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PEMBUATAN PIGMENT TITANIUM DIOKSIDA (TIO2) DARI ILMENITE (FETIO3) SISA PENGOLAHAN PASIR ZIRCONDENGANPROSES BECHER Mohar, Mohammad Taufik; Fatmawati, Dewi; Sasongko, Setia Budi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 4, Tahun 2013
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro,

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Abstract

Indonesia is a country that has a lot of Ilmenite (FeTiO3), but as yet only plays the role of an exporter of this important raw material. The exact conditions for processing Ilmenite into products for sand proficiency levels as well as industrial raw material pigments are not yet known. Improved grade of titanium dioxide as a separation process should be supported by research on natural raw material sources that can be used. One raw material is waste zircon sand in Central Kalimantan (Borneo), which contains 80-90% of Ilmenite. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of aeration time and concentration of salt catalyst (NH4Cl) on the transformation rate of iron (Fe) into iron oxide (Fe2O3), where iron oxide and titanium dioxide was separated by acid leaching process to produce pure titanium dioxide. The titanium oxide purification process adopted from Becher process which is the process of oxidation, reduction, aeration, leaching, stripping, and calcination. In this experiment, the fixed variables used were time of oxidation and reduction of 3 hours and time of calcination of 3 hours. The changing variables used were aeration time of 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours; and concentration of salt catalyst (NH4Cl) of 1%, 2%, and 3%. XRD (X-ray Diffraction) qualitative analysis and GSAS (General Structure Analysis System) quantitative analysis on the results showed an increase in TiO2 content on all the variables. The process of increasing TiO2 content at a variable of 1% NH4Cl gave the best result. The greater the concentration of NH4Cl catalyst, the smaller the TiO2 increase. The best time for improving the grade of TiO2 was 4 hours, proven by a very effective transformation of Fe into Fe2O3. The result of research gave a potential concentration of titanium dioxide was 45.86% with aeration process time of 4 hoursand NH4Cl concentration of 1%.
Annular split level shear tester sebagai alat pengukur karakteristik aliran bahan padat butiran Sasongko, Setia Budi
Reaktor Volume 5 No. 1 Juni 2001
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3238.048 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.5.1.16-20

Abstract

Jenike Shear Tester telah dikenal dengan baik sebagai suatu instrumen untuk mengetahui sifat pengaliran dari suatu bahan padat butiran. Hasil pengukuran bahan berdasarkan Jenike Shear Tester ini telah direkomendasikan sebagai suatu standar. Akan tetapi instrument ini memiliki eberapa keterbatasan antara lain: keterbatasan untuk geseran horizontal demikian juga dengan jumlah titik untuk membuat kurve patahan, diperlukan beberapa sample untuk membuat kurve patahan, dan juga adanya ketidak uniform antara bagian yang dekat dengan cincin dengan bagian tengah cincin. Untuk mengatasi hal ini, kemudian Peshcl mengembangkan shear tester jenis totational (RO 200), akan tetapi pada kenyataan masih terdapat beberapa kelemahan. Dengan mengurangi kelemahan yang terdapat pada  Peschl Shear Tester, maka pada penelitian ini, dikembangkan Shear Tester jenis Annular Split Level dengan hasil pengukuran yang mendekati hasil Jenike Shear Tester.Keyword : Shear Tester, Rotational  Shear Tester, Annular Split Level Shear Tester
PEMISAHAN KARBON TIDAK TERBAKAR DARI ABU TERBANG DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION (DAF) UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS ABU TERBANG Surjaatmadja, Vherlly; Mangkoto, Winandyo; Sasongko, Setia Budi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 3, Tahun 2013
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro,

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Abstract

Fly ash is a solid waste product of  coals combustion. Potential areas for the utilization of fly ash is in cement production, butthe unburned carbon in fly ash adversely affects the quality of final product (Miura, K 2010), and this research is a way to separate unburned carbon from fly ash using a flotation column with DAF system(Dissolved Air Flotation). This research is also aim to calculate the unburned carbon using LOI test (Lost On Ignition). This method, used to calculate unburned carbon content, will estimate energy potential from  fly ash recycles.The variable that used in this research is flotation times (15, 25, 35, 45, and 55) minutes and feed concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50) gram/liter. The result shows that the biggest of average % reduction of LOI is 55.1782% at 55 minutes of time variable. For concentration variable there is no significant differences because the average % differences is 7.5395%. Therefore the most effective variable in this research is 50 gram/liter of concentrations and 55 minutes of flotation times.
KONSENTRASI LOGAM BERAT DI PERAIRAN, SEDIMEN DAN BIOTA DENGAN FAKTOR BIOKONSENTRASINYA DI PERAIRAN BATU BELUBANG, KAB. BANGKA TENGAH Wahyuni, Hasti; Sasongko, Setia Budi; Sasongko, Dwi P
METANA Vol 9, No 02 (2013): Desember 2013
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (313.266 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v9i02.7612

Abstract

Abstract   The reduction of land that used for land-based mining caused the shift of mining from land-based mining to off-shore mining, that used to namedFloating Inkonvensional Mining. This type of mining caused waters quality degradation.This research aimed to analyze Pb, Cd, and Zn content in water, sediment, and biota so that the value of the bio-accumulation factor can beanalyzed.The locations determination was conducted by using purposive random sampling method and the implementation was using GPS Garmin 60 in June 2013. The sea water sampling was using the water sampler, the sediment sampling was using paralon pipe, the plankton sampling was using the plankton-net, the shellfishes sample was collected from the fishermen, and the chavies and squids sample was got from Baganin the waters of Pulau Panjang.The analysis of the metal in water and sediment was refer to the prosedur standard method (APHA, 2005), while the analysis of the heavy metal in the planktons and the tissue of the biota was refer to SNI 2354.5:2011. The content of metal was compared with the quality standard that have been determined.The Cd and Zn content in water was under the sea water quality standard for sea biota. The Pb in the waters have been exceeded the quality standard that have been determined in Kepmen LH no. 51 Tahun 2004.The Pb, Cd, and Zn content in sediment was  lower and far away from the quality sandard that have been determined by Norwegia and Irlandia. The heavy metal content in Anadara granosa, Stolephorus, sp, and Loligo chinensis, gray which were got chaught in the waters of Batu Belubang was lower thanthe national quality standard (SNI 2731.1:2010). The value of bio-concentration factor (BCFs-w) showed that the highest ability of sediment to accumulate Pb was existed in station number 2, i.e. 10,037 l/kg. The value of bio-concentration factor (BCFo-s) showed the plankton ability to accumulate Pb in sediment (1,26) was higher than its ability to accumulate Zn in sediment (1,22), while its ability to accumulate metal in water (BCFo-w) was as high as 8,275 in station number 2. The value of bio-concentration factor (BCFo-s) showed that the shellfish, chavies, and squid ability in accumulating metal in sediment was as high as 0,713; 0,564 and 0,703. The value of bio-accumulation of shellfish in sediment was higher because sediment was the habitat of shellfish.Floating Inkonvensional Mininghave contribution in spreading heavy metal, that was contained in the soil, to the waters. This condition needs supervision to control TI Apung growth in this location so that does not pollute the waters. Kata kunci : Lead(Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Zink (Zn), Water, Sediment,Plankton, Shellfish, Chavies,Squid, Batu Belubang, Floating Inkonvensional Mining, Bio-concentration Factor (BCF).  
PENGEMBANGAN PIRANTI LUNAK SISTEM PROSES BERSIFAT USER FRIENDLY DENGAN SCILAB (Open Source Software) Sasongko, Setia Budi
METANA Vol 5, No 2 (2007): Desember 2007
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5655.258 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v5i2.1904

Abstract

Abstract Requirement of software is necessary for the process system-computer simulation. ln reality, costly of software is one of restriction for the software development. However, the costly constraint can be solved using open source software such as Scilab and OpenOffice. The goa lof this article formulates user friendly program of the process system. Scilab program by Graphical User Interface (GUI) and interaction with Open Office-Cale for the data-base physical property. Scilab program has been listed in this article and algorithme of rhe program as the methodology has been presented in this article. Results of the simulation program indicate goodfinding for the process system.   Kata kunci : scilab; open office, simulasi komputer; oss (open source sortuare), Antar Muka Pcngguna - Graphical User Interface (GUI).
Preparation of Natural Zeolite for Air Dehumidification in Food Drying Djaeni, Mohamad; Laeli Kurniasari, Laeli; Sasongko, Setia Budi
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 8, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (182.262 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.8.2.80-83

Abstract

Drying with air dehumidification with solid adsorbent improves the quality of food product as well as energy efficiency. The natural zeolite is one of adsorbent having potential to adsorb the water.  Normally, the material was activated to open the pore, remove the organic impurities, and increase Si/Al rate. Hence, it can enhance the adsorbing capacity. This research studied the activation of natural zeolite mined from Klaten, Indonesia as air dehumidification for food drying. Two different methods were used involving activation by heat and NaOH introduction.  As indicators, the porosity and water loaded were evaluated. Results showed both methods improved the adsorbing capacity significantly. With NaOH, the adsorbing capacity was higher. The simple test in onion and corn drying showed the presence of activated natural zeolite can speed up water evaporation positively. This performance was also comparable with Zeolite 3A
PENGAMBILAN PEKTIN DARI KULIT PEPAYA DENGAN CARA EKSTRKSI Sofiana, Heni; Triaswuri, Khrista; Sasongko, Setia Budi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 1, Nomor 1, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro,

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Abstract

Pektin merupDari berbagPadahal baPemanfaatamerupakan kemampuanumumnya, ppelarut asammemanfaatkdalam ekstrpenelitian m1; 1,5; 2 jamorganik asaditentukan lsambil diaduberulang-uladianalisa kapektin mengrendemen pKondisi optidihasilkan teKata kunciPectin is oprocessing such as pecan additionalter the fufrom the plnew sourcetemperaturConduct ofextraction acid and owith the spwhile stirrirepeatedly.galacturonasolvent is mis 3.495% aof 80 ° C foKey words:MBILAN PHeni Sofiurusan Teknof. Soedartoupakan salah sgai pengolahagian tersebuan kulit pepakomponen tnnya dalam mpengambilan m. Tujuan dakan kulit pepayraksi pektin kmenggunakan m dengan meam asetat. Klalu bahan disuk-aduk hinggang. Pektin yadar metoksilggunakan peektin dengan pimum proses eergolong pekt: pektin, kulitone fruith thacan be productin. Utilizational componenunctional proplant can be does of pectin re and time inf research usitime 1, 1.5, 2rganic solvenpecified variabing until the p Pectin obtaiat. From the more optimumand 2.835% ofor 2 hours. Pe: pectin, papayPEKTIN iana, Khrisnik Kimia, o, Tembalansatu buah yanan tersebut dut masih meaya menjadi tambahan damengubah sifpektin dari ari penelitian ya sebagai bakemudian memetode ekstranggunakan duKulit pepaya ysaring denganga terbentuk eyang diperoll dan galaktularut asam kpelarut asamekstraksi pengtin dengan kadt pepaya, ekstrat can be conuced waste ason of papaya pnt in the food perties such asdone by extracusing papayan the extractioing the metho2 hours by usint acetic acid.bles and the pectin precipitined was drieanalysis showm than the aceof acetic acid. ectin is producya peel, extraDARI KUEKSTRAsta TriaswuFakultas Teng, SemaranAbstrang dapat dikodapat dihasilkemiliki kandpektin dapatalam industri fat fungsionaltanaman dapini adalah uahan bakunya,enetapkan konaksi dengan mua jenis pelaryang telah dn kertas saringendapan pektileh dikeringkaronatnya. Daklorida lebih klorida adalagambilan pektdar metoksil rtraksiAbstransumed directs the peel. Thpeel of pectinindustry, coss viscosity proction using aca peel as a on of pectin tod of extractiing two types Which has bmaterial wastate formed. Ted in an oven ws that the reetic acid solveThe optimumced relatively ctionULIT PEPAKSI uri, Setia Beknik, Univng, 50239, Tak nsumsi langsukan limbah sdungan senyat meningkatkamakanan, kl produk seppat dilakukanuntuk mengem, mengetahui pndisi optimummenvariasikanrut yaitu pelardihaluskan dieg. Filtrat hasiin. Endapan dan dalam ovari hasil analioptimal darah 3,495 % setin adalah padrendah untuk kct tly or processhough the sec can increasesmetics and poducts, emulsicid solvent. Thraw materialthen sets the oion with varias of solvents, been mashed ps filtered withThe precipitatand weighedesults of extraent. The averam conditions oflow levels mePAYA DEBudi Sasongversitas DipoTelp/Fax: (0ung atau diolaseperti kulit yawa yang bekan nilai tamkosmetik mauperti kekentalan dengan carmbangkan sumpengaruh jenm berdasarkan suhu 70, 80,rut anorganikekstraksi sesuil penyaringandisaring dan dven dan ditimisa menunjukripada pelaruedangkan asada suhu 80oC kedua jenis pesed into foodction still cone the value-addharmaceuticaions and gels.he purpose ofl, determine toptimum condation of tempnamely inorgpapaya peel ih filter paper.te was filteredd, then analyzaction of pectiage yield withf extraction petoksil for botENGAN Cgko *) onegoro 024)746005ah menjadi pryang dibuangermanfaat sembah dari peupun obat-oban, emulsi dra ekstraksi mmber pektin bis pelarut , sun rendemen. , 90oC dan wak asam kloridauai dengan vn ditambah ddicuci dengan mbang beratnkkan bahwa hut asam asetam asetat sebeselama 2 jamelarut. d products. Frntains compoudded from papals because of. In general, mf this study wthe effect of ditions based perature 70, 8ganic solvents is extracted in Filtrate addd and washedzed for levels in using hydrh hydrochloricprocess is at ath types of solvCARA 58 roduk pangan.g begitu saja.eperti pektin.epaya. Pektinbatan karenadan jel. Padamenggunakanbaru denganuhu dan waktuPelaksanaanaktu ekstraksia dan pelarutvariabel yangdengan etanoletanol secaranya kemudianhasil ekstraksitat. Rata-rataesar 2,835 %.m. Pektin yangFrom variousunds is usefulaya. Pectin isf its ability tomaking pectinwas to developsolvent type,on the yield.80, 90oC andhydrochloricn accordanceded to ethanold with ethanolmetoksil androchloric acidc acid solventa temperaturevents.
PENGARUH KONSENTRASI UMPAN DAN TEMPERATUR AWAL PADA REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI BIODIESEL BERBANTUKAN ULTRASONIK DARI MINYAK GORENG SECARA KONTINU Aulia, Haris Nu’man; Widayat, Widayat; Sasongko, Setia Budi
MOMENTUM Vol 9, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : MOMENTUM

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari kelakuan dinamika proses transesterifikasi dari minyak goreng bekas berbantukan gelombang ultrasonik. Persamaan kinetika reaksi transesterifikasi diperoleh dari penelitian Aulia,  et al  (2012). Reaksi dijalankan dalam Reaktor Tangki Berpengaduk Aliran Kontinyu (CSTR), dimana reaktor ini memainkan peranan penting dalam industri kimia. Proses simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak SIMULINK-MATLAB. Dinamika yang dipelajari meliputi konsentrasi reaktan, produk dan  temperatur. Dinamika konsentrasi meliputi minyak, metanol, biodiesel ,dan gliserol. Dinamika temperatur meliputi temperatur reaktor dan pendingin. Dari hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi awal umpan minyak semakin  cepat  waktu  mencapai  steady state pada produk  biodiesel.  Semakin tinggi temperatur awal reaktor semakin cepat waktu untuk mencapai steady state. Waktu untuk mencapai steady state pada jaket pendingin tidak dipengaruhi kondisi suhu awal reaktor.   Kata kunci: dinamika, transesterifikasi,  ultrasonic, konsentrasi umpan, temperature umpan, simulink
Kinetic Study on Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Widayat, Widayat; Hadiyanto, H; Sasongko, Setia Budi
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Vol 47, No 4 (2015)
Publisher : ITB Journal Publisher, LPPM ITB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (212.602 KB) | DOI: 10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2015.47.4.3

Abstract

The objective of this research was to study  a kinetic model of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil assisted by ultrasound power. The model considered the biodiesel production process as a 2nd order reversible reaction, while its kinetic parameters were estimated using MATLAB, based on data extracted from Hingu, et al. [1]. The data represented experiments under low-frequency ultrasonic wave (20 kHz) and variations of temperature, power, catalyst concentration, and alcohol-oil molar ratio. Statistical analysis showed that the proposed model fits well to the experimental data with a determination coefficient (R2) higher than 0.9.
PENGARUH SUHU DAN LAJU ALIR UDARA PENGERING PADA PENGERINGAN KARAGINAN MENGGUNAKAN TEKNOLOGI SPRAY DRYER Dwika, Ruben Tinosa; Ceningsih, Trisna; Sasongko, Setia Budi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 1, Nomor 1, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro,

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Abstract

Carrageenan, as one of the treatment of seaweed, is very important role in food and beverage industry, pharmaceuticals, and others. The low quality of carrageenan in the state due to the less accurate drying system which is used as the final materials handling unit (finishing product). The method of spray dryer is drying the liquid by contacting the liquid droplets in the opposite direction or the direction of hot air. Humidity can be reduced by passing the air in the adsorbent column that will absorb moisture in it before entering the furnace room. Carrageenan with a spray drying process using zeolite as an absorbent of moisture is an alternative option to achieve an effective hot air. Variable used in this research was the temperature change of air for drying (70°C, 80oC, 90oC, 100oC) and a flow rate of air dryers (11 m / sec, 12 m / sec, 13 m / sec, 14 m / sec). The results showed that water content carrageenan products affected by temperature and air velocity dryer into the column. Carrageenan results with the lowest water content of 11.19% is achieved on the process conditions with a temperature of 100oC column with drying air velocity 14 m / sec. In addition, the heat transfer process (based on temperature) is more affected than the mass transfer processes of momentum transfer (based on drying air flow rate). As well, the efficiency of the drying process the product increases with increasing drying temperature and air velocity. The efficiency of the drying process the product for 83.33% carrageenan obtained at 100oC temperature conditions and the drying air velocity 14 m/sec.