I Made Suastika
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Journal : E-Journal of Linguistics

DHARMAYATRA IN THE DWIJENDRA TATTWA TEXT ANALYSIS OF RECEPTION Rai Putra, Ida Bagus; Weda Kesuma, I Nyoman; Cika, I Wayan; Suastika, I Made
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 5. Januari 2011 No. 2
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Abstract

The object of the study is Dwijendra Text (hereinafter abbreviated to DT). It containsinteresting narrations and is importantly related to the dharmayatra, the holy religious journeymade by Dang Hyang Nirartha, the charismatic figure, in Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa. Beforethe analysis of reception was conducted, the corpus text of the DT texts completely andstructurally telling the religious journey made by Dang Hyang Nirartha was successfullydetermined. The analysis in this study was made to answer the following questions: what is thenarrative structure of the DT text; what are the enlightenment image entities of the dharmayatraof the DT text; how do people appreciate the dharmayatra of the DT text? The answers to thenarrative structure of the DT text; the image entities and the appreciation provided by people arethe main objectives of this study.The theories adopted in this study are the theory of reception introduced by Jauss, thetheory of semiotics introduced by Pierce and the theory of mythology introduced by Barthes. Asa qualitative study, the data needed were collected by the methods of observation, note taking,documentation and interview supported with a sound recorder and pictures. The results of theanalysis are informally presented, meaning that they are verbally described in the form of wordswhich are systematically composed based on the problems formulated in this study.The analysis of the narrative structure of the DT text contains narrative units which are inthe forms of theme, characters and plots. They all unite to form stories which are mythological,legendary, symbolic, hagiographic and suggestive in nature. Based on the analysis ofenlightenment image entities, it can be concluded that there are three basic entities leading to thecreation of the DT text. They are first enlightenment; second protection of Hinduism; and thirdconstruction of temple institutions. Based on the reception analysis, it can be concluded thatpeople, through their literary works, books, articles and websites, appreciate the discourse of thedharmayatra performed in Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa.The ten essential findings in this study can be described as follows. (1) The corpus text ofthe DT, which is in the form palm-leaf manuscript (lontar) and was obtained from GriyaBaturening Mambal, is kept as a collection at the Perpustakaan Lontar Fakultas SastraUniversitas Udayana (the Library of Palm-leaf Manuscripts of the Faculty of Letters, UdayanaUniversity). It is coded under no. 1514, kropak (box) no. 293. The DT text describes the real journey of Dang Hyang Nirarta, the great holy Hindu teacher, concretely, completely andstructurally. (2) As a literary text of history, the DT text has a highly narrative structure formedby theme, characters and plots which are unified in the forms of mythologies, legends,hagiographies, symbolisms and suggestive. (3) The dharmayatra made by Dang Hyang Nirartha,as described in the DT text, gave enlightenment and welfare to the kingdom and its people. (4)The teacher-learner (guru-sisya) teaching contained in the DT text may inspire a harmonious andethic relationship as far as teaching-learning process and priesthood are concerned. (5) Theconcern about the principle of unity in diversity taught by him may give relevant multiculturalperception of the current and upcoming way of life and Indonesianization. (6) The DT textreveals that those who belong to the Brahmin caste (Brahmana) have been descended from him.However, if viewed from the spiritual and priesthood points of view, he has been the source ofspirituality for Hindus, Buddhists, Moslems and those who do not belong to any religion (kapir).(7) The DT text shows that he is also called Pedanda/Bhatara Sakti Wawu Rawuh as he washighly powerful (sakti) and has symbolized the complete mastery of material and spiritualknowledge. (8) The religious journey (dharmayatra) made by him from Java to Bali, Lombokand Sumbawa aimed at protecting Majapahit Hinduism from being suppressed by Islam whichhad already spread all over the Archipelago. The protection of Hinduism and the construction ofthe temple institutions referred to the religious meaningfulness implemented by him. (9) Thisstudy explains that in Lombok he spread three religious teachings such as Gama Siki GamaThirtha, Gama Kalih Budha Paksa, and Gama Tiga Selame Metu Telu. (10) High appreciation isprovided to the dharmayatra he made in Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa. Such an appreciation orreception highly varies; in other words, it is expressed in the forms of literary works, books,articles and websites.
DISCOURSE OF AGURON-GURON SYSTEM IN GEGURITAN SIDHA YOGA KRAMA (GSYK) Parmini, Ni Putu; Weda Kusuma, I Nyoman; Kutha Ratna, I Nyoman; Suastika, I Made
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 8. Juli 2014 No.2
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Abstract

The object of the present study is the text of Geguritan Sidha Yoga Krama (hereinafter referred to as GSYK). This text contains narrations narrating priesthood teaching, which is interesting enough to discuss nowadays. The analysis in the present study is intended to answer the question concerning the discourse of the aguron-guron system in the GSYK text. The answer to this question is the specific objective of the present study. As a qualitative study, the data of the present study were collected using observation and interview methods. The data were also obtained through library study and using reading technique. The results of the present study are informally presented, meaning that the results of the present study are described using words which are systematically arranged in accordance with the findings. The analysis of the GSYK discourse includes the theme, plot and prominent characterization. It was found that there were three entities in the GSYK text, as far as the change in status from being walaka into being sadhaka is concerned; they are (1) the ethics of the senior priest ?nabe? and the prospective priest ?sisya?; (2) the ceremony in which someone is informally acknowledged as a priest referred to as pediksan; (3) the implementation of Hinduism. The results of analysis showed that GSYK was a narrative discourse made up of pupuh (strophes),  narrating the priesthood teaching ?ajaran kapanditaan? with the aguron-guron system, meaning that the priesthood teaching is transmitted through informal learning. It could be concluded that GSYK could be used as a resource of the priesthood teaching which could be transmitted through the aguron-guron system, making the priesthood teaching easier and more interesting. The aguron-guron system could be observed more comprehensively through geguritan (philosophical verse); it is not only an educational medium but also an amusement. The priest ?pandita? is responsible for transmitting such a teaching to people.
GEGURITAN (MANUSCRIPT) OF I GEDE BASUR AND I KETUT BUNGKLING WRITTEN BY KI DALANG TANGSUB: INTERTEXTUAL AND RECEPTIONAL ANALYSIS Suardiana, I Wayan; Kutha Ratna, Nyoman; Cika, I Wayan; Suastika, I Made
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 3. Juli 2009 No. 2
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Abstract

This study employs the texts of I Gede Basur and I Ketut Bungkling contained inthe text of Kidung Prembon (abbreviated into KP) as the data source to explain theintertextual relationship and receptive process of the texts of Geguritan I Gede Basur(abbreviated into GIGP) and Geguritan I Ketut Bungkling (abbreviated into GIKB)written by Ki Dalang Tangsub. The reason is that when this study was conducted theneither the text of GIGB nor GIKB written by the authoritative Ki Dalang Tangsub wasfound. Then the text of KP has multiple functions; on one side, as an existing text, it isassumed to contain the texts of GIGB and GIKB written by the authoritative Ki DalangTangsub, and on the other side, it is a receptive text of the texts of GIGB and GIKBwritten by Ki Dalang Tangsub.The theories of intertexts, reception and discourse were used as the means ofanalysis in this study. The theory of intertexts could reveal the historical process of thetexts of GIGB and GIKB written by Ki Dalang Tangsub and the creation process of thetext of KP. The theory of reception was basically used to explain the process of how thereaders gave responses to the texts of GIGB and GIKP written by Ki Dalang Tangsub.The process of how the readers gave responses was revealed by the text of KP (in clockstories) as well as the other individual texts.Intrinsically, the texts of GIGB and GIKB written by Ki Dalang Tangsub giveparticular colors to the texts of the responses given, as Pupuh/Tembang Ginada (strophe)is entirely adopted in the texts of responses given the readers making the particularcharacteristics of the hypogram texts compared to the following texts clear. Havingmagical and social critical themes, many hyperboles, similes and sarcasms are used in thetexts of GIGB and GIKB written by Ki Dalang Tangsub. The plots of the texts of GIGBand GIKB are made up of 28 big sequences and 29 small sequences with the maincharacters are I Gede Basur and I Ketut Bungkling (Mantri as one of the characters).
USADA BHUDA KACAPI: BALINESE TRADITIONAL THERAPY (USADA) LITERARY TEXT Jirnaya, I Ketut; Suastika, I Made; Cika, I Wayan; Weda Kusuma, I Nyoman
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 5. Juli 2011 No. 2
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Abstract

Usada Budha Kacapi (abbreviated to UBK) text, which contains the basic Balinese traditional therapy, is a text which is in the form of narration. The Balinese traditional therapy (usada) texts generally contain collections of names of diseases, medicinal substances, and how to cure such diseases; however, the UBK is in the form of narration, containing characters, setting, themes, and literary language. The UBK text, after being edited, is recorded in a number of palm-leaf manuscripts. The title is the same but the content varies. Budha Kecapi is the main character, which has inspired many other writers; therefore, the works produced still use the same language units as used by Budha Kacapi. Such works are Budha Kacapi Cemeng, Budha Kacapi Putih, and Budha Kacapi Sastrasanga . It is this which has inspired the researcher to explore the UBK in order to know who and what Budha Kacapi is. In order to be able to identify the message transmitted to the reader or the community, and its totality, it is necessary to know, understand, and analyze the signs it contains. Therefore, two theories are used in this study; they are the theory of intertextuality and the theory of semiotics. The results of analysis show that the writers wish to teach and guide those who desire to be professional indigenous medical practitioners ?dukun?, namely, the ones who are highly knowledgeable of traditional therapy, ethical and not easily defeated by diseases. That, according to Budha Kacapi, can be achieved through ?yogasastra?. The indigenous medical practitioners should improve their quality through yoga (meditation) and aksara suci (holy scripts) as the means. A set of learning materials related to the basic knowledge needed by the indigenous medical practitioners are systematically organized, starting from how to recruit the prospective learners, the learning method, how to diagnose (nenger), the philosophy of life and death, the philosophy of diseases, the concept of being healthy and sick, the compensation, types of diseases, and how to cure diseases. As a whole, the UBK text contains the basic and advanced levels of learning materials for indigenous medical practitioners. The advanced level means that if they study the UBK text and are able to apply it properly, they will not by all means be defeated by diseases.
EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF MUNANESE FOLKSONG: A LITERARY ANTHROPOLOGY STUDY laepe, Aderlaepe; Suastika, I Made; Kutha Ratna, Nyoman
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol 11 No 1 (2017): eJL-January
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/eJL.2017.v11.i01.p04

Abstract

Munanese folksong is chanted by Munanese people in daily life. Munanese community is an indigenous ethnic in South East Sulawesi besides Tolakinese, Butonese, and Moronenese.  The folksong is classified into three types, namely (1) kau-kaudara, (2) lagu ngkodau, and (3) kabhanti. They are distincted by rhythm and tempo, text organization, and word choices. Rhythm of kau-kaudara is similar to cha-cha song with a quite fast tempo, lagu ngkodau resembles pop song with a slow tempo, and kabhanti is like country song with a medium tempo. The text of kau-kaudara is organized as a poetry; lagu ngkodau as a lyrical poetry; and kabhanti as a pantun karmina (a two-line traditional verse). The most word choices in kau-kaudara songs are animal, game, and non sense categories, but in lagu ngkodau and kabhanti are marine, environment, and cosmos phenomena. Due to Munaneses community status before the middle of 20th century as a illiterate society, the folksong was treated as a social medium. Members of the community used it to express every thing both individual and collective affairs. Related to the collective one, Munanese ancestor used folksong to convey morality messages that aims at making all members of the community well behaved. This circumstance endorses the existence of folksong as a medium of character building that contains educational values.