C.J. SOEGIHARDJO
Department of Biological Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta Indonesia

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BIOLOGICAL LEARNING MATERIAL: DETECTION OF FLAVONOID FROM THE LEAF OF JACK FRUIT (AROCARPUS ATILIS PARK.) INDROWATI, METI; SOEGIHARDJO, C.J.
BIOEDUKASI Vol 2, No 2 (2005): BIOEDUKASI
Publisher : Prodi Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UNS

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Abstract

This research aimed to detect the flavonoid content from the leaf of jack fruit (Arocarpus atilis Park.). that leaf has medicinal aspect, since it can be used to decrease the glucose from the blood circulation and act as anti diabethic activity respectively. The detection of flavonoid was carried out by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) with steady phase of silica of GF 254 and the alluent ratio of chloroform: methanol of 98:2. The result obtained the presence flavonoid complexes at that leaf, indicated by yellow apot ad ammoniac steam on the TLC. That result could enrich the biochemistry learning material toward student. Key Words : flavonoid detection, Arocarpus atilis Park
DAYA ANTIMIKROBA METABOLIT BIOAKTIF JAMUR SHIITAKE (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) YANG DIKULTUR PADA TIGA JENIS MEDIUM FERMENTASI Ekowati, Nuraeni; Kasiamdari, Rina Sri; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi; Soegihardjo, C.J.
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 16, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (527.742 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/mot-TradMedJ16iss3pp%p

Abstract

Jamur shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) merupakan salah satu jamur yang berpotensi sebagai jamur pangan dan bahan obat (edible and medicinal mushroom). Kultivasi pada medium cair dengan proses fermentasi telah dikembangkan selama beberapa tahun terakhir ini. Empat isolat L. edodes (isolat asal Malang, Cianjur, Lembang dan Yogyakarta) dikultur pada tiga jenis medium fermentasi yaitu (KM: Kauffman Medium; GYMT: Glucose, Yeast extract,  Malt extract, Thiamin; YEMR: Yeast extract,  Malt extract,  Rice bran). Metabolit bioaktif yang diekstrak dari biomassa miselium dan filtrat kultur hasil fermentasi diuji menggunakan mikroba patogen Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Candida albicans ATCC 10231,dan  Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Data diameter zona  hambat dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan pada tingkat kesalahan 5 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa senyawa bioaktif dalam filtrat kultur maupun biomassa miselium L.edodes yang diekstrak menggunakan kloroform, etil asetat dan air, mampu menghambat S. aureus, E.coli dan C. albicans tetapi tidak mampu menghambat T.mentagrophytes. Isolat L.edodes asal Lembang dan Yogyakarta yang dikultur pada medium Kauffman memberikan hasil zona hambat terbaik (24,97-31,14 mm). Mikroba uji yang paling sensitif terhadap senyawa bioaktif dari L. edodes adalah C. albicans diikuti oleh E.coli, S. aureus dan T. mentagrophytes. Metabolit bioaktif dari L. edodes berpotensi menghambat mikroba patogen dari kelompok bakteri dan khamir tetapi tidak menghambat jamur.  
Effect of ethanolic extract of sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees) herbs on adult male mice permatogenesis and the thin layer chromatographic qualitative test Halim, V.S.; Soegihardjo, C.J.; Rizal, D.M.
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 15 No 3, 2004
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (682.585 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp136-143

Abstract

Ethanolic extract of sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees) herb was often found in traditional medicine. However, the safety of the extract on man, especially related to the fertility was needed to investigate.For reaching the aim, the extract was administered to adult male DDI mice at three dose levels 11,25mg; 22,5mg, and 45mg/30g BW for 48 days. Effects on fertility were analyzed by histopathological evaluation of the tubulus seminiferous and the results were compared to Cisplatin as positive control for cytotoxic action, as well as to the negative control group. The results showed the damage of spermatogenesis in tubulus seminiferous, degradation and spreading of spermatogenic cells (spermatogonium, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatid, spermatozoa), also the damage of Sertoli cell, lyses of lamina basalis and interstitial layer, and Leydig cells appeared intact. The damages showed that ethanolic extract of the herbs could affect spermatogenesis by cytotoxic and antimitotic activities. The damage of tubulus seminiferous at high dose may be irreversible.Thin layer chromatography result showed at least four spot of terpenoid compounds may be andrographolides. The ethanolic extract was more potential than isolate of andrographolide on destroying spermatogenesis tissues.Key words: sambiloto herbs, Andrographis paniculata, andrographolides, spermatogenesis, tubulus seminiferous.
Diosgenin production by immobilized cell Soegihardjo, C.J.; ., Koensoemardiyah
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 16 No 4, 2005
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (509.675 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp246-253

Abstract

In the last two decade, secondary metabolite production by plant tissue culture in several countries by plant tissue cultures were done by plant suspension culture method, in volumes until several thousand litres. There are many problems occur in the production by cells suspension culture. Some problems could be overcome by choosing suitable media, other could be solving by immobilized cells system. Immobilized cells system is promising method because it has some advantages. The aim of this research is to produce diosgenin from amobilized cells of Costus speciosus Smith. From this result we hope to know about the possibility of using immobilized cells system as alternative method for producing diosgenin. The main substance of this research is the mature seeds of C. speciosus (fam. Zingiberaceae) grown in RT-0 semisolid medium. The seedlings become explant for initiating calli by growing in RT 1 semisolid medium. After some passages of subculturing the calli, initiation of cell suspension culture was carried out by growing friable calli on RT-0,1 liquid medium. After some passages of subculturing cell suspesion culture, the biomass were collected and trapped in calcium alginate beads. The type of bioreactor used was shaking-flask. The immobilized cells were treated in RT liquid medium added with 0.1 ppm 2,4-D (RTA), second group in RTA added with 0.2% yeast extract (RTB), and the third group in RTA added with 0.2% yeast extract and 0.05% cholesterol. From this investigation can be concluded that diosgenin production in immobilized cell system treated with elicitor and precursor was increased four to ten times as great as its production without any addition for fine cells and for coarse cells about eight and three times fold. Key words: Costus speciosus cells, diosgenin production, immobilized cells, elicitation, precursor, spectro-densitometri.
UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN MENGGUNAKAN RADIKAL 1,1-DIFENIL-2- PIKRILHIDRAZIL DAN PENETAPAN KANDUNGAN FENOLIK TOTAL FRAKSI ETIL ASETAT EKSTRAK ETANOL BUAH ANGGUR BALI (Vitis vinifera L.) Gustandy, Mikhael; Soegihardjo, C.J.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community Vol 10, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (655.55 KB) | DOI: 10.24071/jpsc.10297

Abstract

Abstract: This research was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetat fraction of extract of Balinesse grape (Vitis vinifera L.) using free radical and determine the total phenolic content. Balinesse grape was extracted with ethanol and then fractionated using ethyl acetate. Free radical scavenging activity was tested by measuring the DPPH radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method measured the concentration of phenolic content in gallic acid total equivalents using units mg/g. The mean IC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetat fraction of ethanolic extract of Balinesse grape was found to be 36.55 ± 0.09 µg/mL. The phenolic content was ranging from 3.23 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of ethyl acetat fraction of ethanolic extract of Balinesse grape.Keywords: antioxidants, Balinesse grape (Vitis vinifera L.), fraction of ethyl acetat, DPPH, total phenolic content.
POTENSI ANTIMIKROBIA KRIM EKSTRAK RANTING PATAH TULANG (Euphorbia tirucalli Linn.) TERHADAP Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 11827 DAN Candida albicans ATCC 24433 Setiorini, Melina Scandinovita; Soegihardjo, C.J.; Atmodjo, Kianto
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community Vol 11, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (208.307 KB) | DOI: 10.24071/jpsc.112102

Abstract

Abstract: Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) or patah tulang has been used traditionally in Java for treatment of fungal infections (Propionibacterium acnes causing acne and Candida albicans causingcandidasis). Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity and safety of actions still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of this plant on fungal strains. Aceton extract were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Aceton extract was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus for eight hours. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on TSA (Trypthone Soya Agar) and on PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) for Candida albicans. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 ml of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Thymol 0,5% and ketokonazol 2% were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was used for preparing test extracts (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%) and were tested for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to Propionibacterium acnes and Candida albicans. MIC were obtained that 100% test extract was greatest and 10% test extract was weakest. Then, test extracts were prepared by concentrations 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5%, and the result were the best were 10% test extract to Propionibacterium acnes and 6% test extractto Candida albicans. Antimicrobial test for pharmaceutical preparation, i.e. cream (o/w) were prepared using 9 and 10% test extracts mixed with cream for testing to Propionibacterium acnes and 5 and 6% testextracts with cream for testing Candida albicans.The final results were 10% test extract had MIC to Propionibacterium acnes and 6% test extract had MIC in cream to Candida albicans.Keywords: Euphorbia tirucalli L., DMSO, Thymol, antimicrobial potency, cream (o/w), Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans
UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK ETANOLIK DAGING BUAH BUNI (Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng) TERHADAP Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25922 dan Escherichia coli ATCC 25923 Rakasiwi, Brigitta Lynda; Soegihardjo, C.J.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community Vol 11, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (869.539 KB) | DOI: 10.24071/jpsc.11166

Abstract

Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial activity of buni skin-pulp ethanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Profile of antibiotic resistance which is growing among Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli need some exploration of antibacterial activity buni skin-pulp because the contain of anthocyanin which has antibacterial activity. The research was purely experimental research with randomized complete direct sampling design. The extraction method was done by macerated in ethanol solvent. Tube tests and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) were used to determine the content of the secondary metabolites substance in buni skin-pulp ethanolic extract. Antibacterial activity test was done by diffusion method, then followed with liquid dilution method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). The antibacterial activity was evaluated based on the result of inhibition zone diameter then analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test followed with Mann-Whitney test. The results showed that the chemical substances of the buni skin-pulp ethanolic extract predicted with TLC assay were phenolic, flavonoids, and anthocyanin compounds. The antibacterial activity showed that the ethanolic extract only had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC and MBC values 30% and 33%, respectively.Keywords: antibacterial potency, buni skin-pulp, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli
UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN PENETAPAN KADAR FENOLAT TOTAL FRAKSI AIR DAUN KETAPANG (Terminalia catappa L.) DENGAN METODE DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) DAN METODE FOLIN-CIOCALTEU Sahala, Aldo; Soegihardjo, C.J.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community Vol 9, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (905.217 KB) | DOI: 10.24071/jpsc.9276

Abstract

Abstract: The aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L.). was investigated for its DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenger activity and the total amount of phenolic using Folin-Ciocalteu method. It was found that the aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of Ketapang tested showed significant DPPH free radicalscavenging with IC50 value 34,071 ± 0,424 µg/mL. The total phenolic amount was 5.429 ± 0.110 mg equivalent mass value of gallic acid per gram aqueous fraction of the methanolic extract of ketapang leaves.Keywords: aqueous fraction, methanolic extract, Terminalia catappa, DPPH, total phenolic.
UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN MENGGUNAKAN RADIKAL 1,1-DIFENIL-2-PIKRILHIDRAZIL (DPPH) DAN PENETAPAN KANDUNGAN FENOLIK TOTAL FRAKSI ETIL ASETAT EKSTRAK ETANOLIK DAUN BENALU (Dendrophthoe pentandra L. Miq.) YANG TUMBUH DI POHON KEPEL (Stelechocarpus burahol (Bl.) Hook. f.) Patria, Willigis Danu; Soegihardjo, C.J.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community Vol 10, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (805.335 KB) | DOI: 10.24071/jpsc.10190

Abstract

Abstract: Antioxidant has the ability to capture free radicals. These free radicals can oxidize nucleic acids, proteins, lipids or DNA, causing degenerative diseases. Antioxidants compound found in plants such as phenolic acids, polyphenols and flavanoids would capture free radicals such as peroxide, hydroperoxide or lipid peroxyl and also inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that show degenerative diseases. Quercetin and quercetin 3-o-rhamnosida as constituents of mistletoes (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.), are able to provide antioxidant activity. Mistletoes dried and extracted with 70% ethanol, followed by fractionation with ethyl acetate. Antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract was calculated using DPPH method and obtained IC50 values. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanolic mistletoes leaf extract has antioxidant activity with IC50 value of (12.57 ± 0.7) mg / mL. The content of total phenolic (13.76±0.9) mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of leaves of the mistletoes.Keywords: Antioxidant, misletoes leaf, Dendrophthoe pentandra, ethyl acetate fraction, ethanolic extract, DPPH, total phenolic..
DAYA ANTIMIKROBA METABOLIT BIOAKTIF JAMUR SHIITAKE (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) YANG DIKULTUR PADA TIGA JENIS MEDIUM FERMENTASI Ekowati, Nuraeni; Kasiamdari, Rina Sri; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi; Soegihardjo, C.J.
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 16, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (527.742 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tradmedj.8050

Abstract

Jamur shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) merupakan salah satu jamur yang berpotensi sebagai jamur pangan dan bahan obat (edible and medicinal mushroom). Kultivasi pada medium cair dengan proses fermentasi telah dikembangkan selama beberapa tahun terakhir ini. Empat isolat L. edodes (isolat asal Malang, Cianjur, Lembang dan Yogyakarta) dikultur pada tiga jenis medium fermentasi yaitu (KM: Kauffman Medium; GYMT: Glucose, Yeast extract,  Malt extract, Thiamin; YEMR: Yeast extract,  Malt extract,  Rice bran). Metabolit bioaktif yang diekstrak dari biomassa miselium dan filtrat kultur hasil fermentasi diuji menggunakan mikroba patogen Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Candida albicans ATCC 10231,dan  Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Data diameter zona  hambat dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan pada tingkat kesalahan 5 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa senyawa bioaktif dalam filtrat kultur maupun biomassa miselium L.edodes yang diekstrak menggunakan kloroform, etil asetat dan air, mampu menghambat S. aureus, E.coli dan C. albicans tetapi tidak mampu menghambat T.mentagrophytes. Isolat L.edodes asal Lembang dan Yogyakarta yang dikultur pada medium Kauffman memberikan hasil zona hambat terbaik (24,97-31,14 mm). Mikroba uji yang paling sensitif terhadap senyawa bioaktif dari L. edodes adalah C. albicans diikuti oleh E.coli, S. aureus dan T. mentagrophytes. Metabolit bioaktif dari L. edodes berpotensi menghambat mikroba patogen dari kelompok bakteri dan khamir tetapi tidak menghambat jamur.