, stainless steel 304 dan timbal. Perhitungan laju dosis neutron epitermal dilakukan dengan menggunakan program Monte Carlo N Particle Version Extended (MCNPX) dengan batasan laju dosis radiasi kurang dari 10 µSv/jam, sesuai dengan peraturan Kepala BAPETEN mengenai batas ambang laju dosis pekerja radiasi, dengan asumsi perhitungan waktu kerja 8 jam per hari dan 5 hari per minggu. Desain pertama dari empat desain yang telah dibuat kemudian dipilih sebagai desain yang direkomendasikan dengan laju dosis di bawah batas ambang 10 µSv/jam. Ruangan iradiasi memiliki dimensi panjang 30 cm, lebar 30 cm dan tinggi 30 cm. Lapisan utama perisai pada desain pertama berbahan paraffin setebal 68 cm pada sisi kiri dan bawah ruangan, 70 cm pada sisi kanan ruangan, 45 cm pada sisi depan ruangan dan 67 cm pada sisi atas ruangan. Paraffin setebal 15 cm dan 10 cm ditambahkan sebagai peredam intensitas radiasi primer dari beamport tembus yang masih cukup besar.Kata Kunci: perisai radiasi, BNCT, MCNPX, laju dosis radiasi, beamport tembus.
PEMODELAN KOLIMATOR DI RADIAL BEAM PORT REAKTOR KARTINI UNTUK BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY Vallenry, Bemby Yulio; Widiharto, Andang; Sardjono, Yohannes
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 16, No 1 (2014): Pebruari 2014
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

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Salah satu metode terapi kanker adalah Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). BNCT memanfaatkan tangkapan neutron oleh 10B yang terendapkan pada sel kanker. Keunggulan BNCT dibandingkan dengan terapi radiasi lainnya adalah tingkat selektivitas yang tinggi karena tingkatannya adalah sel. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pemodelan kolimator di radial beamport reaktor Kartini sebagai dasar pemilihan material dan manufature kolimator sebagai sumber neutron untuk BNCT. Pemodelan ini dilakukan dengan simulasi menggunakan perangkat lunak Monte Carlo N-Particle versi 5 (MCNP 5). MCNP 5 adalah suatu paket program untuk memodelkan sekaligus menghitung masalah transpor partikel dengan mengikuti sejarah hidup neutron semenjak lahir, bertranspor pada bahan hingga akhirnya hilang karena mengalami reaksi penyerapan atau keluar dari sistem. Pemodelan ini menggunakan variasi material dan ukurannya agar menghasilkan nilai dari tiap parameter-parameter yang sesuai dengan rekomendasi I International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) untuk BNCT, yaitu fluks neutron epitermal (?epi) > 9 n.cm-2.s-1, rasio antara laju dosis neutron cepat dan fluks neutron epitermal (?f/?epi) < 2,0 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, rasio antara laju dosis gamma dan fluks neutron epitermal (??/?epi) < 2,0 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, rasio antara fluks neutron termal dan epithermal (?th/?epi) < 0,05 dan rasio antara arus dan fluks neutron epitermal (J/?epi) > 0,7. Berdasarkan hasil optimasi dari pemodelan ini, material dan ukuran penyusun kolimator yang didapatkan yaitu 0,75 cm Ni sebagai dinding kolimator, 22 cm Al sebagai moderator dan 4,5 cm Bi sebagai perisai gamma. Keluaran berkas radiasi yang dihasilkan dari pemodelan kolimator radial beamport yaitu ?epi = 5,25 x 106 n.cm-2s-1, ?f/?epi =1,17 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, ??/?epi = 1,70 x 10-12 Gy.cm2.n-1, ?th/?epi = 1,51 dan J/?epi = 0,731. Berdasarkan penelitian ini, hasil optimasi 5 parameter sebagai persyaratan kolimator untuk BNCT yang keluar dari radial beam port tidak sepenuhnya memenuhi kriteria yang direkomendasikan oleh IAEA sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut agar tercapainya persyaratan IAEA.Kata kunci: BNCT, radial beamport, MCNP 5, kolimator  One of the cancer therapy methods is BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). BNCT utilizes neutron nature by 10B deposited on cancer cells. The superiority of BNCT compared to the rradiation therapy is the high level of selectivity since its level is within cell. This study was carried out on collimator modelling in radial beam port of reactor Kartini for BNCT. The modelling was conducted by simulation using software of Monte CarloN-Particle version5 (MCNP 5). MCNP5 is a package of the programs for both simulating and calculating the problem of particle transport by following the life cycle of a neutron since its birth from fission reaction, transport on materials, until eventually lost due to the absorption reaction or out from the system. The collimator modelling used materials which varied in size in order to generate the value of each of the parameters in accordance with the recommendation of the IAEA, the epithermal neutron flux (?epi) > 1.0 x 109n.cm-2s-1, the ratio between the neutron dose rate fast and epithermal neutron flux (?f/?epi) < 2.0 x10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, the ratio of gamma dose rate and epithermal neutron flux (??/?epi) < 2.0 x10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, the ratio between the thermal and epithermal neutron flux (?th/?epi) < 0.05 and the ratio between the current and flux of the epithermal neutron (J/?epi) > 0.7. Based on the results of the optimization of the modeling, the materials and sizes of the collimator construction obtained were 0.75 cm Ni as collimator wall, 22 cm Al as a moderator and 4.5 cm Bi as a gamma shield. The outputs of the radiation beam generated from collimator modeling of the radial beam port were ?epi = 5.25 x 106 n.cm-2.s-1, ?f/?epi = 1.17 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, ??/?epi = 1.70 x 10-12 Gy.cm2.n-1, ?th/?epi = 1.51 and J/?epi = 0.731. Based on this study, the results of the beam radiation coming out of the radial beam port did not fully meet the criteria recommended by the IAEA so need to continue this study to get the criteria of IAEA. Keywords: BNCT, radial beamport, MCNP 5, collimator
THE ANALYSIS OF SBWR CRITICAL POWER BUNDLE USING COBRAG CODE Sardjono, Yohannes; Aritomi, Masanori; E. Fennern, Larry
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 14, No 1 (2012): Pebruari 2012
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

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The coolant mechanism of SBWR is similar with the Dodewaard Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in the Netherlands that first went critical in 1968. The similarity of both NPP is cooled by natural convection system. These coolant concept is very related with same parameters on fuel bundle design especially fuel bundle length, core pressure drop and core flow rate as well as critical power bundle. The analysis was carried out by using COBRAG computer code. COBRAG computer code is GE Company proprietary. Basically COBRAG computer code is a tool to solve compressible three-dimensional, two fluid, three field equations for two phase flow. The three fields are the vapor field, the continuous liquid field, and the liquid drop field. This code has been applied to analyses model flow and heat transfer within the reactor core. This volume describes the finitevolume equations and the numerical solution methods used to solve these equations. This analysis of same parameters has been done i.e.; inlet sub cooling 20 BTU/lbm and 40 BTU/lbm, 1000 psi pressure and R-factor is 1.038, mass flux are 0.5 Mlb/hr.ft2, 0.75 Mlb/hr.ft2, 1.00 Mlb/hr.ft2 and 1.25 Mlb/hr.ft2. Those conditions based on history operation of some type of the cell fuel bundle line at GE Nuclear Energy. According to the results, it can be concluded that SBWR critical power bundle is 10.5 % less than current BWR critical power bundle with length reduction of 12 ft to 9 ft.
DOSE ESTIMATION OF THE BNCT WATER PHANTOM BASED ON MCNPX COMPUTER CODE SIMULATION Ramadhani, Amanda Dhyan Purna; Susilo, Susilo; Nurfatthan, Irfan; Sardjono, Yohannes; Widarto, Widarto; Wijaya, Gede Sutresna; Triatmoko, Isman Mulyadi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 22, No 1 (2020): February 2020
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/tdm.2020.22.1.5780

Abstract

Cancer is a malignant tumor that destroys healthy cells. Cancer treatment can be done by several methods, one of which is BNCT. BNCT uses 10B target which is injected into the human body, then it is irradiated with thermal or epithermal neutrons. Nuclear reaction will occur between boron and neutrons, producing alpha particle and lithium-7. The dose is estimated by how much boron and neutron should be given to the patient as a sum of number of boron, number of neutrons, number of protons, and number of gamma in the reaction of the boron and neutron. To calculate the dose, the authors simulated the reaction with Monte Carlo N Particle-X computer code. A water phantom was used to represent the human torso, as 75% of human body consists of water. Geometry designed in MCNPX is in cubic form containing water and a cancer cell with a radius of 2 cm. Neutron irradiation is simulated as originated from Kartini research reactor, modeled in cylindrical form to represent its aperture. The resulting total dose rate needed to destroy the cancer cell in GTV is 2.0814×1014 Gy.s (76,38%) with an irradiation time of 1,4414×10-13 s. In PTV the dose is 5.2295×1013 Gy.s (19,19%) with irradiation time of 5.7367×10-13 s. In CTV, required dose is 1.1866×1013 Gy.s (4,35%) with an irradiation time of 2.5283×10-12 s. In the water it is 1.9128×1011 Gy.s (0,07%) with an irradiation time of 1,5684×10-10 s. The irradiation time is extremely short since the modeling is based on water phantom instead of human body.Keywords: BNCT, Dose, Cancer, Water Phantom, MCNPX
THE EFFECT OF BEACH ENVIRONMENT AND SEA WATER ON NICKEL CORROSION RATE AS A COLLIMATOR MATERIAL FOR THE APPLICATION OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY Hidayat, Hardi; Setyahandana, Budi; Sardjono, Yohannes; Adi, Yulwido
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 21, No 3 (2019): October 2019
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/tdm.2019.21.3.5587

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine the value of corrosion rate influenced by coastal environment and seawater to nickel as a collimator base material for the application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this research, the authors used 99.9% pure nickel as the reference material. Corrosion testing was carried out to determine the rate of corrosion of nickel as a base material for BNCT. After the specimens were formed, the test specimens were then corroded for 12 weeks, with various conditions such as indoor, outdoor environment, static seawater, and moving seawater. The results of this study indicated that in corrosion testing with indoor condition, the corrosion rate values are 0.61-1.00 mpy. For outdoor condition, the corrosion rate is 0.89-1.34 mpy. Meanwhile, at static seawater conditions, the corrosion rate is 0.97-1.24 mpy. Lastly, for moving seawater condition, the corrosion rate is 1.64-1.91 mpy. The results showed that corrosion resistance was relatively the same for all nickel exposed to corrosion in the coastal environment. Therefore, in regards to corrosion resistance, using nickel as a collimator base material for BNCT applications is considered as safe.Keywords: BNCT, Nickel, Corrosion, Coastal Environtment, Sea Water
A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF NEUTRON COLLIMATOR IN THE THERMAL COLUMN OF KARTINI RESEARCH REACTOR FOR IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TEST OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY Fauziah, Nina; Widiharto, Andang; Sardjono, Yohannes
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 15, No 2 (2013): Juni 2013
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

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Studies were carried out to design a collimator which results in epithermal neutron beam for IN VITRO and IN VIVO of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Kartini research reactor by means of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes. Reactor within 100 kW of thermal power was used as the neutron source. The design criteria were based on recommendation from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). All materials used were varied in size, according to the value of mean free path for each material. MCNP simulations indicated that by using 5 cm thick of Ni as collimator wall, 60 cm thick of Al as moderator, 15 cm thick of 60Ni as filter, 2 cm thick of Bi as ?-ray shielding, 3 cm thick of 6Li2CO3-polyethylene as beam delimiter, with 1 to 5 cm varied aperture size, epithermal neutron beam with maximum flux of 7.65 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1 could be produced. The beam has minimum fast neutron and ?-ray components of, respectively, 1.76 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1 and 1.32 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, minimum thermal neutron per epithermal neutron ratio of 0.008, and maximum directionality of 0.73. It did not fully pass the IAEA?s criteria, since the epithermal neutron flux was below the recommended value, 1.0 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. Nonetheless, it was still usable with epithermal neutron flux exceeding 5.0 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1. When it was assumed that the graphite inside the thermal column was not discharged but only the part which was going to be replaced by the collimator, the performance of the collimator became better within the positive effect from the surrounding graphite that the beam resulted passed all criteria with epithermal neutron flux up to 1.68 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1.Keywords: design, collimator, epithermal neutron beam, BNCT, MCNP, criteria Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang desain kolimator yang menghasilkan radiasi netron epitermal untuk uji in vitro dan in vivo pada Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) di Reaktor Riset Kartini dengan menggunakan program Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP). Reaktor pada daya sebesar 100 kW digunakan sebagai sumber neutron. Kriteria desain berdasar pada rekomendasi dari IAEA. Setiap material divariasikan ukurannya berdasarkan mean free path radiasi di dalam material tersebut. Simulasi MCNP menunjukkan bahwa dengan menggunakan 5 cm Ni sebagai dinding kolimator, 60 cm Al sebagai moderator, 15 cm 60 Ni sebagai filter, 2 cm Bi sebagai perisai sinar-?, 3 cm 6Li2CO3-polietilen sebagai penahan radiasi neutron, pada variasi bukaan sebesar 1 sampai 5 cm, dihasilkan fluks neutron epitermalmaksimum sebesar 7,65 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1. Radiasi neutron epitermal tersebut memiliki komponen neutron cepat sebesar 1,76 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, komponen sinar-? sebesar1,32 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, rasio neutron termal per netron epitermal sebesar 0,008, dan direksionalitas maksimum sebesar 0,73. Hasil ini masih tidak memenuhi seluruh kriteria IAEA, karena fluks netron epitermal kurang dari 1,0 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. Meski demikian, radiasi netron epitermal tersebut masih dapat digunakan karena fluksnya melebihi 5,0 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1. Pada saat diasumsikan bahwa bagian kolom termal yang tersisa di luar daerah kolimator tetap berisi grafit seperti semula, hasil keluaran kolimator menjadi lebih baik dengan fluks neutron maksimum mencapai 1,68 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. Kata kunci : desain, kolimator, radiasi neutron epitermal, BNCT, MCNP, kriteria
CORE DESIGNS OF ABWR FOR PROPOSED OF THE FIRST NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA Sardjono, Yohannes; Aritomi, Masanori; Fennern, Larry E.
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 13, No 1 (2011): Pebruari 2011
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

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Indonesia as an archipelago has been experiencing high growth industry and energy demand due to high population growth, dynamic economic activities. The total population is around 230 million people and 75 % to the total population is living in Java. The introduction of Nuclear Power Plant on Java Bali electricity grid will be possible in 2022 for 2 GWe, using proven technology reactor like ABWR or others light water reactor with nominal power 1000 MWe. In this case, the rated thermal power for the equilibrium cycles is 3926 MWt, the cycle length is 18 month and overall capacity factor is 87 %. The designs were performed for an 872-fuel bundles ABWR core using GE-11 fuel type in an 9×9 fuel rod arrays with 2 Large Central Water Rods (LCWR). The calculations were divided into two steps; the first is to generate bundle library and the other is to make the thermal and reactivity limits satisfied for the core designs. Toshiba General Electric Bundle lattice Analysis (TGBLA) and PANACEA computer codes were used as designs tools. TGBLA is a General Electric proprietary computer code which is used to generate bundle lattice library for fuel designs. PANACEA is General Electric proprietary computer code which is used as thermal hydraulic and neutronic coupled BWR core simulator. This result of core designs describes reactivity and thermal margins i.e.; Maximum Linear Heat Generation rate (MLHGR) is lower than 14.4 kW/ft, Minimum Critical Power Ratio (MCPR) is upper than 1.25, Hot Excess Reactivity (HOTXS) is upper than 1 %Dk at BOC and 0.8 %Dk at 200 MWD/ST and Cold Shutdown Margin Reactivity (CSDM) is upper than 1 %Dk. It is concluded that the equilibrium core design using GE-11 fuel bundle type satisfies the core design objectives for the proposed of the firs Indonesia ABWR Nuclear Power Plant.Keywords: The first NPP in Indonesia, ABWR-1000 MWe, and core designs.   Indonesia adalah sebagai negara kepulauan yang laju pertumbuhan industri, energi, penduduk dan ekonominya cukup tinggi. Pada saat ini, jumlah penduduk Indonesia ada sekitar 230 juta dan 75 % dari jumlah penduduk tersebut tinggal di Pulau Jawa. Pada tahun 2022, dimungkinkan sistem jaringan Jawa-Bali dapat menerima beban 2 unit PLTN yang teknologinya sudah teruji seperti PLTN ABWR atau PLTN air ringan lainnya yang kapasitasnya masing-masing 1 GW. Untuk itu diambilah contoh perhitungan untuk PLTN ABWR pada siklus keseimbangan dengan daya termal 3926 MWt dan lama operasi 18 bulan dan kapasitas faktornya minimum 87 %. Desain ini telah dicapai dengan jumlah bahan bakar teras 872 bundel bahan bakar tipe GE-11 yang susunannya 9×9 batang bahan bakar yang ditengahnya ditempatkan 2 bahan bakar besar tiruan yang berisi air. Ada 2 langkah perhitungan; pertama adalah menggenerasikan pustaka data bundel bahan bakar dan selanjutnya digunakan untuk analisis termal dan reaktivitas dalam teras. Desain teras menggunakan kode komputer Toshiba General Electric Bundle Lattice Analysis (TGBLA) dan PANACEA. TGBLA adalah sebuah kode komputer yang dimiliki oleh General Electric Nuclear Energy untuk menggenerasikan pustaka data dalam sistem satuan cell dalam setiap batang bahan bakar dalam setiap bundle. PANACEA adalah kode komputer milik General Electric yang digunakan untuk analisis thermal hydraulic dan netronik yang digabung dalam simulator PLTN BWR. Hasil desain teras menguraikan tentang karakteristik termal dan reaktivitas teras seperti; laju maksimum pembangkitan panas linier (MLHGR) adalah lebih rendah dari 14,4 kW/ft, rasio daya kritis minimum (MCPR) adalah diatas dari 1,25, Reaktivitas Panas Lebih (HOTXS) adalah lebih besar dari 1 %Dk pada BOC dan 0,8 %Dk pada 200 MWD/ST dan reaktivitas shutdown margin dingin (CSDM) adalah lebih besar dari 1 %Dk. Untuk itu dapat disimpulkan bahwa desain teras PLTN ABWR pertama untuk diusulkan dibangun pertama di Indonesia dengan menggunakan bundle bahan bakar tipe GE-11 adalah telah memenuhi persyaratan dan tujuan desain. Kata kunci: PLTN pertama di Indonesia, ABWR-1000 MWe, dan desain teras.
DESAIN TERAS DAN BAHAN BAKAR PLTN JENIS PEBBLE BED MODULAR REACTOR (PBMR) DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PROGRAM SRAC Santoso, Sungkowo Wahyu; Widiharto, Andang; Sardjono, Yohannes
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 16, No 2 (2014): Juni 2014
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

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Analisis desain down scale teras dan bahan bakar PBMR-HTR dengan menggunakan program SRAC bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh variasi pengayaan U235, burnable poison, laju aliran pendingin dan suhu pendingin masuk terhadap kekritisan teras serta aspek-aspek keselamatan reaktor nuklir dengan parameter nilai keff dan koefisien reaktivitas suhu bahan bakar, moderator dan pendingin. Teras PBMR-HTR berbentuk silinder finite dengan lubang ditengahnya yang berisi 334.000 bahan bakar pebble bed. Bahan bakar berupa UO2, moderator grafit dan pendingin helium. Model desain down scale dilakukan pada ½ teras yang mewakili keseluruhan teras. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memvariasikan pengayaan bahan bakar sebesar 8%, 8,5%, 9%, 9,5% dan 10% sementara variasi konsentrasi burnable poison sebesar 5 ppm, 7 ppm, 9 ppm, 11 ppm, dan 15 ppm. Variasi laju aliran pendingin sebesar 60%, 80%, 100%, 120%, dan 140% sementara variasi suhu masukan pendingin sebesar 673,15K; 723,15K; 773,15K; 823,15K dan 873,15K. Pada penelitian ini keff pada BOL tanpa Gd2O3 sebesar 1.026213 dan EOL sebesar 0.995865 dengan excess reactivity sebesar 2,5 % dengan pengkayaan U235 9%. Sementara keffpada BOL dengan menggunakan Gd2O3 sebesar 1.0069680 dan EOL sebesar 0.9961928 dengan excess reactivity sebesar 0.69 % dengan konsentrasi Gd2O3 7 ppm. Koefisien reaktivitas suhu bahan bakar,moderator dan pendingin berturut-turut sebesar -9,074583E-05/K, -2,971833E-05/K dan 1,120700E-05/K. Koefisien reaktivitas bernilai negatif menunjukkan karakteristik keselamatan melekat (inherent safety) telah terpenuhi. Peningkatan suhu masukan dan penurunan laju aliran pendingin berkontribusi menurunkan nilai keff teras sehingga koefisien reaktivitas bernilai negatif.Kata kunci : PBMR-HTR, kritikalitas, reaktivitas, down scale, burnable poison  Core and fuel down scale analysis on PBMR-HTR using SRAC program aims to identify the influence of U235 enrichment, burnable poison, coolant flow rate and coolant temperature entered to criticality core and safety aspects of nuclear reactor with the parameters are multiplication factor (keff) and fuel temperature coefficient, moderator temperature coefficient and coolant temperature coefficient. Core PBMR-HTR finite cylindrical with a hole in the middle which contains 334,000 pebble fuel bed. That consist of UO2 fuel, graphite moderator and helium coolant. Down scale the design model performed on the half core represent the whole core. The study was conducted by varying the fuel enrichment of 8%; 8.5%; 9%; 9.5% and 10%, while variation burnable poison enrichment at 5 ppm, 7 ppm, 9 ppm, 11 ppm and 15 ppm. The variation of coolant flow rate of 60%, 80%, 100%, 120% and 140% from its original value at 17.118 kg/s while the variation of coolant temperature input at 673.15 K; 723.15 K; 773.15 K; 823.15 K and 873.15 K. In this research, value of keff without Gd2O3 are 1.026213 (BOL) and 1.004173 (EOL) with excess reactivity of 2.55% with 9% U235 enrichment. While keff on BOL by using 7 ppm Gd2O3 of 1.006968 and 1.004198 for EOL with excess reactivity of 0.69%. Fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, moderator and coolant in a row for -8.597317E-05/K; -2.595284E-05 /K and 1.1496E-06/K. Temperature reactivity coefficient is negative. This indicates inherent safety characteristic have been met. Increasing the input temperature and coolant flow rate reduction lowers the value of keff core, and it will contribute to negative reactivity coefficient. Keywords : PBMR-HTR, criticality, reactivity, down scale, burnable poison
DESAIN TERAS PLTN JENIS PEBBLE BED MODULAR REACTOR (PBMR) MENGGUNAKAN PAKET PROGRAM MCNP-5 PADA KONDISI BEGINNING OF LIFE Marla, Ralind Re; Sardjono, Yohannes; Supardi, Supardi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 16, No 3 (2014): Oktober 2014
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

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Abstract

Telah dilakukan desain teras Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (PLTN) untuk jenis Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) dengan daya 70 MWe untuk keperluan proses smelter pada keadaan beginning of life (BOL). Analisis ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persen pengkayaan, distribusi suhu dan nilai keselamatan dengan koefisien reaktivitas teras yang negatif pada reaktor jenis PBMR apabila daya reaktor 70 MWe. Analisis menggunakan program Monte Carlo N-Particle-5 (MCNP5) dan dari hasil analisis ini diharapkan dapat memenuhi syarat dalam mendukung program percepatan pembangunan kelistrikan batubara 10.000 MWe khususnya untuk proses smelter, yang tersebar merata di wilayah Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, faktor perlipatan efektif (k-eff) Reaktor jenis PBMR daya 70 MWe mengalami kondisi kritis pada pengkayaan 5,626 % dengan nilai faktor perlipatan efektif 1,00031±0,00087 dan nilai koefisien reaktivitas suhu pada -10,0006 pcm/K. Dari hasil analisis daat disimpulkan bahwa reaktor jenis PBMR daya 70 MWe adalah aman.  ABSTRACT The core design of Nuclear Power Plant for Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) type with 70 MWe capacity power in Beginning of Life (BOL) has been performed. The aim of this analysis, to know percent enrichment, temperature distribution and safety value by negative temperature coefficient at type PBMR if reactor power become lower equal to 70 MWe. This analysis was expected become one part of overview project development the power plant with 10.000 MWe of total capacity, spread evenly in territory of Indonesia especially to support of smelter industries. The results showed that, effective multiplication factor (keff) with power 70 MWe critical condition at enrichment 5,626 %is 1,00031±0,00087, based on enrichment result, a value of the temperature coefficient reactivity is - 10,0006 pcm/K. Based on the results of these studies, it can beconcluded that the PBMR 70 MWe design is theoritically safe.
OPTIMIZATION OF A NEUTRON BEAM SHAPING ASSEMBLY DESIGN FOR BNCT AND ITS DOSIMETRY SIMULATION BASED ON MCNPX Ardana, I Made; Sardjono, Yohannes
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 19, No 3 (2017): Oktober 2017
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/tdm.2017.19.3.3582

Abstract

This article involves two main objectives of BNCT system. The first goal includes optimization of 30 MeV Cyclotron-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) beam shaping assembly. The second goal is to calculate the neutron flux and dosimetry system of BNCT in the head and neck soft tissue sarcoma. A series of simulations has been carried out using a Monte Carlo N Particle X program to find out the final composition and configuration of a beam shaping assembly design to moderate the fast neutron flux, which is generated from the thick beryllium target. The final configuration of the beam shaping assembly design includes a 39 cm aluminum moderator, 8.2 cm of lithium fluoride as a fast neutron filter and a 0.5 cm boron carbide as a thermal neutron filter. Bismuth, lead fluoride, and lead were chosen as the aperture, reflector, and gamma shielding, respectively. Epithermal neutron fluxes in the suggested design were 2.83 x 109 n/s cm-2, while other IAEA parameters for BNCT beam shaping assembly design have been satisfied. In the next step, its dosimetry for head and neck soft tissue sarcoma is simulated by varying the concentration of boron compounds in ORNL neck phantom model to obtain the optimal dosimetry results. MCNPX calculation showed that the optimal depth for thermal neutrons was 4.8 cm in tissue phantom with the maximum dose rate found in the GTV on each boron concentration variation. The irradiation time needed for this therapy were less than an hour for each level of boron concentration.Keywords: Optimization, Beam Shaping Assembly, BNCT, Dosimetry, 30 MeV Cyclotron, MCNPX. OPTIMASI DESAIN KOLIMATOR NEUTRON UNTUK SISTEM BNCT DAN UJI DOSIMETRINYA MENGGUNAKAN PROGRAM MCNPX. Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang sistem BNCT yang meliputi dua tahapan simulasi dengan menggunakan program MCNPX yaitu uji simulasi untuk optimasi desain kolimator neutron untuk sistem BNCT berbasis Siklotron 30 MeV dan uji simulasi untuk menghitung fluks neutron dan dosimetri radiasi pada kanker sarkoma jaringan lunak pada leher dan kepala. Tujuan simulasi untuk mendapatkan desain kolimator yang paling optimal dalam memoderasi fluks neutron cepat yang dihasilkan dari sistem target berilium sehingga dapat dihasilkan fluks neutron yang sesuai untuk sistem BNCT. Uji optimasi dilakukan dengan cara memvariasikan bahan dan ketebalan masing-masing komponen dalam kolimator seperi reflektor, moderator, filter neutron cepat, filter neutron thermal, filter radiasi gamma dan lubang keluaran. Desain kolimator yang diperoleh dari hasil optimasi tersusun atas moderator berbahan Al dengan ketebalan 39 cm, filter neutron cepat berbahan LiF2 setebal 8,2 cm, dan filter neutron thermal berbahan B4C setebal 0,5 cm. Untuk reflektor, filter radiasi gamma dan lubang keluaran masing-masing menggunakan bahan PbF2, Pb dan Bi. Fluks neutron epithermal yang dihasilkan dari kolimator yang didesain adalah sebesar 2,83 x 109 n/s cm-2 dan telah memenuhi seluruh parameter fluks neutron yang sesuai untuk sistem BNCT. Selanjutnya uji simulasi dosimetri pada kanker sarkoma jaringan lunak pada leher dan kepala dilakukan dengan cara memvariasikan konsentrasi senyawa boron pada model phantom leher manusia (ORNL). Selanjutnya model phantom tersebut diiradiasi dengan fluks neutron yang berasal dari kolimator yang telah didesain sebelumnya. Hasilnya, fluks neutron thermal mencapai nilai tertinggi pada kedalaman 4,8 cm di dalam model phantom leher ORNL dengan laju dosis tertinggi terletak pada area jaringan kanker. Untuk masing-masing variasi konsentrasi senyawa boron pada model phantom leher ORNL supaya dapat mematikan jaringan kanker, membutukan waktu iradiasi neutron kurang dari satu jam.Kata kunci: Optimasi, Kolimator, BNCT, Dosimetri, Siklotron 30 MeV, MCNPX
Co-Authors Abdullah Nur Aziz Adi, Yulwido Adrian Tesalonika, Adrian Agung Prastowo, Agung Andang Widi Harto Andang Widiharto Anggraeni Dwi Susilowati, Anggraeni Dwi Aniti Payudan, Aniti Arief Hermanto Aulia Setyo Wicaksono, Aulia Setyo Bagaswoto Poedjomartono, Bagaswoto Bemby Yulio Vallenry Bilalodin Bilalodin Bima Caraka Putra, Bima Boni Pahlanop Lapanporo Budi Setyahandana Darmayanti, Alifia Dwi Satya Palupi Eko Priyono Fahrudin Nugroho Fajar Nurjaman Faqqiyyah, Hamidatul Fasni, Bagus Novrianto Ferdy S. Rondonuwu Gede Bayu Suparta Gede Sutisna Wijaya, Gede Sutisna Gede Sutresna Wijaya Giner Maslebu, Giner Harish, Ahmad Faisal Hasyim, Kholidah Hidayat, Hardi Hilmi Tantawy, Hilmi Hutaria, Vika I Made Ardana Irhas Irhas, Irhas Isa Akhlis Isman Mulyadi Triatmoko, Isman Mulyadi Jans P B Siburian, Jans P B Jodelin Muninggar, Jodelin Kusminarto Kusminarto Larry E. Fennern Larry E. Fennern M. Ibnu Khaldun, M. Ibnu Mahmudah, Rida Siti Nur’aini maimanah, siti Martinus I Made Adrian Dwiputra, Martinus I Made Adrian Masanori Aritomi Maysaroh, Atika Mu?Alim, Muhammad Muhammad Ilma Muslih Arrozaqi, Muhammad Ilma Muslih Nina Fauziah Ntoy, Suhendra Gunawan Nur Endah Sari, Nur Endah Nurfatthan, Irfan pramusinta, rawi Prayoga Isyan, Prayoga Priambodo, Gani Rahayuningsih, Okti Dyah Ralind Re Marla Ramadhani, Amanda Dhyan Purna Ranti Warfi, Ranti Ratnasari, Nunung Gupita Rosenti Pasaribu, Rosenti S.B., Ramadhan Valiant Gill Sigit Santosa Simangunsong, Deo Clinton Maranatha Siti Rosidah Slamet Parmanto Soeparmi Soeparmi, Soeparmi Sri Yuniarti Sunardi Sunardi Sunarno Sunarno Sungkowo Wahyu Santoso Supardi Supardi Suryasatriya Trihandaru Susilo Susilo Susilo Widodo, Susilo Syamputra, Dhani Nur Indra Syarip Syarip Wahyuni, Nur Setyo Warsono Warsono Widarto Widarto Wijaya, Sista Dyah Wusko, Ikna Urwatul Yosaphat Sumardi Yuliana Dian N, Yuliana Dian Zailani, R Zailani, Rosilatul