Susamto Somowiyarjo
Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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PERAN UNSUR CUACA TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG LADA DI SENTRA PRODUKSI LADA DAERAH SULAWESI TENGGARA Bande, La Ode Santiaji; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Somowiyarjo, Susamto; Sunarminto, Bambang Hendro
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 22, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1.84 KB)

Abstract

Pengendalian penyakit tanaman di sentra produksi lada melalui modifikasi lingkungan merupakan pilihan bijak dalam upaya pengurangan penggunaan pestisida. Penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada telah menyebabkan penurunan produksi lada di berbagai daerah sentra rempah. Penyakit ini semakin meningkat dengan adanya pergeseran cuaca yang tidak menentu. Interaksi antar unsur cuaca dan kondisi agroekosistem diduga mempengaruhi perkembangan penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh langsung dan tidak langsung antar unsur cuaca (suhu udara, kelembapan udara, jumlah hari hujan, total curah hujan), suhu tanah, dan lengas tanah terhadap terjadinya peningkatan penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada pada berbagai kondisi agroekosistem lada. Penelitian dilaksanakan di sentra pertanaman lada di Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara. Analisis lintas digunakan untuk mengetahui hubungan antar unsur cuaca dengan intensitas penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahwa unsur cuaca mempengaruhi peningkatan intensitas penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada. Unsur cuaca yang secara langsung menyebabkan peningkatan intensitas penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada pada tiap daerah bervariasi dan paling dominan adalah curah hujan. Unsur cuaca yang mempengaruhi peningkatan intensitas penyakit di Kabupaten Konawe Selatan adalah curah hujan dan lengas tanah, di Kabupaten Konawe oleh suhu udara, kelembapan udara, dan curah hujan, sedangkan di Kabupaten Kolaka oleh jumlah hari hujan, dan curah hujan.
Identifikasi Molekuler Virus Penyebab Penyakit Daun Keriting Isolat Bantul pada Melon Wilisiani, Fariha; Somowiyarjo, Susamto; Hartono, Sedyo
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 18, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.15602

Abstract

One of important problems of melon farming in Yogyakarta is a leaf curl disease that show specific symptom of Begomovirus infection. The little information about the nature of virus causal agent was constraint for the disease management. The purposes of this research were to molecularly identify the leaf curl causing virus in melon in Yogyakarta and to find the genetic relationship of this virus with other Begomovirus members which cause leaf curl disease. This research was conducted through several phases, which are: curly leaves collection on the field, virus DNA isolation, Begomovirus identification using universal primer Krusty Homer, Begomovirus DNA-A and DNA-B detection using primer Gemini full BamH1 forward and reverse for full genome DNA-A, and primer BF518 and BR1641 for DNA-B, genome sequencing and genetic relationship analysis of the sequence with other Begomovirus causing leaf curl. The result of field studies which were conducted in Sewon found some melon plant with symptom of Begomovirus infection. The molecular identification result using PCR showed that leaf curl causing virus in melon is Begomovirus, having DNA-A and DNA-B. Genetic relationship analysis of this virus with other Begomovirus causing leaf curl shows that this virus is closely related with Pepper yellow leaf curl Indonesia virus (AB267834) based on nucleotide and amino acid sequencing as coat protein of Begomovirus. The result of shows that the study is the first report of PepYLCIDV infection, a bipartite genome virus on melon, and its natural leaf curl symptom in Indonesia. Salah satu kendala budidaya melon (Cucumis melo L.) di Yogyakarta yaitu adanya penyakit daun keriting dengan gejala khas infeksi Begomovirus. Belum tersedianya informasi mengenai jenis dan ciri patogen virus penyebab penyakit tersebut merupakan salah satu kendala penting dalam menentukan strategi pengelolaan virus tersebut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi secara molekuler virus penyebab daun keriting pada melon di Yogyakarta dan mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan virus tersebut dengan virus anggota Begomovirus lain penyebab daun keriting yang telah dipublikasi di database genebank. Penelitian dilakukan dengan beberapa tahapan, yaitu deskripsi gejala daun keriting di lapangan, isolasi DNA virus, identifikasi Begomovirus dengan primer universal Krusty Homer, deteksi DNA-A dan DNA-B Begomovirus dengan primer Gemini full BamH1 forward dan reverse untuk full genome DNA-A, serta primer BF518 dan BR1641 untuk DNA-B, sequencing genom, dan analisis hubungan kekerabatan sequence tersebut dengan Begomovirus lain penyebab daun keriting. Hasil pengamatan lapangan di Sewon Bantul diperoleh tanaman melon dengan gejala khas infeksi Begomovirus. Hasil identifikasi secara molekuler dengan PCR menunjukkan bahwa virus penyebab daun keriting pada melon adalah Begomovirus, memiliki DNA-A dan DNA-B. Analisis hubungan kekerabatan virus penyebab daun keriting pada melon dengan Begomovirus lain penyebab daun keriting menunjukkan bahwa virus tersebut berkerabat dekat dengan Pepper yellow leaf curl Indonesia virus (AB267834) berdasarkan sekuen nukleotida dan asam amino sebagian coat protein Begomovirus. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penelitian ini merupakan laporan pertama infeksi PepYLCIDV dengan bipartite genome pada melon dengan gejala daun keriting secara alamiah di Indonesia. 
Properties of Oryctes Baculovirus Isolated in Indonesia Kobayashi, Jun; Somowiyarjo, Susamto
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (1995)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (7632.018 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9318

Abstract

An Indonesian isolate of Oryctes baculovirus was purified from infected midguts of the rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) by centrifugation on a 10–40% (w/v) sucroese gradient. Morphological features of  nucleocapsid including a tail-like projection were very same as those previously reported. Both protein components of purified particles and restriction fragment electrophoresis profiles of viral DNA were similar to those of their isolates of Oryctes baculovirus, although there were some differences.Key words: Baculovirus oryctes, electrophoresis
Konsentrasi PEG 6000 dan Senyawa Aditif Buffer Fosfat yang Diperlukan dalam Pemurnian Soybean Mosaic Virus Sumardiyono, YB; Somowiyarjo, Susamto; Andayani, Wuye Ria
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (1995)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (7177.294 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9352

Abstract

The objective of study was to determine the concentration of PEG 6000 for precipitation of virus particles, and additive substance added to the resuspension buffer, during the purification of Soybean Mosaic Virus isolated from Yogyakarta. The result showed that precipitation with PEG 6000 of 6 per cent at final concentration, followed by either two or three cycles differential centrifugation and the virus obatained from each centrifugation resuspended in Phosphate buffer 0.05 M contained NaCl 0.1 M added with 0,005 M Na-EDTA, and then subjected to 10-50 per cent sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The purified virus obtained was infective, with the ultraviolet absorption maximum at 260 nm and minimum at 247 nm, ratio A280/A260 was 0.7343. based on extinction coefficient at 260 nm = 2.4, the yield was 0.306 mg/100 g infected leaves. SDS-PAGE indicating that coat protein molecule weight was 29.71 kD.Key words: soybean mosaic virus, method, virus purification
Pengendalian Diaphorina citri (Vektor Penyakit CVPD) dengan Metarrhizium anisopliae Raharjo, Kardi; Somowiyarjo, Susamto; Wagiman, F. X.
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 6, No 1 (2000)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.12404

Abstract

CVPD is transmitted by Diaphorina citri. Measures to control D. citri by using biological controlling agents have opportunity to reduce insecticide application. The objectives of the research are: to measure effectiveness of Metarrhiziurn anisopliae (Metch.) Sorok. in controlling D. citri, effect fructose and time application namely beforeand after insect infestation. The first phase of the research phase has been conducted in Temanggung, Completely Randomize Design (CRD) factorial with three time replication. Factor I: sterile water without fructose, concentration 10^6 conidia/ml without fructose, concentration 10^8 conidia/ml without fructose, concentration 10^10 conidia/ml: without fructose, sterile water + fructose 5 mg/ml, concentration 10^6 conidia/ml without fructose 5 mg/ml, concentration 10^8 conidia/ml + fructose (fungi application before insect infestation) and W1 (fungi application after insect infestation). Research phase II was carried out with the best treatment combination compare with control treatment in Temanggung and Bantul. The results of experiment showed that the initial die of D. citri caused by M. anisopliae infection are on 4-6 days after application. The application of M. anisopliae at concentration 10^10 conidia/ml without fructose, applied after insect infestation was most effective. The application after insect infestation was more effective compare with application before insect infestation especially on 4 days after application, but on 35th days after application there was no significant difference. Fructose has no effect to mortality of D. citri.
Propagation and Purification of Baculovirus oryctes Huger Somowiyarjo, Susamto; Sumardiyono, YB; Hartono, Sedyo; Triharso, Triharso; Kobayashi, Jun
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (1995)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4408.918 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9317

Abstract

An isolate of Baculovirus oryctes, a possible biological control agent for coconut beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Huger) from East Java was propagated and purified. The virus could be transmitted by feeding the imago with 10% sucrose containing virus from homogenate of infected beetles. Effectivity of virus to 9 healthy females by sexual copulation. Virus be succesfully purified by a method of Payne.Key words: Baculovirus oryctes, transmission, purification
DETEKSI VIRUS TERBAWA UMBI BENIH PADA BAWANG MERAH KULTIVAR BIRU BANTUL Nurviani, Nurviani; Sulandari, Sri; Somowiyarjo, Susamto; Subandiyah, Siti
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 12 No 5 (2016)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (558.07 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.12.5.185

Abstract

Virus infection on shallots may cause mosaic of leaves and plant dwarf.  It is very important to know the identity of the virus as a requirement in determining viral disease management strategy.  The research is subjected to identify seed- transmitted viruses from shallot bulbs. Detection of virus from bulb was conducted by growing on test, followed by mechanical inoculation on shallot cultivar Biru Bantul, Chenopodium amaranticolor, and Nicotiana tabacum and morphological observation of virus particle by electron microscope. About 2 weeks after inoculation symptoms was observed, i.e. mosaic and dwarf on shallot cultivar Biru Bantul, local necrotic on C. amaranticolor, but symptomless on N. tabacum.  Filamentous particles of 650 nm and 800 nm in length was observed under electron microscope from plants with mosaic and dwarfing symptom, respectively.  This indicated the presence of 2 different seed-transmitted viruses on infected shallots.  Two species of shallot viruses, i.e. Shallot latent carlavirus (SLV) and Onion yellow dwarf potyvirus (OYDV) was most likely the main seedborne viruses on shallot bulb.  Identification based on nucleic acid and protein sequence analysis is necessary for further confirmation
DETEKSI ODONTOGLOSSUM RINGSPOT VIRUS PADA ANGGREK ASLI KOLEKSI KEBUN RAYA DI INDONESIA Mahfut, Mahfut; Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Somowiyarjo, Susamto
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 13 No 1 (2017)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (316.108 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.13.1.1

Abstract

Native orchid is one of Indonesian natural resources which play important role as parental materials in breeding program. Virus infection is one of the limiting factors in the cultivation of orchid. The purpose of this study was to detect Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) from native orchid. Symptomatic orchids were collected from 5 botanical gardens, i.e. Bogor, Cibodas, Purwodadi, Balikpapan, and Enrekang Botanical Gardens. Detection and identification was conducted by serological method using ORSV specific antisera, followed by RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. The serological test showed that 5 samples gave positive reaction against ORSV antiserum, i.e. Phalaenopsis amboinensis (KRB2) and Phalaenopsis amabilis (KRB12) from Bogor Botanical Garden, Phalaenopsis amabilis (KRP18) and Dendrobium salacence (KRP20) from Purwodadi Botanical Garden, dan Phalaenopsis modesta J. J. Sm. (KRBp5) from Balikpapan Botanical Garden. RT-PCR of the 5 samples using specific primer of ORSV coat protein gene was successfully amplified fragment DNA with size ± 474 bp. Homology analysis of those 5 ORSV isolates showed the highest index similiarity of 99.8% with corresponding sequences from 14 other ORSV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ORSV KRB2 and KRP18 isolates was clustered in a separate group far from ORSV isolates in other countries. This is the first report of ORSV infection on native orchids collection from 5 botanical gardens in Indonesia.
EPIDEMI PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG LADA PADA KONDISI LINGKUNGAN YANG BERVARIASI Bande, La Ode Santiaji; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Somowiyarjo, Susamto; Sunarminto, Bambang Hendro
JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA Vol 15, No 1 (2015): MARET, JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA
Publisher : Universitas Lampung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (150.335 KB) | DOI: 10.23960/j.hptt.11595-103

Abstract

Foot rot disease epidemic on black pepper in variety of environmental conditions. The foot rot disease on black pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian, is often destructive to farmers of black pepper. This research aims to study the infection rate and the pattern of development of the black pepper foot rot disease in various condition of the environment. The research was conducted in the areas of black pepper cultivation in the Ultisol and Entisol soils. In each location plots were set with few (<25%) and abundant (>75%) weeds. Variable observed was disease incidence. The data were used to analyze model of development of the black pepper foot rot disease and infection rate. Results of the research showed that the model of development of the black pepper foot rot disease was not affected by soil type, but the type of soil affected the infection rate. At the pepper plantation with abundance of weeds, the disease development followes Gompertz model. At the plantation with few weeds, however the disease developed in a logistic model. The rate of disease infection on the black pepper plant with abundant weeds lower compared with those with few weeds.
Identifikasi Molekuler Virus Penyebab Mosaik pada Sembilan Varietas Tebu Rahmitasari, Dewi; Somowiyarjo, Susamto; Hartono, Sedyo
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 20, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1595.542 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.17733

Abstract

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is very important commodity in Indonesia because of its economical value as a sugar producing plant. One of the disease in sugarcane cultivation which have to be treated is mosaic symptoms because of its potency in reducing sugar yield. Mosaic symptoms might be caused by some viruses, therefore virus identification is required to find the virus that has caused the sugarcane disease in all of sugarcane field which can be found in East Java as working area of Seeding and Protection Center for Estate Crops Surabaya. This laboratory had an authority to certify the shoot to be distributed. This research aimed to find out the virus that caused the mosaic symptoms from nine sugarcane varieties and to obtain information about the most suitable identification method for shoot health test in Seeding and Protection Center for Estate Crops Surabaya. The first method of this research were the sugarcane leaf with mosaic sampling from nine varieties: VMC 7616, PSJK 922, Kidang Kencana and Tolangohula 2 (Jombang); PS 881 and PS 862 (Pasuruan); PS 864 dan PSBM 901 (Kediri). The next experiments were conducted in the Laboratory of Phytopathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada. RNA was isolated from the sample and continued with RT-PCR technique, sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Primers which was used in this research were MJ1-MJ2 and SCSMV cpF – SCSMV AP3. The result showed that mosaic symptoms of eight sugarcane varieties was caused by two species of virus: SCMV (Sugarcane mosaic virus) found in PS 881 and SCSMV (Sugarcane streak mosaic virus) found in seven another varieties. Sequencing analysis showed that SCMV isolate found in PS 881 was known to have a high nucleotide homology (93.6%) and related to the isolate from Kenya (KT630805.1), while the SCSMV had a high homology (96.9%−98.5%) and related to SCSMV isolate from Indonesia (AB563503.1) and Pakistan (GQ388116.1). INTISARITebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) merupakan tanaman penting di Indonesia. Salah satu penyakit yang perlu diwaspadai pada tanaman tebu adalah penyakit mosaik karena potensinya dalam menurunkan produktivitas tebu sehingga perlu dilakukan identifikasi virus penyebab mosaik pada tanaman tebu. BBPPTP Surabaya sebagai instansi yang melaksanakan sertifikasi pada bibit tebu perlu mengetahui metode identifikasi virus penyebab mosaik sebagai dasar dalam pengujian kesehatan benih untuk mendukung tersedianya bibit tebu yang sehat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui virus penyebab mosaik pada sembilan varietas tanaman tebu dan mengetahui metode identifikasi virus pada tanaman yang cepat dan akurat untuk pengujian kesehatan benih. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Fitopatologi, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel daun tanaman tebu pada sembilan varietas yang diambil dari tiga lokasi berbeda yaitu VMC 7616, PSJK 922, Kidang Kencana dan Tolangohula 2 (Jombang); PS 881 dan PS 862 (Pasuruan); PS 864 dan PSBM 901 (Kediri). Sampel diisolasi ss-RNA dilanjutkan dengan teknik RT-PCR (Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), sekuensing dan analisis bioinformatika. Primer yang digunakan dalam penelitian ada dua yaitu MJ1-MJ2 untuk target sekuen dari SCMV dan SCSMV cpF-SCSMV AP3 untuk target sekuen dari SCSMV. Hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa gejala mosaik yang ditimbulkan pada 8 (delapan) sampel varietas tebu disebabkan oleh 2 (dua) jenis virus penyebab mosaik yaitu SCMV (Sugarcane mosaic virus) yang ditemukan pada varietas PS 881 dan SCSMV (Sugarcane streak mosaic virus) yang ditemukan pada 7 (tujuh) varietas lain. Analisis sekuensing menunjukkan bahwa SCMV yang ditemukan pada varietas PS 881 memiliki homologi nukleotida (93,6%) dan kekerabatan terdekat dengan isolat di Kenya (KT630805.1). SCSMV hasil penelitian ini dikatakan mempunyai homologi (96,9%−98,5%) dan kekerabatan tertinggi dengan isolat SCSMV asal Indonesia (AB563503.1) dan Pakistan (GQ388116.1).