This research was aimed to isolate and identify the structure of secondary metabolities from gedi leaf. In order to achieve this research aim, an extraction of the gedi leaf tissue with methanol solvent had been carried out. These extract then was partitioned in several organic solvents such as n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Further, the resulted partition was fractionation and purifying undergoes an appropriate method like liquid and vacuum pressure chromatography and also determining the melting points. To determine the chemical structure of the isolate, a compilation of several spectroscopic methods, such as infrared (IR), 1H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), techniques (HMQC, HMBC, and COSY). Results of this research shown that one major constituent was isolated from the leaf of gedi: heptadecanoid acid.Â
A stigmasterol glycoside (stigmast-5,22-dien-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside) has been isolated from the chloroform fraction of root wood of Melochia umbellata (Houtt) Stapf var. degrabrata K. The compound structure was determined on spectroscopic evidences including IR, 1D and 2D NMR and compared to previous data. The isolate was also active against Aspergillus niger.
Synthesis of N-4-O-asetilferuloylmorpholine from ferulic acid via indirect conversion methods with acetylation, chlorination and amidation (in situ) reactions have been conducted. The acetylation was carried out using acetic anhydride reagent in pyridine solvent at room temperature for 6 hours. The chlorination was performed with thionyl chloride in benzene solvent by reflux at 75°C for 4 hours, proceeded by in situ amidation utilizing morpholine in the presence of triethylamine and pyridine using dichloromethane solvent at room temperature. The target molecule as white crystalline solids with m.p. of 91-92°C. Characterization of these compounds was committed by FTIR spectrophotometry.
Synthesis of phenethyl (O-acetyl-p-coumaroyl) (4) from p-coumaric acid (1) using phenethylalcohol was succesfully conducted via acetylation (2), chlorination (3), and esterification (4). The acetylation was performed using acetic anhydride in pyridine at room temperature for 6 hours, the chlorination was performed using thionyl chloride in dry benzene by reflux at 75oC for 4 hours, continued with esterification by in situ using phenethylalcohol in dry dichloromethane at room temperature for 4 hours. The structure of each step reaction product was identiﬁed using FT-IR spectroscopy. The compound 2 was obtained as yellowish crystal with m.p 201-203oC and the compound 4 was obtained as white crystal with m.p 68-69oC.
Compound N-phenetyl 4-O-asetil ferulamide had been synthesized from ferulic acid and phenetylamine through esterification and indirect amidation method. Esterification reaction of ferulic acid with anhydride acetate was done in pyridine solvent at room temperature. Indirect amidation was perform by chlorination using tionyl chloride in benzene solvent at 70°C and continued by amidation with phenetylamine, catalyzed by pyridine in dichloromethane solvent at room temperature. the compound obtained is brown yellowish crystal with melting point 118-120°C. The rendemen of target compound is 53.81%.
Melochia umbellata (Houtt) Stapf. var. Visenia is plant species included in Malvaceae family. This spesies is known as paliasa and used as traditional medicine by the people of South Sulawesi. This study aimed to determine the secondary metabolites by reagents and toxicity characteristic testing from bark extract of Melochia umbellata (Houtt) Stapf. var. Visenia using Brine Shirmp Lethality Test (BSLT) method. The extract was prepeared by maceration ethyl acetate. Phytochemical test result showed that the ethyl acetate extract was containing the steroid compound, alkaloids and terpenoids. Toxicity test performed by shrimp Artemia salina Leach larvae was at 48 hours. The toxic effects of the extract were identified by the percentage of the number of shrimp larvae mortality using probit value analysis (LC50). The toxicity test of bark Melochia umbellata (Houtt) Stapf. var. Visenia extract showed that the ethyl acetate extract is toxic to A. salina LC50 = 54,55 mg / mL.
Oleanan derivated 3-acetyl-12-oleanen-28-oat has been isolated from the n-hexane fraction of M. umbellata(Houtt) Stapf var. degrabrata K. bark. The molecular structure were determined by IR spectroscopy, 1D and 2DNMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC) data analysis. Bioactivity tested results indicated that thecompound was toxic to A. salina with LC50 value was 361.93 mg/mL. At the concentration of 1000 mg/mL 3acetyl-12-oleanen-28-oat gave the highest inhibition to bacteria B. subtilis and the fungus C. albicans with the inhibited zone diameter was 15.8 mm and 15.2 mm, res.
The purpose of research it is cycles how knowing cycle trace metals Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn in Callispongia Sp, sediment and water. Techniques of the analysis of trace metals use ICP-OES ((Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy). Analysis dramatic of the relationship between sponge significant sediment and water show that highest trace metal is Zn to Callispongia sp (6.250 mg/kg dry weight), sediment (0.750 ppm and water 0.790 ppm)
Oleanan derivated 3-acetyl-12-oleanen-28-oat has been isolated from the n-hexane fraction of M. umbellata (Houtt) Stapf var. degrabrata K. bark. The molecular structure were determined by IR spectroscopy, 1D and 2D NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC) data analysis. Bioactivity tested results indicated that the compound was toxic to A. salina with LC50 value was 361.93 mg/mL. At the concentration of 1000 mg /mL 3acetyl-12-oleanen-28-oat gave the highest inhibition to bacteria B. subtilis and the fungus C. albicans with the inhibited zone diameter was 15.8 mm and 15.2 mm, res.
Paliasa plants Melochia umbellata (Houtt.) Stapf var. Visenia is classified into species M.umbellata (Houtt.) Stapf which was potent to heal various of illness. The aim of this research to know secondary metabolites and its toxicity from extract chloroform stem bark of M. umbellata (Houtt.) Stapf var. Visenia. The step in this research were: maceration to obtain extract chloroform, phitotochemical assay to identify the group of secondary metabolites, and toxicity assay by using Bhrine Shrimp Lethality Test method. It was obtained 46 g of green concentrated exctract of chloroform. The result of phytochemical assay show that the extract contain steroid and alkaloid groups. The crude extract chloroform is toxic against Artemia salina with LC50 value is 53,57 µg/ml.