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ESTERIFICATION OF FREE FATTY ACID IN CRUDE PALM OIL OFF GRADE Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Satriana, Satriana
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 7, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

The esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) found in crude palm oil (CPO) off grade with methanol is a promising technique to convert FFA into valuable fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, biodiesel) and obtain a FFA-free oil that can be further transesterified using alkali bases. In this work, the effects of the main variables involved in the esterification process i.e. alcohol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, agitation speed and the initial amount of FFA of oil, were studied in the presence of sulphuric acid as catalyst at concentration of 1%-w. The experimental results show that the esterification process could lead to a practical and cost effective FFA removal unit in front of typical oil transesterification for biodiesel production.Keywords: CPO off grade, esterification, free fatty acid
PENGARUH ION KALSIUM (Ca2+) TERHADAP AKTIVITAS PEKTINASE HASIL ISOLASI DARI Bacillus firmus Satriana, Satriana; Roosdiana, Anna; Prasetyawan, Sasangka
Jurnal Ilmu Kimia Universitas Brawijaya Vol 2, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Jurusan Kimia, FMIPA Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Pektinase merupakan enzim hidrolase yang mampu memecah ikatan α-1,4 glikosidik pada poligalakturonat menjadi asam galakturonat. Pektinase dapat diproduksi dari berbagai macam mikroorganisme seperti Aspergillus niger dan Bacillus firmus. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan ion Ca2+ terhadap aktivitas pektinase dari Bacillus firmus dan menentukan parameter kinetika. Pektinase yang digunakan berupa ekstrak kasar. Pengukuran kadar protein pektinase dilakukan menggunakan reagen Biuret dan asam galakturonat menggunakan reagen DNS secara spektrofotometer. Aktivitas pektinase diperoleh dari asam galakturonat yang terbentuk oleh pektinase setiap 1 mL per menit. Pengaruh ion Ca2+ ditentukan pada konsentrasi ion Ca2+ 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, dan 10 mM, sedangkan parameter kinetika ditentukan pada variasi konsentrasi substrat 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; dan 2,5 % (b/v). Kadar protein pektinase bebas diperoleh sebesar 1,200 mg/mL. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ion Ca2+ bertindak sebagai aktivator. Konsentrasi ion Ca2+ 10 mM dapat meningkatkan aktivitas pektinase dari 0,636 µgmL-1menit-1 menjadi 7,608 µgmL-1menit-1. Parameter kinetika pektinase dengan penambahan Ca2+ 10 mM mempunyai Vmaks sebesar 29,41 U dan KM = 1,91 %. Kata Kunci : Bacillus firmus, Ca2+,  DNS, pektinase
USE OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION: A LITERATURE SURVEY Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Satriana, Satriana
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 5, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

Biodiesel has been shown to be the best substitute for fossil-based fuels to its environmental advantages and renewable resource availability. There is a great demand for the commercialization of biodiesel production, which in turn calls for a technically and economically reactor technology. The production of biodiesel in existing batch and continuous-flow processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. In this study, a novel reactor system using a reactive distillation (RD) technique was discussed for biodiesel production. RD is a chemical unit operation in which chemical reactions and separations occur simultaneously in one unit. It is an effective alternative to the classical combination of reactor and separation units especially when involving reversible or consecutive chemical reactions such as transesterication process in biodiesel production.
EKSTRAKSI OLEORESIN DARI LIMBAH PENYULINGAN PALA MENGGUNAKAN ULTRASONIK Arpi, Normalina; Satriana, Satriana; Rezekiah, Kiki
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 9, No 4 (2013): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v9i4.1232

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh ukuran partikel limbah penyulingan pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) dan suhu ekstraksi terhadap rendemen dan mutu oleoresin pala yang dihasilkan pada proses ekstraksi pelarut menggunakan bantuan ultrasonik. Etanol mutu teknis (technical grade) digunakan sebagai pelarut. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) Faktorial dengan ulangan sebagai kelompok yang terdiri dari ukuran partikel bahan (P) yaitu P1= 10 mesh, P2= 40 mesh dan P3= 60 mesh dan suhu ekstraksi (S) yaitu S1= 40oC, S2= 50oC dan S3= 60oC. Analisis oleoresin pala yang dilakukan meliputi analisis awal (kadar air dan kadar abu) dan analisis akhir (bobot jenis, indeks bias, dan sisa pelarut). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh terhadap rendemen dan mutu oleoresin yang dihasilkan. Rendemen tertinggi sebesar 7,16% diperoleh pada  ukuran partikel 10 mesh dan suhu 60oC. Hasil analisis bobot jenis oleoresin menunjukkan bahwa bobot jenis tertinggi yaitu 1,250 dihasilkan pada suhu ekstraksi 50oC. Sementara itu, hasil analisis indeks bias oleoresin menunjukkan bahwa ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi memberikan pengaruh yang sangat nyata terhadap oleoresin pala dimana ukuran partikel 40 mesh pada suhu ekstraksi 40oC dan 60oC  serta ukuran partikel 60 mesh pada suhu 50oC memiliki nilai indeks bias yang lebih tinggi yaitu berkisar antara 1,476 hingga 1,480. Hasil analisis sisa pelarut juga menunjukkan bahwa ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh terhadap tingginya sisa pelarut, dimana ukuran partikel 10 mesh mengandung sisa pelarut 0,229% dan suhu ekstraksi 40oC mengandung sisa pelarut 0,265%.
HIDRODISTILASI MINYAK JAHE (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.) Supardan, Muhamad Dani; Ruslan, Ruslan; Satriana, Satriana; Arpi, Normalina
Reaktor Volume 12, Nomor 4, Desember 2009
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (625.598 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.12.4.239 – 244

Abstract

Penelitian tentang penyulingan minyak jahe dengan metode hidrodistilasi menggunakan gelombang ultrasonik telah dilakukan. Variabel proses yang diamati adalah perbandingan pelarut air dan bubuk jahe atau SF rasio (8:1, 10:1, 12:1 dan 14:1) dan temperatur hidrodistilasi (80, 85, 90 dan 95oC). Proses hidrodistilasi dilakukan menggunakan ultrasonic bath dengan frekuensi 37 kHz. Sebagai pembanding dilakukan juga proses hidrodistilasi tanpa bantuan ultrasonik. Minyak jahe yang diperoleh berupa cairan berwarna kuning terang dengan aroma jahe yang khas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hidrodistilasi tanpa bantuan ultrasonik hanya dapat mengekstrak 49% minyak atsiri dalam bahan, sedangkan hidrodistilasi dengan bantuan ultrasonik mampu mengekstrak hingga 84% minyak atsiri dalam bahan pada kondisi temperatur 80oC dan SF rasio 12:1. Hasil analisis dengan kromatografi gas menunjukkan komponen dengan komposisi tertinggi dalam minyak jahe hasil hidrodistilasi dengan bantuan ultrasonik adalah Zingiberene. Hasil analisis beberapa parameter terhadap produk menunjukkan minyak jahe sudah memenuhi spesifikasi menurut Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) Nomor 06-1312-1998.
FORMULASI BISKUIT KELAPA PARUT KERING DENGAN PERLAKUAN PENYANGRAIAN DAN TANPA PENYANGRAIAN Lubis, Yanti Meldasari; Satriana, Satriana; Fahrizal, Fahrizal; Darlia, Eni
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia Vol 6, No 2 (2014): Vol.(6) No.2, June 2014
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17969/jtipi.v6i2.2065

Abstract

The study of the formulation of desiccated coconut biscuits by roasting and without roasting was investigated. This research was conducted using randomized block design consisted of two factors and three replications. The first factor is the percentage of the desiccated coconut addition to wheat flour with three levels (25%, 50% and 75%). The second factor is the variation treatment of the desiccated coconut; roasting and without roasting. The result showed that the percentage of desiccated coconut addition to wheat flour has a significant effect on protein content. The treatment of roasting and without roasting has very significant effect on the peroxide number and significant effect on the moisture content, sensory test (aroma and taste). The interaction factor between the percentage of desiccated coconut addition to wheat flour and the treatment of roasting and without roasting has a very significant effect on the fat content and has a significant effect on the sensory test (aroma and taste). The best formulation of the desiccated coconut biscuits based on the sensory test was obtained from the addition of75% of desiccated coconut without roasting.
PENGARUH PELAPISAN KITOSAN TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA TOMAT SEGAR (LYCOPERSICUM PYRIFORME) PADA BERBAGAI TINGKAT KEMATANGAN Novita, Melly; Satriana, Satriana; Martunis, Martunis; Rohaya, Syarifah; Hasmarita, Etria
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia Vol 4, No 3 (2012): Vol.(4) No.3, October 2012
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17969/jtipi.v4i3.736

Abstract

Tomato fruit undergoes many physicochemical changes after harvest caused by the process of metabolism. The method used to inhibit the metabolic processes in tomatoes can be overcome by controlled atmosphere storage. However, this method requires a high cost. Therefore there is another method that is more practical and economical to imitate the mechanism of the controlled atmosphere is by the use of coating materials (coating). Coating material must be able to form a barrier layer of the loss of water content and can maintain fruit quality and does not pollute the environment. Chitosan is a natural alternative as a coating material that is non-toxic and safe for health. This study aimed to observe the effect of chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of fresh tomatoes at different maturity levels. The study design used was completely randomized design (CRD) factorial with two factors. The factor I was the maturity stages which consisted of 3 (three) levels : K1 = full green (0-10% red skin), K2 = light red (30-60% red skin), K3 = ripe ( 70% red skin). Factor II is storage duration which consisted of 5 (five) level : P1 = 0 day, P2 = 5 days, P3 = 10 days, P4 = 15 days, P5 = 20 days, with 2 (two) replications. The analysis conducted on tomatoes were weight loss, solusble solids concentration, total acid, and vitamin C. The results showed that the tomatoes were coated chitosan could inhibit weight loss, soluble solids concentration, total acid, and vitamin C than untreated tomatoes (control). Chitosan coating with a concentration of 1% and a long soaking for 10 minutes on the tomatoes with the maturity stages of 0-10% skin red and 30-60% skin red could maintain in good condition for 20 days of storage. But the tomatoes with the maturity stage 70% red skin only able to survive 10 days of storage. 
KANDUNGAN LIKOPEN DAN KAROTENOID BUAH TOMAT (LYCOPERSICUM PYRIFORME) PADA BERBAGAI TINGKAT KEMATANGAN: PENGARUH PELAPISAN DENGAN KITOSAN DAN PENYIMPANAN Novita, Melly; Satriana, Satriana; Hasmarita, Etria
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2015): Vol.(7) No.1, April 2015
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17969/jtipi.v7i1.2832

Abstract

(Lycopen And Carotenoid Contents Of Tomato (Lycopersicum Pyriforme) On Different Maturity Stages: Influence Of Chitosan Coating And Storage).ABSTRACT. Tomato as a young fruit has light green to dark green, hairy, and has a sour taste, bitter, and bad smelling because it contains lycopersicin. However, after its mature became slightly yellow, bright red or dark, yellowish red, yellow or dark red, and it tastes will be good because of more mature the fruit, content of lycopersicin disappeared. Carotenoids especially lycopene and ?-carotene is a major component that determines the color of ripe tomatoes. This study was conducted to determine the changes in the content of carotenoids and lycopene along with a change in color in tomatoes were coated with chitosan during storage. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized factorial design (CRD). The first factor was level of maturity (M) that consisted of three (3) levels: M1 = breaker green tomatoes(0-10% red skin), M2 = half-ripe tomatoes (30-60% red skin), M3 = red tomatoes ( 70% red skin). The second factor was storage time (P) consisted of 5 (five) levels: P1 = 0 day, P2 = 5 days, P3 = 10 days = 15 days P4, P5 = 20 days, with 2 replications. Analysis conducted on tomatoes include: analysis of lycopene, carotenoids, and sensory test of skin color. The results showed that the chitosan-coated tomatoes had higher levels of lycopene and carotenoids content than the tomatoes without treatment (control). Level of maturity in tomatoes significantly effect on the formation of lycopene and carotenoids content during storage. In addition to the chitosan coating tomatoes are also able to maintain the color of tomatoes during storage.
Transesterifikasi In Situ Biji Jarak Pagar Menggunakan Kavitasi Hidrodinamik Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Satriana, Satriana; Moulana, Ryan
Agritech Vol 34, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (359.723 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9521

Abstract

In this study, the in situ transesterification of jatropha seed using hydrodynamic cavitation for the production of biodieselwas studied. Experiments were carried out under the following conditions: 800 mL of methanol volume, 50oC of reaction temperature, 2 g of potassium hidroxide catalyst, less than 3% of moisture content in jatropha seed and 0,355-1,18 mm of particle size. From experiment without co-solvent addition, the highest biodiesel yield of 35% obtained at condition: time of process of 120 minute and ratio of methanol to jatropha seed of 16 (mL/g) . The use of co-solvent of hexane provided a higher yield of biodiesel compared to the system without co-solvents. The highest biodiesel yield of 60% were obtained under the addition of 95 mL of hexane volume. In addition, the use hydrodynamic cavitation provided a higher yield of biodiesel compared to the system using mechanical stirring. The biodiesel produced in the experiment was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which showed that methyl oleate was the highest compound in biodiesel.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari proses produksi biodiesel dari biji jarak pagar melalui proses transesterifikasi in situ menggunakan kavitasi hidrodinamik. Transesterifikasi in situ dilakukan pada kondisi: volume metanol 800 mL, temperatur proses 50oC, katalis kalium hidroksida 2 g, kandungan air biji jarak kurang dari 3% dan ukuran partikel biji jarak 0,355-1,18 mm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rendemen biodiesel tertinggi sebesar 35% yang dihasilkan dari proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak pagar menggunakan kavitasi hidrodinamik tanpa penambahan co-solvent diperoleh pada penggunaan waktu proses 120 menit dan rasio volume metanol terhadap berat biji jarak 16 (mL/g). Penggunaan co-solvent heksana terbukti dapat meningkatkan rendemen biodiesel yang dihasilkan dimana pada penambahan volume heksana sebanyak 95 mL diperoleh rendemen biodiesel sebesar 60%. Proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak menggunakan kavitasi hidrodinamik menghasilkan rendemen biodiesel yang lebih besar dibandingkan proses menggunakan pengaduk mekanik. Hasil analisis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) menunjukkan komponen terbesar dalam produk biodiesel adalah metil oleat.
Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Hydrodinamic Cavitation Supardan, Muhammad; Satriana, Satriana; Mahlinda, Mahlinda
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 16, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (88.887 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v16i2.247

Abstract

The aim of this research was to study biodiesel production from low cost feedstock of waste cooking oil (WCO) using hydrodynamic cavitation apparatus. A two-step processes esterification process and transesterification process using hydrodynamic cavitation for the production of biodiesel from WCO is presented. The first step is acid-catalyzed esteri-fication process for reducing free fatty acid (FFA) content of WCO and followed by base-catalyzed transesterification process for converting WCO to biodiesel as the second step. The result of esterification process with methanol to oil molar ratio of 5 and temperature of 60 oC showed that the initial acid value of WCO of 3.9 mg KOH/g can be decreased to 1.81 mg KOH/g in 120 minutes. The highest yield of biodiesel in transesterification process of 89.4% obtained at reaction time of 150 minutes with methanol to oil molar ratio of 6. The biodiesel produced in the experiment was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which showed that it mainly contained five fatty acid methyl esters. In addition, the properties of biodiesel showed that all of the fuel properties met the Indonesian National Standard (INS) No. 04-7182-2006 for biodiesel.