Meity Suradji Sinaga
Departemen Proteksi Tanaman, Institut Pertanian Bogor

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ASAM SALISILAT SEBAGAI PENGINDUKSI KETAHANAN TANAMAN PADI TERHADAP PENYAKIT HAWAR DAUN BAKTERI Leiwakabessy, Christoffol; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Mutaqin, Kikin Hamzah; Trikoesoemaningtyas, Trikoesoemaningtyas; Giyanto, Giyanto
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 13 No 6 (2017)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (287.697 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.13.6.207

Abstract

The use of salicylic acid as resistance inducers agents in several plants species was well known. Salicylic acid has been believed to play an important role in inducing resistance against some pathogen. This research was aimed to study the role and effectiveness of salicylic acid as inducers for the resistance of some rice variety against bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized factorial design with three factors i.e. rice variety, salicylic acid, and pathotypes, each treatment was replicated three times. The results showed that salicylic acid could prolong the latent period of X. oryzae pv. oryzae pathotypes IV and VIII in paddy rice varieties Conde and Ciherang,  induce the resistance of rice varieties as well as reducing the rate of infection of the two mentioned pathotypes. Salicylic acid was also able to induce the resistance of Conde and Ciherang varieties in order to suppress area under disease progress curve (AUDPC)  of X. oryzae pv. oryzae pathotypes IV and VIII.
THE POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL AGENT BACTERIA AGAINST FOR CONTROLING IMPORTANT PATHOGENS ON RICE Dewi, Ratna Sari; Giyanto, Giyanto; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Dadang, Dadang; Nuryanto, Bambang
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 16 No 1 (2020)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (608.052 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.16.1.37-48

Abstract

Saat ini teknologi pengendalian hayati penyakit utama padi terus berkembang. Dalam pengembangan teknologi pengendalian hayati, mekanisme penghambatan patogen dalam perkembangan penyakit pada suatu populasi tumbuhan dalam area tertentu menjadi hal yang penting. Penelitian bertujuan mendapatkan bakteri agens hayati potensial dalam pengendalian penyakit penting padi di antaranya yang disebabkan Pyricularia oryzae, Xanthomnas oryzae pv. oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Burkholderia glumae, dan Drechlera oryzae, berdasarkan mekanisme antagonisme, kemampuan menginduksi ketahanan dan mendukung kebugaran tanaman, serta kompatibilitas antaragens hayati. Ralstonia pickettii TT47, Pseudomonas fluorescens P12, Chromobacterium sp. T51118, Bacillus subtilis 451 dan 154, serta Streptomyces sp. T51105 dibuktikan memiliki mekanisme antibiosis dengan menghasilkan metabolit sekunder dan senyawa volatil. Berdasarkan uji produksi enzim kitinolitik Chromobacterium sp. dan Streptomyces sp. memiliki mekanisme lisis. Aktivitas antibiotik R. pickettii dan P. fluorescens tergolong kuat terhadap P. oryzae dengan penekanan secara berurutan sebesar 79.68% dan 77.59% pada uji biakan ganda. Penekanan pertumbuhan miselium P. oryzae dan R. solani pada uji volatil mencapai 100% oleh Chromobacterium sp. Semua agens hayati umumnya mampu menginduksi ketahanan dan mendukung kebugaran tanaman. Uji kompatibilitas menunjukan R. pickettii, P. fluorescens, dan Chromobacterium sp. bersifat kompatibel. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh tiga bakteri agens hayati dengan kategori unggul, yaitu P. fluorescens P12, R. pickettii TT47, dan Chromobacterium sp. T51118. Ketiganya mampu menekan pertumbuhan patogen, menginduksi ketahanan dan mendukung kebugaran tanaman, memiliki patogen sasaran yang lebih beragam, serta bersifat kompatibel.
IDENTIFIKASI PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG PADA JERUK Retnosari, Eka; Henuk, Julinda Bendalina Dengga; Sinaga, Meity Suradji
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 10 No 3 (2014)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (316.036 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.10.3.93

Abstract

One major disease of citrus is basal stem rot which may cause significant constraint on citrus production in Indonesia. Research was initiated to identify the causal agent of basal stem rot disease from 11 citrus growing areas in Indonesia. Identification of fungal pathogens was based on macroscopic and microscopic observation of morphological characters. Koch Postulate was conducted to confirm the causal agent of the disease. Two fungal pathogens, Botryodiplodia theobromae, and Phytophthora citrophthora were found associated with basal stem rot disease. B. theobromaewere isolated from all plant samples, whereas P. citrophthorawas only isolated on samples from Soe (East Nusa Tenggara). Characteristic symptoms of basal stem rot disease was developed on plants inoculated with B. theobromae and P. citrophthora; this confirmed that two fungal isolates was the causal agent of basal stem rot disease.
KEEFEKTIFAN PERLAKUAN PANAS KERING DAN IRADIASI UV-C UNTUK MEMATIKAN CENDAWAN MODEL MICROCYCLUS ULEI Cristin, Aprida; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Adnan, Abdul Muin
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 9 No 2 (2013)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (392.231 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.9.2.59

Abstract

This study was carried out to develop treatment methods and determine the effective dose of dry heat treatment and UV-C irradiation to kill the fungus models of Microcyclus ulei on soybean grains and soybean meals without damaging its nutritional content. The fungus models used in this study were Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, and Sclerotium rolfsii. The results showed that UV-C treatment up to 12 and 24 hours exposure time at15 and 30 cm from UV-C light was not effective to kill all fungus models in PDA. Dry heat treatment at 55 °C for 30 and 60 minutes was effective to kill cultures of C. gloeosporioides, B. theobromae, and S. rolfsii in PDA, except for F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Further experiments on soybean showed that dry heat treatment at 55 °C for 30 minutes was effective to kill conidia of C. gloeosporioides, B. theobromae, and F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum, without damaging its protein content. However, dry heat treatment at 60 °C for 60 minutes has been proved not effective to kill sclerotia of S. rolfsii. If M. ulei had the similar resistance as S. rolfsii, then it would need a higher temperature and time than used in this study to kill the fungusKey words: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, effective doses, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Sclerotium rolfsii, soybean meals
MEKANISME PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BUSUK BATANG JERUK OLEH KHAMIR, KITOSAN, CENDAWAN MIKORIZA ARBUSKULAR, DAN BAKTERI SIMBIOTIKNYA Khairani, Hagia Sophia; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Mutaqin, Kikin Hamzah
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 13 No 1 (2017)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (540.369 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.13.1.17

Abstract

Plant diseases become an important constraint on citrus production.  Stem rot disease caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae is a major disease on citrus in Indonesia. This study was aimed to evaluate the mechanism of yeast, arbuscular mychorrhiza fungi (AMF), symbiotic bacteria of AMF and chitosan in controlling stem rot disease.  In vitro study was performed to evaluate the mechanism of antibiosis, hyperparasitism, production of volatile compounds, and production of chitinase enzyme. The experiment was continued by in planta assays using yeast, AMF, symbiotic bacteria of AMF, and chitosan either singly or in combination. The experiments were performed using completely randomized design with 3 replications. Disease progress were observed based on its latent period, AUDPC, infection rate, AMF association rate, and total phenol content. In vitro studies indicated that the yeasts showed hyperparasitism to B. theobromae with affinity of 26 cells per hyphae, produced volatile compounds with relative resistance level (RRL) 29.1%, and produced chitinase. Selected symbiotic bacteria from AMF showed antibiosis with RRL 42.9%, production of volatile compounds with RRL 26.7%, and has 98% homology with Bacillus subtilis from Vietnam. Application of yeast + AMF + chitosan delayed disease latent period and suppressed disease incidence. Single AMF and combination of yeast + AMF suppressed disease severity, infection rate, and AUDPC. Application of yeast + AMF showed highest association level of AMF and total phenol content. Therefore, the application of AMF and yeast + AMF is recommended in controlling citrus stem rot disease.
IDENTIFIKASI MOLEKULER FITOPLASMA YANG BERASOSIASI DENGAN TANAMAN KAKTUS HIAS OPUNTIA SP. Prasetya, Ariny; Mutaqin, Kikin Hamzah; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Giyanto, Giyanto
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 13 No 4 (2017)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (449.327 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.13.4.145

Abstract

Cactus species (Opuntia sp.) is a popular ornamental succulent plant. Some ornamental cactus species in Indonesia showing proliferation and green mosaic pattern symptoms have been reported to be associated with phytoplasma infection. However, further molecular identification for accurate classification of the causal phytoplasma has not been done.  This study aimed to diagnose phytoplasma associated with Opuntia sp. based on molecular methods involving PCR standard combined with nested-PCR, cloning and DNA sequencing. Standard PCR was carried out using P1/P7 primers followed by nested-PCR using R16F2n/R16R2 or fU5/rU3 primer pairs which amplify the 16S rRNA gene targets of 1.2 kb and 880 bp, respectively. Amplified fragment of nested-PCR using R16F2n/R16R2 primers was chosen to be cloned and sequenced for further identification and classification of phytoplasma.  BLASTn analysis showed that the phytoplasma from Opuntia sp. was closely related to 16SrII group. Phylogenetic analysis and in silico RFLP indicated that phytoplasma strain infecting Opuntia sp. was a member of subgroup 16SrII-C (cactus witches? broom phytoplasma). This is a newly report of cactus witches? broom phytoplasma on Opuntia sp. in Indonesia.   
Antagonism Mechanism of Epiphytic Yeast against Anthracnose Pathogen (Colletotrichum acutatum) on Chilli Hartati, Sri; Wiyono, Suryo; Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti; Sinaga, Meity Suradji
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 23, No 1 (2019): In Press
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.40951

Abstract

Epiphytic yeasts have the potency as antagonistic agents against various pathogens of post-harvest products. Anthracnose is a major disease of chilli that causes high economic loss. This research was objected to study the antagonism mechanism of epiphytic yeast isolates that have the antagonistic potency against anthracnose pathogen on chilli (Colletotrichum acutatum). Twenty-two isolates of epiphytic yeasts, isolated from chilli leaves and fruit, were tested. The characterization of the antagonism was carried out by antibiosis, anti-fungus volatile production, and chitinolytic activity tests. The results showed that all tested isolates did not have antibiosis mechanism against C. acutatum. All isolates produced volatile compounds which inhibited the colony growth of C. acutatum. Four isolates showed high relative inhibition rate, i.e. isolates B32DEP (35.68%), B30DEP (37.52%), B23DEP (38.52%), and B29DEP (45.42%). Fourteen isolates showed chitinolytic activities. Three of them had high chitinolytic activities, i.e. B12DEP, B2DEP, and G237DEP.
Metode Deteksi Cendawan Penyebab Infeksi Laten pada Buah Jeruk Impor Nurholis, Nurholis; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Tondok, Efi Toding
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 25, No 4 (2015): Desember 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jhort.v25n4.2015.p357-366

Abstract

Infeksi laten adalah hubungan parasitik patogen yang bersifat dorman dalam tanaman inang, yang dapat berubah menjadi patogen yang aktif. Patogen infeksi laten pada buah jeruk impor berpotensi tinggi sebagai sumber inokulum yang dapat menyebabkan epidemik penyakit tumbuhan di Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menetapkan metode yang akurat, cepat, dan dapat diaplikasikan untuk mendeteksi keberadaan cendawan penyebab infeksi laten pada buah jeruk impor. Penelitian dilaksanakan berdasarkan studi kasus buah jeruk impor asal Argentina melalui pintu pemasukan Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak, Surabaya. Perlakuan deteksi cendawan telah dilakukan pada bagian kalik, kulit, biji, dan karpel dari buah jeruk menggunakan metode konvensional dan molekuler. Deteksi secara konvensional terdiri atas direct agar plating technique (DAPT), kombinasi senescence stimulating technique (SST) dan DAPT, serta overnight freezing incubation technique (ONFIT). Deteksi secara molekuler menggunakan pasangan primer universal ITS1F dan ITS4. Tiap perlakuan menggunakan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa cendawan penyebab infeksi laten pada buah jeruk berhasil  dideteksi menggunakan metode konvensional dan molekuler. Metode DAPT berhasil mendeteksi Alternaria citri, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, dan Fusarium incarnatum pada hari ketiga setelah inkubasi. Cendawan yang sama juga ditemukan melalui metode kombinasi SST dan DAPT pada hari kedua setelah inkubasi. Menggunakan metode ONFIT berhasil menemukan A. citri, C. gloeosporioides, F. incarnatum, C. boninense, dan Guignardia mangiferae pada hari ketiga setelah inkubasi. Temuan kelima spesies cendawan tersebut adalah hasil identifikasi secara konvensional melalui karakter morfologi yang diperkuat oleh teknik identifikasi secara molekuler. Keberadaan DNA cendawan penyebab infeksi laten pada buah jeruk juga berhasil dideteksi secara langsung melalui metode molekuler. Hasil sikuen mengidentifikasi cendawan tersebut adalah Alternaria sp. dan Fusarium sp. ONFIT adalah metode yang relatif cepat, akurat, dan dapat diaplikasikan untuk mendeteksi organisme pengganggu tumbuhankarantina (OPTK) pada buah jeruk impor sehingga direkomendasikan sebagai metode alternatif dalam tindakan pemeriksaan karantina pada buah jeruk di tiap-tiap pintu pemasukan.
TRICHODERMA DAN GLIOCLADIUM UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN PENYAKIT BUSUK AKAR FUSARIUM PADA BIBIT KELAPA SAWIT Juariyah, Siti; Tondok, Efi Toding; Sinaga, Meity Suradji
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 14 No 6 (2018)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (959.644 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.14.6.196

Abstract

Trichoderma and Gliocladium for Controling Fusarium Root Rot Disease of Oil Palm SeedlingsFusarium spp. have been reported as the causal agent of common spear rot and crown rot diseases on oil palm.  An effective strategy to control these diseases is not available yet. This research was aimed to find biocontrol agents for effective control of crown rot disease on oil palm seedlings caused by Fusarium spp. The experiment consisted of 3 parts i.e. pathogenicity test of 3 isolates of Fusarium, identification and in vitro test of biocontrol agents, and in planta test of biocontrol agents against Fusarium spp. In vitro test was done through dual culture test and test for volatile compound produced by the biocontrol agents. In planta test was conducted through inoculation of Fusarium spp. into oil palm seedlings growing on medium containing  selected biocontrol agents i.e. Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens, T. inhamatum, and Gliocladium fimbriatum. In vitro test showed that Gliocladium fimbriatum 1 and 2 were inhibited effectively the growth of Fusarium spp. on the dual culture test, whereas T. harzianum Gadingrejo 2 was inhibited effectively the growth of Fusarium spp. on volatile compound test. The application of biocontrol agents was effective to protect oil palm seedlings from Fusarium spp. infection.
MORFOLOGI DAN MORFOMETRI NEMATODA SISTA KENTANG (GLOBODERA SPP.) ASAL DATARAN TINGGI DIENG, JAWA TENGAH Selamet, Auliya; Supramana, Supramana; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Nurmansyah, Ali; Mutaqin, Kikin Hamzah
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 15 No 2 (2019)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (787.244 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.15.2.77-84

Abstract

The Morphology and Morphometry of Potato Cyst Nematodes (Globodera spp.) from Dataran Tinggi Dieng, Central JavaIn Indonesia, the potato cyst nematode (PCN) was first reported in 2003, at potato plantation in Batu, East Java. Golden cyst (Globodera rostochiensis) was detected in Bandung, West Java; Banjarnegara, Central Java; Batu, East Java; and Gowa, South Sulawesi, whereas the pale cyst (G. pallida) has been reported at limited distribution in Dataran Tinggi Dieng (Central Java). The aim of this research was to identify the Globodera species of Dataran Tinggi Dieng based on morphological and morphometrical methods. Soil samples were collected from Dieng plateau at 30 selected potato plantations ranging from 1 100 ? 2 100 m above sea level. The identification of PCN was done by observing the morphological and morphometrical key characters of cysts and second juveniles (J2). Two species of Globodera, that are G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, were identified from soil samples. The key characters of G. pallida including distinct forward projection of J2 stylet knob, granek?s ratio value less than 3, and number of cuticular ridges between vulval basin and anus are less than 12 were identified. There were 25 specimens that having granek?s ratio less than 3, and 10 specimens having cuticular ridges number less than 12. G. rostochiensis which has the shape of a stylet knob protrudes posteriorly and the value of the granek?s ratio greater than 3.5 was identified in 30 specimens.