S. Sugiharto
Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275

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Effect of dietary supplementation of formic acid, butyric acid or their combination on carcass and meat characteristics of broiler chickens Sugiharto, S.; Yudiarti, T.; Isroli, I.; Widiastuti, E.; Wahyuni, H. I.; Sartono, T. A.; Nurwantoro, N.; Al-Baarri, A. N.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 44, No 3 (2019): September
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (214.432 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.44.3.286-294

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of dietary supplementation of formic acid, butyric acid or their combination on carcass and meat characteristics of broiler chicks. A number of 288 day-old-chicks (Lohmann MB-202 meat broilers) were distributed to four groups, including CONT (basal diet with no additive as a control), FORM (basal diet containing 0.1% formic acid), BUTR (basal diet with 0.03% butyric acid) and FORM+BUTR (basal diet with 0.1% formic and 0.03% butyric acid). At day 35 the birds were slaughtered and eviscerated, and from which the breast meat was obtained. Carcass and cut yields of broilers were not different (P>0.05) among CONT, FORM and BUTR birds. The combination of formic and butyric acids increased (P<0.05) the relative weight of back of broilers. Meat pH value was higher (P<0.05) in organic acids treated than in non-treated birds. Organic acids lowered (P<0.05) drip loss of broiler meat. Butyric acid increased (P<0.05) moisture and decreased (P<0.05) the content of meat protein. Formic acid increased (P<0.05), whereas butyric acid and combination of formic and butyric acids decreased (P<0.05) lightness values of breast meat. Yellowness values of meat increased (P<0.05) with organic acid administration. Intense bands of 25 kDa (phosphoglycerate mutase) was observed in most of meat samples from the treated birds, but not in meat from the control birds. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of organic acids was capable of improving the meat quality of broiler meats. The treatments may prevent the pale, soft and exudative (PSE)-like condition in broiler meats. 
COMPENSATORY GROWTH AND FAT PARAMETERS ON BROILER FASTED IN EARLY LIFE Sugiharto, S.; Henckel, P.; Lauridsen, L.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 35, No 4 (2010): (December)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (124.31 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.35.4.239-244

Abstract

The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed withholding in the very early life ofbird on its compensatory growth capacity and fat parameters. A total of 60 mixed-sexes of one day oldRoss chicks were used in the experiment conducted with completely randomized design of 2 differentfeeding times after hatching, i.e.: T1: given access to feed and water ad libitum immediately afterhatching until 35d of age; and T2: withheld from feed (fasted) but not from water for 48h after hatchingand then fed ad libitum until d35. The birds were weighed at the start of experiment and weeklythereafter, and DWG was then calculated. Feed intakes and FCR were also recorded weekly. At d36,abdominal fat was taken out from 2 birds per pen and was weighed. Breast meat (skinless) from thesame birds was also sampled for total FA analysis. Final BW (d35) and total feed consumption of earlyfastedbirds were 1935.17±43.90 kg and 2745.55±47.48 kg and those of unfasted birds were2019.00±50.85 kg and 2910.84±128.10 kg, respectively. FCR of early-fasted and unfasted birds at d35were 1.42±0.03 and 1.45±0.07. The magnitude difference of DWG between early-fasted and unfastedbirds was 27% at d7, whereas at d35 the difference was only 4.5%. Abdominal fat percentage to live BWof early-fasted birds was 1.65±0.09% (male) and 1.60±0.10% (female) and that of unfasted birds was2.00±0.19% (male) and 1.89±0.38% (female). Total FA contained in meat of early-fasted and unfastedbirds were 0.82±0.10 and 0.85±0.10 g/100gDM. Overall, BW and feed consumption of early-fastedbirds were significantly lower (P<0.05) than unfasted birds. DWG, FCR, abdominal fat and total FAcontained in meat were not significantly different (P>0.05) between early-fasted and unfasted birds. Inconclusion, holding birds without feed following hatch (under practical conditions) may limit thecompensatory growth capacity of birds in the later age. Fasting applied in the very early life of broilerleads to impairment of cell hyperplasia resulting in permanent stunting. Abdominal fat and total FAcontained in meat might not be affected by fasting for 48h after hatching. The degree or duration of feedwithholding (for 48h after hatching) might not sufficient to reduce adipocyte proliferation or the numberof precursor adipocytes.
FATTY ACIDS PROFILE OF MEAT, MUCOSAL sIgA CONCENTRATION AND PRODUCTION INDEX OF BROILER AS A RESPONSE TO CHLORELLA sp. ADMINISTRATION IN THE DIET Sugiharto, S.; Henckel, P.; Lauridsen, C.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 35, No 3 (2010): (September)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (142.563 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.35.3.172-178

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different levels of Chlorella sp. in the form ofmeal administrated in the diet of broilers throughout their life upon FA profile of the breast muscle,mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) concentration and production index (PI) of broiler. Allotted in 18 pens, thetotal of 90 Ross day old chicks were assigned in completely randomized design by 3 of dietarytreatments (T1: control (basal diet without enrichment of Chlorella sp.); T2: basal diet enriched with 5-gChlorella sp./kg feed; T3): basal diet enriched with 10-g Chlorella sp./kg feed. At d-36, skinless breastmeat was collected for FA determination. Practical standard of vaccination was performed to activateantibodies production and at d-36 gut mucosa was collected for sIgA analysis. Chlorella sp.administration had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the FA profile of breast muscle, mucosal sIgAconcentration and producton index of broiler. In conclusion, the level and ratio between n-3 to n-6polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as well as the nature of dietary PUFA source determine tissue PUFAcomposition. Beside through eicosanoid, Chlorella sp. may affect mucosal sIgA production throughcytokines mediated effect. Although Chlorella sp. administration does not improve the production indexof broiler, this treatment may produce broiler meat with lower fat content.
INFLUENCE OF AGE ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PIGLETS TO ESCHERICHIA COLI O138:F18 Sugiharto, S.; Lauridsen, C.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 39, No 3 (2014): September
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (181.269 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.39.3.159-166

Abstract

The ex vivo and in vivo studies were undertaken to examine age-effect on the susceptibility of pigsto E. coli F18-diarrhea. The ex vivo experiment was conducted with 2 and 4 weeks old pigs based on theporcine intestinal organ culture (PIOC) model. The in vivo experiment was performed with 2 and 3weeks old pigs fed milk replacer and inoculated with E. coli F18. E. coli F18 inoculation to the intestinalcultures resulted in higher (P<0.01) counts of E. coli associated to the intestinal tissue, but suchdifference was not observed between the 2 and 4 weeks old pigs. Faecal dry matter (DM) decreased(P=0.01), whereas the proportion of pigs with diarrhea and faecal haemolytic E. coli counts increased(P<0.05) following inoculation, however, the difference between the ages was not observed in the invivo study. The interaction (P=0.01) between age and sampling day was observed for the number of totalwhite blood cells (WBC). The proportion of neutrophils decreased (P=0.01), whereas the lymphocytes,red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) increased (P<0.01) after inoculation, butthe differences between age groups were not observed regarding these variables. In conclusion, age (2versus 3 or 4 weeks) did not influence the susceptibility of piglet to E. coli F18-diarrhea.
The potential of Bacillus strains isolated from the rumen content of dairy cows as natural antibacterial and antioxidant agents for broilers Sugiharto, S.; Yudiarti, T.; Isroli, I.; Widiastuti, E.; Wahyuni, H.I.; Suprijatna, E.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 43, No 2 (2018): June
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (230.344 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.43.2.115-123

Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity and antioxidant-enhancing effect of Bacillus strains isolated from the rumen content of dairy cows. The antibacterial activity of Bacillus strains was assessed against Escherichia colibased on the agar-well diffusion method. To assess the antioxidant-enhancing effect, the Bacillusstrains was mixed (prepared as multi-strains) and used to ferment herbal medicine waste (HMW). The effect was compared with that of commercial probiotic Bacillus subtilis and non fermented HWM. Results showed that each Bacillus strain was able to inhibit the growth of E. coli. Fermentation with mixed Bacillus strains tended (P=0.07) to enhance the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity and total phenolics content of HMW. In contrast, fermentation with commercial Bacillus subtilis tended (P=0.07) to decrease DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenol of HMW. Fermentation with both Bacillus preparations increased (P<0.05) the contents of crude protein and ash in HMW, while crude fat increased  (P<0.05) in HMW fermented with Bacillus subtilis. Fermentation either with Bacillus subtilis or mixed Bacillus strains increased (P<0.05) the fiber content of HMW. In conclusion, Bacillus strains isolated from the rumen content of dairy cows showed antibacterial activity and antioxidant-enhancing effect, therefore, they are potential as feed additive to substitute synthetic antibiotics and antioxidants for broilers raised under tropical conditions.
EFFECT OF TURMERIC EXTRACT ON BLOOD PARAMETERS, FEED EFFICIENCY AND ABDOMINAL FAT CONTENT IN BROILERS Sugiharto, S.; Isroli, I.; Widiastuti, E.; Prabowo, N.S.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 36, No 1 (2011): (March)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (144.436 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.36.1.21-26

Abstract

The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of turmeric extract on blood parameters,feed efficiency and abdominal fat content in broilers. A total of 100 mixed-sexes Lohman chicks wereused in the experiment set up with completely randomized design of 5 different doses of turmeric extractgiven orally start from day-15 to day-35. The chicks given no turmeric extract were used as a control(T0), whereas T1, T2, T3 and T4 were the chicks given turmeric extract of 200, 400, 600 and 800mg/kg-live BW, respectively. Hemoglobin values of broilers given turmeric extract 800 mg/kg-live BWwas significantly higher (p<0.05) at week-3 and week-4, but not at week-5, compared to broilers giventurmeric extract with lower doses or control group. Turmeric extract did not affect significantly (p>0.05)the concentration of erythrocytes, the levels of hematocrit as well as FCR and abdominal fat content ofbroiler. Turmeric extract seemed to be able to improve the digestion and metabolism (of fat) resulted inenhanced production of hemoglobin in broilers. The hypolipidemic effect of turmeric that could hamperits potential to promote the growth of broilers per se might explain why turmeric could not improve thefeed efficiency of broiler.
EFFECT OF POST-HATCH FEED DEPRIVATION ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF BROILER MEAT Sugiharto, S.; Isroli, I.; Yudiarti, T.; Widiastuti, E.; Kusumanti, E.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 40, No 4 (2015): December
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (117.687 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.40.4.234-237

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feed deprivation over the first 48 h post-hatch on the composition of fatty acids in broiler meat. Sixty 1-d-old Ross chicks were divided to two experimental groups, i.e., birds provided access to feed and water ad libitumimmediately post-hatch until d 35 and birds deprived from feed but not from water over the first 48 h post-hatch. Blood for cholesterol analysis was collected on d 34. The same birds were sacrificed on d 36, and immediately breast meat, abdominal fat, heart and liver were collected and weighed.Feed deprivation over the first 48 h post-hatch retarded (P<0.05) growth performance of chickens, but had no impact (P>0.05) on the abdominal fat, fatty acid profile of meat, total serum cholesterol level as well as the weight of heart and liver of broiler. In conclusion, early post-hatch feeding is a beneficial means to enhance the final body weight of broilers without affecting the meat quality.
Growth Performance, Haematological Parameters, Intestinal Microbiology, and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed Two-Stage Fermented Cassava Pulp during Finishing Phase Sugiharto, S.; Yudiarti, T.; Isroli, I.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 42, No 2 (2019): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2019.42.2.113

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the effect of two-stage fermented cassava pulp (FCP) on growth, blood parameters, intestinal microbiology and carcass characteristics of broilers. Two hundreds Lohmann broiler chicks were used from days 22 to 38 and allotted to CONT (maize-soybean-meal-based finisher diet), FCP-10 (finisher diet containing 10% FCP), FCP-15 (15% FCP) and FCP-20 (20% FCP). FCP was included into finisher diet at the expense of maize. On day 38, one bird per replicate was blood sampled and slaughtered. Ileal and caecal digesta and duodenal, jejunal and ileal segments were obtained for intestinal microbiology and villi height measurements. Breast muscle was obtained for meat colour determination. FCP-10 had a higher (p?0.05) body weight gain than CONT. Feed intake was highest (p?0.05) in FCP-15 and the lowest (p?0.05) in CONT. Feed conversion ratio was lowest and highest in FCP-10 and FCP-15, respectively (p?0.05). FCP-20 had a lower (p?0.05) abdominal fat than CONT and FCP-10. CONT had lower (p?0.05) serum total triglycerides than FCP-15 and FCP-20. Duodenal villi height for FCP-20 was higher (p?0.05) than that for CONT and FCP-15. The ileal villi height for FCP-20 was lower (p?0.05) than that for CONT and FCP-15. The wings relative weight was higher (p?0.05) in FCP-20 than in FCP-10 and FCP-15. FCP-15 and FCP-20 had higher (p?0.05) L* (lightness) values than CONT. In conclusion, feeding two-stage FCP up to 20% had no deleterious effect on growth, haematological parameters, intestinal microbiology and carcass characteristics. Feeding two-stage FCP at a level of 20% reduced the abdominal fat content and increased duodenal villi height of broilers.
Effect of decocted turmeric on performance, hematological parameters and carcass traits of broiler chickens Isroli, I.; Yudiarti, T.; Widiastuti, E.; Sugiharto, S.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 42, No 4 (2017): December
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (139.941 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.42.4.263-269

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the effect of decocted turmeric on performance, haematological parameters and carcass traits of broilers. Broiler chicks at 11 days of age were allotted to five groups, including T0 (birds drinking 100% water), T1 (25% decocted turmeric + 75% water), T2 (50% decocted turmeric + 50% water), T3 (75% decocted turmeric + 25% water) and T4 (100% decocted turmeric). The study was arranged based on a completely randomized design (CRD), parameters investigated was performance and blood chemistry (leukocyte, total protein, albumin, globulin, uric acid, glucose). The data were subjected to analysis of variance at 5% probability. Decocted turmeric did not affect weight gain, feed and water consumption and feed conversion ratio of broilers. Lymphocytes proportion was higher (P<0.05) in T1, T2 and T4 than in T0 and T3 birds. The heterophils to lymphocytes ratio was lower (P<0.05) in birds receiving decocted turmeric than control. Globulin concentration and albumin to globulin ratio were higher and lower (P<0.05), respectively, in serum of T2, T3 and T4 than T0 and T1 birds. The proportion of heterophils and concentration of serum total protein, albumin, uric acid and glucose were not different among treatments. The weight of breast meat was higher and lower (P<0.05) in T3 and T4 birds, respectively, compared to the control. In conclusion, providing decocted turmeric through drinking water helped to improve stress responses and increased the weight of breast meat of broiler chickens. 
Breast meat characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of cassava pulp and Moringa oleifera leaf meal Sugiharto, S.; Widiastuti, E.; Isroli, I.; Yudiarti, T.; Sartono, T. A.; Wahyuni, H. I.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 45, No 2 (2020): June
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.45.2.103-114

Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of feeding fermented mixture of cassava pulp and M. oleifera leaf meal (FCPMO) on the breast meat characteristics of broiler chickens. From day 8 onward, 400 Lohmann broiler chicks were allotted to four dietary groups included CONT (maize-soybean-based feed with no additive), BACI (maize-soybean-based feed supplemented with 0.1% zinc bacitracin), FERM (feed containing 20% of FCPMO) and FERB (feed containing 20% of FCPMO and 0.1% probiotic Bacillus subtilis). At day 35, one male chick from each replicate (10 chicks per treatment group) was taken and slaughtered. After being eviscerated and de-feathered, sample of breast meat was obtained for the assessment of meat characteristics. Results showed that feeding FCPMO had no effect (P>0.05) on pH and water holding capacity (WHC) of breast meats. Compared to other groups, FERB meat had higher (P<0.05) cooking loss. FERM and FERB meats had lower (P<0.05) moisture content than that of CONT and BACI meats. Feeding FCPMO with or without B. subtilis increased (P<0.05) crude protein content of breast meats. Feeding FCPMO resulted in lower (P<0.05) fat content in the breast meat. Compared to other meats, breast meats from BACI had higher (P<0.05) ash content. Cholesterol was lower (P=0.08) in FERB than in BACI and FERM meats. The 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) IC50 values were higher (P<0.05) in meat of CONT than that in other groups. Feeding FCPMO resulted in higher (P<0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), lower (P<0.05) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA) contents of broiler breast meats. In conclusion, feeding FCPMO produced healthy broiler meat as reflected by the higher contents of protein, PUFA and antioxidants, and lower fat in meats.