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PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN ASAM HUMAT PADA PAKAN MENGANDUNG KADMIUM (CD) DARI KERANG HIJAU TERHADAP BIOELIMINASI CD, STATUS KESEHATAN, DAN PERTUMBUHAN IKAN KAKAP PUTIH LATES CALCARIFER Rasidi, Rasidi; Jusadi, Dedi; Setiawati, Mia; Yuhana, Munti; Jr., Muhammad Zairin; Sugama, Ketut
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 15, No 1 (2020): Maret, 2020)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Abstract

Asam humat (AH) terdiri atas AH alami (AHA) dan sintetik (AHS), namun efektivitasnya sebagai feed additive pada pakan ikan kakap putih belum dikaji. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektivitas penambahan AH pada pakan yang mengandung kadmium (Cd) dari kerang hijau Perna viridis terhadap status kesehatan dan pertumbuhan ikan kakap putih, Lates calcarifer. Percobaan dirancang menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri atas lima pakan uji mengandung AH yang berbeda, yaitu 0; 1.600; 10.000; dan 20.000 mg.kg-1 (AHA) dan sebagai pembanding menggunakan AHS sebesar 1.600 mg.kg-1 pakan. Benih ikan kakap putih (4,18 ± 0,25 g) dipelihara dalam akuarium ukuran 80 cm x 35 cm x 28 cm yang diisi air laut dengan sistem resirkulasi selama 70 hari. Ikan diberi pakan uji sesuai perlakuan tiga kali sehari sampai kenyang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penambahan AH baik jenis AHA maupun AHS pada pakan dapat menurunkan akumulasi Cd dalam daging, ginjal, dan hati; kedua jenis AH tersebut mampu mengeliminasi Cd di dalam daging ikan. Pada dosis 1.600 mg.kg-1 kedua jenis AH tersebut mampu meningkatkan performa pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup ikan, namun pada dosis AHA > 1.600 mg.kg-1 pertumbuhannya relatif menurun. Pola respons pertumbuhan ikan bersesuaian dengan parameter hematologi, enzim pencernaan, dan status antioksidan di hati ikan. Kesimpulan penelitian ini, penambahan asam humat pada dosis yang sama (1.600 mg.kg-1) pada pakan, AHS lebih efisien dibandingkan AHA dalam hal meningkatkan pertumbuhan. Penambahan AH dari jenis asam humat alami dan sintetik dalam pakan uji dapat meningkatkan status kesehatan dan mengeliminasi Cd di dalam daging ikan. Penambahan AHA pada dosis tinggi pada pakan memberikan respons negatif terhadap status kesehatan, kelangsungan hidup, dan kinerja pertumbuhan ikan kakap putih.Humic acids (HAs) are available in natural and synthetic forms. HA has potential applications in aquaculture, yet its effectiveness as a feed additive in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer has not well studied. The purpose of this study was to asses the effectiveness of the addition of natural and synthetic humic acids to reduce cadmium (Cd) concentration in green mussels Perna viridis used for Asian seabass feed and evaluate the fish health status and growth performance. The experiment was designed using a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and three replications. Five test feeds containing different levels of humic acid, i.e., 0; 1,600; 10,000; and 20,000 mg natural humic acid kg-1 feed. As a comparison, a test feed was added with 1,600 mg synthetic humic acid kg-1 feed. Asian seabass juveniles (4.18 ± 0.25 g) were cultivated in seawater aquarium equipped with a recirculation system for 70 days. Fifteen aquaria of 80 cm x 35 cm x 28 cm were used as the culture tanks. The fish were fed with the experimental diet three times every day at the satiation level. The results showed that the addition of both HAs (natural, AHA and synthetic, AHS) in feed could reduce Cd level in the fish meat, kidneys, and liver. At a dose of 1,600 mg.kg-1, both HAs were able to improve the growth performance and survival of fish. However, at doses > 1,600 mg.kg-1, fish growth was relatively suppressed. Fish growth response patterns were concomitant with the hematological parameters, digestive enzymes, and antioxidant status in fish liver. This study concludes that the addition of AHS at 1,600 mg.kg-1 feed is more efficient in terms of increasing growth compared with the same AHA level. The addition of HA, either natural and synthetic humic acid in the feed, can improve the health status of Asian seabass and eliminate Cd in the fish meat. The addition of AHA at higher doses (> 1,600 mg.kg-1 feed) might cause a negative response to health status, survival, and growth performance of Asian seabass. 
SURVEILLANCE OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV) AND MYONECROSIS VIRUS (IMNV) INFECTIONS IN CULTURED LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI Koesharyani, Isti; Andayani, Ariani; Fayumi, Ulfah; Sugama, Ketut
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 14, No 1 (2019): (June, 2019)
Publisher : Center for Fisheries Research, Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research and Human Resource

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.14.1.2019.39-45

Abstract

Disease surveillance programs will provide updated information on the distribution of diseases which allows proper development of mitigation and prevention strategies. WSSV and IMNV viruses are the most threatening diseases in shrimp and have affected the global shrimp farming industries. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of WSSV and IMNV in three different locations of shrimp farms of South Sulawesi, West Nusa Tenggara and West Jawa. Samples of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were randomly collected from 20 active shrimp farms in the locations and five samples of postlarvae (PL) that were stocked in ponds. Tissue samples of the shrimp and whole body of PL were preserved in ethanol 90% for analysis. Determination of WSSV and IMNV were carried out by the mobile IQTM WSSV and IQTM IMNV Kit POCKIT Systems. The results showed that the prevalence of WSSV was 30% (6/20) and IMNV was 20% (4/20), while on PL was 40% (2/5). The result revealed that the South Sulawesi (Takalar) samples were positive only for WSSV while West Java (Panimbang) samples were positive only for IMNV. A follow-up study predicted that both viruses were transmitted from the PLs. The present study clearly confirmed that viruses were transmitted from PLs that were not free from either WSSV or IMNV. Therefore, a biosurveillance program is strongly recommended to be implemented in order to avoid the spread of the viral disease to other locations within Indonesia.
Biochemical Genetic Analysis Of Three Population Of Marble Grouper, Epinephelus polypekhadion Permana, Gusti Ngurah; Haryanti, Haryanti; Moria, Sari Budi; Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Sugama, Ketut
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 9, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.32

Abstract

Genetic variations of marble groupers, Epinephelus polypekhadion were evaluated to know genetic performance of fish to support fish seed production. Fifty fish samples from three locations i.e. West Nusa Tenggara, South Sulawesi and East Java were collected for analysis. Genetic analysis has been examined through allozyme electrophoresis by using 11 enzymes (ADH, GPI, SDH, IDH, LDH, ME, PGM, 6PGD, MPI, SP, EST). The result showed that 16 loci were detected, and three of them were polymorphism enzymes namely Isocitric dehydrogenase (IDH*), Glucose Phosphate Isomerase (GPI-1*) and Esterase (EST-2*). One locus (EST-2) was polymorphic in the East Java and West Nusa Tenggara populations and three loci (EST-2, GPI-1 and IDH) were polymorphic in the South Sulawesi population. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.007 to 0.034. Rogers genetic distance between population pairs were ranged from 0.005 to 0.012 (average = 0.009). Differences between genetic populations were significant (P<0.05). East Java and West Nusa Tenggara populations have same gene pool.
PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE; DISEASES; SPF-BREEDING; AND RISK ISSUES CONCERNING WHITE SHRIMP, Penaeus vannamei INTRODUCTION INTO INDONESIA Sugama, Ketut; Novita, Hessy; Koesharyani, Isti
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 1, No 1 (2006): (June 2006)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (710.924 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.1.1.2006.71-77

Abstract

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IDENTIFICATION OF A LOCAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIUM USING 16S rRNA GENE SEQUENCE THAT WAS USED FOR FIELD TRIAL TO ENHANCED WHITELEG SHRIMP (Litopenaeus vannamei) SURVIVAL Rahayu, Tb. Haeru; Sugama, Ketut
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 10, No 2 (2015): (December 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (872.369 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.10.2.2015.137-142

Abstract

The use of local probiotics in the culture of aquatic organisms is increasing with the demand for more environmental-friendly aquaculture practices. The local bacterium isolate considered as a probiotic was added into the water of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture in a field trial. Four rectangular plastic ponds (ca. 20 m x 30 m per pond) were used for 100 days experimentation for six consecutive crops in two years experiment. Survival, harvest size, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and Vibrio bacterial count was compared with those of shrimp receiving and none of local isolate. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence shown those isolate was Bacillus pumilus strain DURCK14 with 99% homology. Water shrimp pond added a local isolate had significantly higher survival at about 10.0% to 11.7% than shrimp without added the isolate (p&lt;0.05), and better FCR, but no significant different in shrimp harvest size. Vibrio bacterial was undetected by total plate count. Moreover, it shown better projected yields on an annual basis (three crops per year).
FREQUENT MONITORING OF WATER TEMPERATURE IN PEGAMETAN BAY, BALI: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT TOWARDS MANAGEMENT OF MARINE AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT Radiarta, I Nyoman; Erlania, Erlania; Sugama, Ketut; Yudha, Hirmawan Tirta; Wada, Masaaki
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1126.007 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.9.2.2014.177-185

Abstract

Aquaculture currently share for nearly half of the world’s food fish consumption, and continue to be the fastest-growing animal food producing sector. The viability of aquaculture operation has greatly been affected by the characteristic of marine environment. Inventory and monitoring of marine environment are necessary and can be done through information technology implementation. Frequent monitoring of water temperature, for almost one year observation, at four aquaculture sites in Pegametan Bay and Research and Development Institute for Mariculture was investigated. Water temperature data were obtained by using logger and buoy systems. These data were contrasted against marine fish mortality. On the other hand, the suitability of species requirements with the thermal conditions was evaluated by comparing temperature range to the optimum and lethal temperature information available on marine fish species of aquaculture interest. This research could be beneficial for enhancing productivity of marine aquaculture operation in terms of possible impact of climate change. It was also possible to find the ideal temperature range for culturing fish species, taking into account the variability associated with large-scale phenomena.
FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY REFLECT THE GROWTH OF HYBRID GROUPER Epinephelus fuscoguttatus AND Epinephelus polyphekadion Sugama, Ketut; Muzaki, Ahmad; Permana, I Gusti Ngurah; Haryanti, Haryanti
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (313.816 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.9.2.2014.97-102

Abstract

Fluctuating asymmetry has been widely used as a measure of developmental stability and as an indicator of individual fish growth. The present study compared fluctuating asymmetry in three bilateral meristic traits of F-1 hybrid between female Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and male Epinephelus polyphekadion and two F-1 pure parental progenies. The fishes were reared by communal and separate tank systems. Hybrids were confirmed by allozymes electrophoresis. After three months of rearing, the F-1 hybrids fish grew faster 45.9% and 66.6% compare to the F-1 pure parental progenies of E. fuscoguttatus and E. polyphekadion (P&lt;005) respectively. Development stability as measured by fluctuating asymmetry was lower in hybrid (20%-40%) than in the pure parental progenies (53%-80%). Among four enzyme loci examined, only Pgm locus showed variants and at that locus all hybrids fish were heterozygous. Heterozygous hybrids showed lower fluctuating asymmetry and related to higher developmental stability. The higher developmental stability positively reflected a faster growth rate. Thus this finding can be used to explain the reason that why hybrids groupers appeared grew faster than parental species.
YOLK OPAQUE SYNDROME PADA TELUR IKAN TUNA SIRIP KUNING (Thunnus albacares) Permana, Gusti Ngurah; Hutapea, Jhon Harianto; Sugama, Ketut
Media Akuakultur Vol 2, No 1 (2007): (Juni 2007)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6762.307 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/ma.2.1.2007.137-141

Abstract

Yolk opaque syndrome merupakan suatu kejadian di mana secara tiba-tiba telur atau larva yang menetas terserang endoparasit yang ditunjukkan dari warna telur atau larva keruh. Infeksi ini terjadi pada telur ikan tuna di Kinki University Jepang, larva ikan cod (Gadus morhua) dan ikan turbot (Scopthalmus maximus), serta ikan tuna sirip kuning (Thunnus albacares), sehingga perlu kiranya diketahui tentang penyebab dan cara pencegahan. Kemungkinan besar endoparasit ini termasuk protozoa karena mampu bergerak dengan menggunakan flagella. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa endoparasit (Icthtyodinium chabelardii) menyerang telur ikan tuna di dalam bak terkontrol dan infeksinya terjadi adalah secara horizontal yang berasal dari air media pemeliharaan.
BUDIDAYA RUMPUT LAUT, Kappaphycus alvarezii SECARA TERINTEGRASI DENGAN IKAN KERAPU DI TELUK GERUPUK KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT Radiarta, I Nyoman; Erlania, Erlania; Sugama, Ketut
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 9, No 1 (2014): (April 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (633.408 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.9.1.2014.125-134

Abstract

Budidaya ikan laut dalam keramba jaring apung menghasilkan banyak sisa pakan dan feses yang dapat meningkatkan kandungan nutrien berupa nitrogen dan fosfat perairan. Pemanfaatan nutrien tersebut dapat dilakukan melalui budidaya rumput laut di sekitar keramba ikan laut. Pengamatan pertumbuhan dan laju pertumbuhan spesifik terhadap dua varietas rumput laut (Kappaphycus alvarezii var. Maumere dan Tambalang) telah dilakukan di Teluk Gerupuk, Lombok Tengah untuk satu siklus musim tanam pada bulan September-Oktober 2013. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa performansi pertumbuhan rumput laut yang terintegrasi dengan keramba ikan laut sangat baik. Laju pertumbuhan spesifik terbesar ditemukan pada varian Maumere yaitu berkisar antara 4,26%-4,68%/hari dibandingkan dengan varian Tambalang yaitu berkisar antara 3,90%-4,20%/hari. Secara umum melalui sistem budidaya multi-tropik terintegrasi (IMTA) ini, peningkatan produksi rumput laut dapat mencapai 74% dibandingkan dengan sistem monokultur. Model IMTA sangat relevan dengan program ekonomi biru Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan dalam mendukung pengembangan perikanan budidaya yang berkelanjutan.
RESPON IMUNITAS BENIH LOBSTER, Panulirus homarus DENGAN PENGGUNAAN PROBIOTIK PADA PAKAN MOIST Haryanti, Haryanti; Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Sudewi, Sudewi; Widiastuti, Zeny; Giri, I Nyoman Adiasmara; Sugama, Ketut
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 12, No 1 (2017): (Maret 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (599.419 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.12.1.2017.85-97

Abstract

Pemeliharaan benih lobster P. homarus masih menghadapi beberapa permasalahan, di antaranya infeksi penyakit bakteri (red body disease) dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji respons imunitas benih lobster P. homarus yang diberi pakan pelet basah (moist diets) dengan penambahan probiotik. Pemeliharaan benih lobster dilakukan secara individu (1 ekor/keranjang). Lama pemeliharaan selama tiga bulan. Bobot awal puerulus P. homarus adalah 0,37 ± 0,05 g. Perlakuan meliputi pemberian pakan moist yang ditambahkan (A) ragi Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (B) kombinasi probiotik, Alteromonas sp. BY-9 dan Bacillus cereus BC, dan (C) tanpa probiotik. Respons imunitas dianalisis dengan RT-qPCR melalui tujuh gen target terkait ekspresi imunitas, setelah diuji tantang dengan Vibrio harveyi (penyebab red body disease). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintasan benih lobster sebesar (A) 32,22%; (B) 29,63%; dan (C) 33,33%. Pertumbuhan panjang dan bobot benih lobster tidak berbeda nyata (P&gt;0,05). Respons imunitas benih lobster P. homarus pada perlakuan A dan B menunjukkan nilai ekspresi imun yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan C (tanpa probiotik). Ekspresi gen penyandi anti lipopolisakarida (ALFHa-1) meningkat pada (A) rata-rata sebesar 3,44 kali dan (B) 3,25 kali dibandingkan dengan perlakuan C (2,43 kali). Kelipatan ekspresi profenoloksidase (proPO) benih lobster meningkat pada perlakuan A (penambahan ragi) rata-rata sebesar 5,27 kali, sedangkan pada perlakuan B (kombinasi probiotik) sebesar 12,92 kali. Ekspresi Clotting sistem (transglutaminase, clotting protein) dan antioxidant defense mechanism (glutathione peroxidase/GPO) dan SAA juga mengalami peningkatan pada perlakuan A dan B.A number of contrains including disease infections and significant mortality have been occurring in lobster aquaculture. The aim of this research was to observe the immune response of juvenile lobster P. homarus culture fed by moist pellet supplemented with probiotic. Experimental juveniles were reared in individual system (one juvenile/basket). The experiment was conducted for three months. The treatments comprised (A) whole cell of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (B) combination of probiotics Alteromonas sp. BY-9 and Bacillus sp. BC, and (C) without probiotic as control. Initial weight of juveniles were 0.37 ± 0.05 g. Immunity responses were analyzed using seven immunity related genes expression by RT-qPCR. The results showed that the survival rate of juvenile for treatments A, B, and C were 32.22%, 29.63%, and 33.33% respectively. The weight and length gain of the juvenile were not significantly different (P&gt;0.05) among treatments. Based on immunity related gene expression analysis, it revealed that A and B treatments have shown differences in the increament of immunity responses. Expressions of ALFHa-1 genes were increased on (A) treatment with average of 3.44 fold and (B) treatment (3.25 fold) and higher than C treatment (2.03 fold). Prophenoloxidase (ProPO) expression was increase average up to 5.27 fold on A (yeast supplementated) treatment and B (combination of probiotic) were 12.92 fold. Gene expression on Clotting system (transglutaminase, clotting protein) and antioxidant defense mechanism (glutathione peroxidase/GPO) was increased on A and B treatments.