Sunarjati Sudigdoadi
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran

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ANALISIS TIPE STAPHYLOCOCCAL CASSETTE CHROMOSOME MEC (SCCMEC) ISOLAT METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 42, No 4
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Resistensi methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) terhadap berbagai antimikrob terutama didasari adanya insersi mobile genetic elements yang disebut Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) pada kromosom Staphylococcus aureus. SCCmec tersusun atas gen rekombinase (ccr), gen kompleks mec, gen resisten tambahan, dan insertion sequences. Struktur gen rekombinase memungkinkan SCCmec dapat berpindah dari satu bakteri ke bakteri lainnya. Identifikasi dan analisis SCCmec sangat diperlukan untuk mengetahui dasar genetik resistensi dan memperkirakan penyebaran bakteri ini. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis tipe SCCmec dan hubungannya dengan pola kepekaan MRSA terhadap berbagai antimikrob. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian observasional analitik dengan pendekatan molekuler berupa typing SCCmec dan uji kepekaan terhadap antimikrob, periode Juli?Desember 2007. Pembiakan dan identifikasi 45 isolat MRSA dilakukan di Departemen Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Unpad, sedangkan penentuan gen mecA dan PCR multipleks SCCmec dilakukan di Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang. Seluruh 45 isolat MRSA yang diteliti, dipastikan memiliki gen mecA. Analisis PCR multipleks menunjukkan 40 isolat memiliki SCCmec tipe III dan 5 isolat memiliki tipe IV. Semua isolat dengan SCCmec tipe III bersifat multiresisten, sedangkan tipe IV tidak bersifat multiresisten. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa MRSA dengan genotip SCCmec tipe III berhubungan, sedangkan tipe IV tidak berhubungan dengan sifat multiresisten. [MKB. 2010;42(4):149?54].Kata kunci: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) , pola kepekaan, tipe SCCmecStaphylococcal Casette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) Type Analysis of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) IsolatesResistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were based mainly on insertion of mobile genetic elements namely Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) in the chromosome of Staphylococcus aureus. SCCmec consists of recombinase genes (ccr), mec genes complex, additional resistance genes, and insertion sequences. Recombinase genes structure mediates transfer of SCCmec from one bacteria to another. Identification of SCCmec is very important to know basic genetic resistance and to predict spreading of MRSA. The aim of this research was to analyze SCCmec type and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The design of this study was observational analytic study by typing SCCmec and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on July? December 2007. Isolation and identification of 45 MRSA isolates was performed in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Padjadjaran, whereas identification of mecA gene and typing of SCCmec by multiplex PCR was performed in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Sriwijaya University, Palembang. The result showed that all isolates contained mecA gene. Multiplex PCR revealed that 40 MRSA isolates had SCCmec type III and 5 isolates with type IV. All SCCmec type III isolates were multiresistant and all of the type IV were not multiresistant. In conclusion, MRSA isolates with SCCmec type III was associated with multiresistant whereas type IV was not. [MKB. 2010;42(4):149?54].Key words: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), susceptibility patterns, type of SCCmec DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v42n4.28
THE BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN JATINANGOR Yi, Aw Wan; Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati; Susiarno, Hadi
Althea Medical Journal Vol 6, No 4 (2019)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15850/amj.v6n4.1760

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Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is polymicrobial that causes superficial vaginitis due to a shift in vaginal flora. In pregnant women, BV can result in a significant risk of some serious consequences. The objective of this study was to identify the BV prevalence and to explore the characteristics and personal hygiene practices among pregnant women.Methods: This study was conducted in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor, using the cross-sectional descriptive method, including pregnant women. The BV was detected by Gram-stained vaginal smears using Nugent Score. Furthermore, other microorganisms such as trichomoniasis and candidiasis were detected by direct microscopic observation. The questionnaire was distributed, consisting of details of personal hygiene practices.Results: In total, 17.9% of 52 pregnant women included were diagnosed with BV and 14.3% with mixed infection. Pregnant women with BV were predominantly aged younger than 25 years (61.1%), nullipara (50%) and in a second-trimester pregnancy (50%).Conclusions: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common among young pregnant women, predominantly in their first pregnancy. It is related to personal hygiene practices, indicating the need for targeted interventions of healthcare education among these young pregnant women to reduce the BV prevalence.
Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Fungi from Air Conditioners in Tutorial Rooms of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran Govindasamy, Gowre; Husin, Usep Abdullah; Syukriani, Yoni Fuadah; Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati; Mulyana, Yanti
Althea Medical Journa Vol 1, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journa

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Abstract

Background: Awareness about health problems caused by air conditioner is very important. Thus, it is crucial to have knowledge about proper maintenance of air conditioner. At the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, air conditioners are used in every tutorial rooms. This study was performed to provide adequate information on the fungi, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor, found in air conditioners.Methods: A descriptive laboratory study was used to identify the presence and the type of pathogenic fungi from air conditioners in tutorial rooms. Thirty-four samples were collected from the air outlet grille of the air conditioners and cultured on Sabouraud agar at 27°C for 2 weeks. Fungi presence were then identified microscopicallyResults: The results showed that the majority of air conditioners in tutorial rooms of the Faculty of Medicine, University Padjadjaran contained many types of fungus that grew in Sabouraud agar. From 34 samples, thirty two samples were positive and 2 samples were negative. Various fungus have been identified, those were Penicillium (37.5%), Aspergillus (25%), Mucor (2.5%) and unidentified (35%)Conclusions : The majority of air conditioners in tutorial rooms of the Faculty of Medicine, University Padjadjaran contained many types of opportunistic fungus. [AMJ.2014;1(1):21–4]Keywords : Air conditioner, Aspergillus, fungi, Mucor, Penicillium Isolasi dan Identifikasi Jamur Patogen dari Pendingin Udara di Kamar Tutorial dari Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas PadjadjaranLatar Belakang: Kesadaran tentang masalah kesehatan yang disebabkan oleh pendingin udara sangat penting. Dengan demikian , sangat penting untuk memiliki pengetahuan tentang perawatan yang tepat dari pendingin udara. Di Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Padjadjaran, pendingin udara digunakan di setiap kamar tutorial . Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk memberikan informasi yang memadai tentang jamur, seperti Aspergillus, Penicillium dan Mucor, yang ditemukan di pendingin udara. Metode: Sebuah studi laboratorium deskriptif digunakan untuk mengevaluasi keberadaan dan jenis jamur patogen dari pendingin udara di kamar tutorial. Tiga puluh empat sampel dikumpulkan dari kisi-kisi pendingin udara dan dikultur pada Sabouraud agar pada 27 °C selama 2 minggu. Pertumbuhan jamur kemudian diidentifikasi secara mikroskopis.Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada sebagian besar pendingin udara di ruang tutorial Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjajdjaran terdapat banyak jamur yang dapat tumbuh di Sabaroaud agar, 32 hasil positif dan 2 hasil negatif untuk pertumbuhan jamur . Jamur yang tumbuh adalah Penicillium (37,5%, Aspergillus (25%), Mucor (2,5%) dan tidak teridentifikasi (35%).Simpulan : Sebagian besar pendingin udara di ruang tutorial Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Jatinangor menunjukkan adanya pertumbuhan jamur oportunistikKata kunci : Aspergillus, jamur , Mucor , Penicillium, pendingin udara
DETECTION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS’S STRAIN SIMILARITY ON SURGICAL WARD NURSES’S HAND AND NOSE AND POST OPERATIVE WOUND INFECTION USING COA GENE THROUGH PCR-RFLP METHOD Andrini, Fauzia; Supardi, Imam; Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati; Masria, Sadeli
Jurnal Ilmu Kedokteran Vol 4, No 2 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Kedokteran
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Riau

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (212.126 KB) | DOI: 10.26891/JIK.v4i2.2010.116-122

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Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) remains to be the most important cause of post operative wound infection. Nursescould become reservoirs to transmit S.aureus through contaminated hands transiently, or through colonized nose.Strain polymorphism could be determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), using coa gene andrestriction endonuclease enzyme Alu1. There were 30 isolates of S.aureus?s infection, and 20 isolates taken from handsand nose of the nurses in charge. From 50 isolate positive S.aureus, PCR results showed single and multiple bandswithin 300 to 900 base pairs (bp) in length, and multiple bands within 200 to 600 bp. Five out of 30 patients (17%)showed no PCR-RFLP similarity with any of the nurses. Ten out of 15 nurses which hands were positive for S.aureus,has PCR-RFLP similarity with some patients. There was only 1 out of 5 nurses which nose was positive for S.aureus,showed PCR-RFLP similarity with some patients. Statistically, the proportion of the similar PCR-RFLP between thosesamples in this study is 0.12 (12%). Conclusion: Nurses had 12 % PCR-RFLP similarity for S.aureus with post operativewound infection.
ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS LOKAL DARI TANAH KOTA BANDUNG BERDASARKAN KETINGGIAN Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati; Sukandar, Hadyana; Faridah, Lia
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 49, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v49n2.1055

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Demam dengue (DD) merupakan penyakit endemis di negara berkembang termasuk Indonesia. Kasus DD di Kota Bandung mencapai angka tertinggi di antara kota lain di Jawa Barat, yaitu sebesar 1.180 kasus. Belum ditemukan obat yang tepat dalam menangani infeksi ini. Walaupun sudah ditemukan vaksin, namun penggunaan vaksin ini masih terbatas pada usia dan kalangan tertentu. Dengan demikian, pengendalian vektor baik secara kimiawi maupun biologis, masih menjadi prioritas. Salah satu agen biologis untuk mengendalikan populasi larva nyamuk adalah Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Penelitian dilakukan selama bulan Januari?Desember 2015. Penelitian ini merupakan suatu eksperimen dengan rancangan faktorial yang bertujuan mendapatkan isolat Bt dari tanah di berbagai ketinggian di Kota Bandung. Sampel tanah diambil dari ketinggian 600 m, 800 m, serta 1000 m dan setiap ketinggian diambil 3 lokasi dengan metode acak. Bt diisolasi dengan medium selektif. Isolat bakteri yang diperoleh kemudian diidentifikasi dengan pewarnaan gram, pengamatan endospora subterminal, uji fermentasi glukosa, sitrat, indol, dan manitol. Kelimpahan Bt di tiap ketinggian dihitung menggunakan Bt index. Hasil identifikasi mendeteksi terdapat 3 isolat yang menunjukkan kemiripan dengan Bt, yaitu isolat STBD.2.02, CBRM.3.01, dan KOPO.3.02. Nilai Bt index menunjukkan kelimpahan Bt di ketinggian 800 m lebih tinggi dibanding dengan ketinggian yang lain. [MKB. 2017;49(2):110?4]   Kata kunci: Bacillus thuringiensis lokal, Bandung, ketinggian, tanah     Local Bacillus thuringiensis Isolation from Bandung Soil by Altitude Dengue fever (DF) is an endemic disease in developing countries including Indonesia. Bandung has the highest number of Dengue Fever in West Java Province with 1,180 cases. There  is currently  no drugs or vaccines that can prevent dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, making vector control, both chemically and biologically, the primary prevention approach. One biological agent that has been used to control the larval population is Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This study is an experimental study with factorial design aimed to obtain Bt isolates from soil of various altitude around Bandung city area period January to December 2015. Soil samples were acquired from 600 m, 800 m and 1,000 m above sea level. Sampling was conducted randomly from 3 points at every altitude. Bt were isolated with a selective medium. The acquired bacteria samples were then identified using gram stain, subterminal endospore observation, as well as glucose fermentation, citrate, indole, and manitol tests. Bt abundance for each altitude was calculated using Bt index. Three isolates with similarity with Bt were identified, i.e. STBD 2.02, CBRM 3.01 and KOPO 3.02 isolates. Bt index value indicates that the abundance of Bt at 800 m altitude is the highest compared to others. [MKB. 2017;49(2):110?4]   Key words: Altitude, Bandung, local Bacillus thuringiensis, soil
Enteropathogenic Bacteria from Padang Food in Jatinangor September–October 2012 Husain, Syed Anwar; Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati; Firmansyah W., Abdullah
Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: Diarrhea is a food borne disease and still a major health problem in Indonesia. Padang foodis a popular cuisine and is exposed on an opened display, sometimes for many hours in room temperature,catering favorable conditions for bacterial growth. This study is undertaken to identify enteropathogenicbacteria on food in Padang restaurants located in Jatinangor, SumedangMethods: A laboratory study was conducted in the microbiology laboratory of the Department ofMicrobiology in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, during September–October 2012. Sampleswere collected from 5 Padang restaurants located in Jatinangor using systematic random sampling. Fromeach restaurant, 4 wet samples were collected approximately 2–4 hours after being left open on the display shelves from sambal hijau, sambal merah, gulai babat and gulai nangka, cultured in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and incubated for 24 hours at 37 ºC, then inoculated in Mac Conkey agar and incubated for 24 hours at 37 ºC. Gram-staining was performed to identify gram-negative rods. The bacteria were put through biochemical tests.Results: Four species bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family were identified. The most frequent bacteria which was identified in the samples was Shigella sp (4 from 20), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia(3 from 20), Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp were less identified.Conclusions: Various Padang foods have potential risks of bacterial contamination due to the preparation,handling, and serving. It should be considered that the prepared food should be covered and placed in foodwarmers, ensuring warm food for hours. [AMJ.2015;2(1):241–44]
Enteric Pathogen Bacteria in Non-Broiler Chicken Egg Shells from Traditional Market and Supermarket, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java Arumugam, Kavita; Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati; Nugraha, Gaga Irawan
Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: Around 1.5 million of children dying annually due to diarrhea. Contaminated food is one of the sources of the diarrhea incidence (food borne diseases). Eggs are one of the least expensive forms of protein which is affordable by the community and is easily to find in either traditional or modern market/supermarkets.The objective of this study was to identify enteropathogenic bacteria contamination on non-broiler (ayam kampung) egg shell and to compare the findings between eggs sold in traditional and modern markets.Methods: This was a descriptive study performed at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. A total of 40 eggs were used, 20 from two traditional markets and 20 from two modern markets. The eggs were swabbed using saline, dipped in tryptic soy broth and streaked on Mac Conkey agar. The collected data were analyzed and presented in tables.Results: Out of 40 samples, there were 19 positive cultures found from the traditional market and 16 from the modern market. There were 30 pink colonies indicating that they were lactose fermented, 5 transparent colonies indicated non-lactose fermentation, 4 showed no colony growth, and 1 grew an unidentified colony. The most found bacteria were Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. in both market. Conclusions: Eggs shells from traditional and modern markets are contaminated with Enteropathogenic microbes. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v2n3.487
Antimicrobial Suspectibility of Bacterial Isolated from Burn Unit in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia from June to September 2013 Evila, Yodya; Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati; Soedjana, Hardisiswo
Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: Development of infection in burned patients is a crucial matter because it may increase morbidity and mortality. Factors contributing to high risk for infections are disrupted skin barrier, dysfunction of the immune system and prolonged hospitalization. Crowded hospital condition and transfer of patients from one unit to another can affect development of infection caused by environmental factors. The aim of the study was to identify the antimicrobial suspectibility of bacterial isolated from Burn Unit in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung.Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in Burn Unit Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia, from June to September 2013.  A total of 30 environment samples were collected and cultured to identify the bacterias. Futhermore, the colonies  found, underwent antimicrobial susceptibility test.Results: Most common bacteria found from the environmental samples in Burn Unit was Staphylococcus saprophyticus (24%). Other bacterias found were Klebsiella pneumonia (17%), Acinetobacter baumanii (15%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12%), Bacillus sp.(12%), Pseudomonas sp.(7%), Staphylococcus aureus (5%), Enterobacter aerogenes (5%) and Serratia sp. (2%). Some bacteria still had good sensitivity to antibiotics while the Enterobacteriaceae were almost completely resistant to antimicrobial used in the study.Conclusions: The most common bacteria found from the environment samples in Burn Unit is Staphylococcuss aprophyticus. Additionally, Klebsiella pneumoniae as one of the Enterobacteriaceae groups, appears as an emerging hospital associated infection pathogen with their resistant to many antimicrobials. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v2n3.592
Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Neonatal Bacterial Sepsis Iswandari, Nadya; Primadi, Aris; Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati
Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (183.214 KB) | DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1072

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Background: Appropriate treatment on neonatal bacterial sepsis is important based on the exact etiology to prevent bacterial resistance, but bacterial identification using blood cultures requires a considerable time. The newest data of various bacteria and their sensitivity can be used to assist empirical antibiotics usage. This study was conducted to identify bacterial profile that caused neonatal sepsis and their sensitivity to antibiotics at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung..Methods: A total of 275 neonatal sepsis cases and 288 blood cultures results were collected from a database provided by Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung during the period of July 2011 toDecember 2012 (three semesters).  Etiology of the bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity profile data were taken from positive bacteria results. Then, these variables were processed using the descriptive method and classified by semesterResult: The most common bacteria that caused neonatal sepsis in the second semester 2011 is Serratia marescens, the first semester 2012 was Enterobacter aerogenes and in the second semester 2012 was Burkholderia cepacia. The most sensitive antibiotics were piperacillin tazobactam, cefepime, meropenem and amikacin in all three semesters, gentamycin in the second semester 2011 and 2012, and amoxicillin clavulanic in the second semester 2012.Conclusions: Bacterial and antimicrobial sensitivity profile is varied in every semester.Keywords: Antimicrobial sensitivity profile, bacterial profile, neonatal sepsisDOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1072
The immunogenicity and safety of the new, Indonesian DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine compared to the DTwP/HB vaccine given with the Hib vaccine Bachtiar, Novilia Sjafri; Rusmil, Kusnandi; Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati; Kartasasmita, Cissy B; Hadyana, Hadyana
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 57 No 3 (2017): May 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (887.392 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi57.3.2017.129-37

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Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) causes infection with predominant manifestations of pneumonia, meningitis, and other invasive diseases, occurring primarily in children aged under 2 years, particularly in infants.  The World Health Organization (WHO) and Indonesian Technical Advisory Group for Immunization recommend to include the Hib vaccine into the national immunization program. The newly developed DTwP-HB-Hib combination vaccine is anticipated to be the preferred choice for Hib vaccine introduction; it is efficient, simple, and has higher coverage.Objective To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a new, combined Bio Farma DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine, compared to the registered Hib monovalent vaccine given simultaneously with the local DTwP-HB vaccine, when used as the primary vaccination of Indonesian infants.Methods A prospective, randomized, open-label, phase II study was conducted on the DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine compared to the Hib (registered) vaccine given simultaneously with the DTwP-HB vaccine, in Bandung from July 2011 to January 2012. Infants were serially vaccinated at 6-11, 10-15, and 14-19 weeks. Serological assessments were done prior to the first vaccine dose and 28 days after the third dose. Safety was assessed from the time of first injection until 1 month after the last injection.Results Of 220 healthy infants enrolled, 211 completed the study, with 105 receiving the combined vaccine and 106 the two separate vaccines. All vaccines were well tolerated. No differences in rates of local and systemic reactions were seen between the two methods of administration. No serious adverse events were considered to be related to the vaccines. In the DTwP-HB-Hib primary-vaccination group, at least 98% of the infants reached protective levels of antibodies (seropositivity) against the antigens employed in the vaccines while 96% in the control group.Conclusion The DTwP-HB-Hib combined vaccine is immunogenic and safe, as well as comparable to the Hib vaccine given simultaneously with to the DTwP-HB vaccine.