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KANDUNGAN MIKROB DAGING KELELAWAR YANG DIOLAH SEBAGAI BAHAN PANGAN TRADISIONAL MICROBIAL CONTENT IN THE PROCESSED MEAT BATS AS TRADITIONAL FOOD Ransaleleh, Tiltje Andretha; Maheswari, Rarah Ratih Adjie; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Manalu, Wasmen
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 14 No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

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Abstract

This study was designed to assess the microbial characteristics of bats meat which were cooked askari and rica-rica, and were stored up to 14 days.The study was divided into two stages, the first stage usedthree types of bat meat that were cooked as rica-rica and kari 14 days after being stored in the refrigerator.The second stage used meat of a species of bat that was cooked as rica-rica and kari a few hours afterslaughtering. The result of the meat analysis at the 1st showd that thetotal count of microbials i.e;Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliform, and Salmonella sp from three species of bats that werecooked rica-rica  and  kari  were above the maximum limit of microbial contaminant occording to BSN(2009). The analysed made on the rica-rica showed that bat meat rica-rica stored up to 14 days containedtotal microbial count of 3,1 x 104 - 6,0 x 104Cfu/mL, Staphylococcus aureus 7,7 x 101- 7,6 x 103 Cfu / mL,Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp was negative. The total microbial count  of bat meat kari was  6,8 x 105-9,7 x 105Cfu/mL,  Staphylococcus aureus  was 4,3 x 101-1 x 104 Cfu /mL.  Escherichia  coli <3 / mL, andSalmonella sp was negative. Based on the result abtained, it was concluded that the bat meat rica-ricaand kari which were cooked in a few hours after cutting and stored until 14 days were suitable for humanconsumption.
EKSTRAK METANOL CENGKEH (SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM (L.) MERRY & PERRY) VARIETAS TUNI BURU SELATAN SEBAGAI ANTIMALARIA Taher, Dharmawaty M; Solihin, Dedi Duryadi; Cahyaningsih, Umi; Sugita, Purwantiningsih
Acta VETERINARIA Indonesiana Vol. 6 No. 2 (2018): Juli 2018
Publisher : IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (39.254 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/avi.6.2.38-47

Abstract

Malaria masih menjadi salah satu masalah kesehatan di dunia dan Indonesia. Cengkeh (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merry & Perry) adalah tanaman asli Indonesia yang berpotensi sebagai fitofarmaka. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis aktivitas antimalaria in vitro, uji toksisitas, dan uji penghambatan secara in vivo ekstrak metanol cengkeh varietas Tuni Buru Selatan. Konsentrasi uji in vitro bunga, tangkai bunga, dan daun cengkeh masing-masing adalah 0,01, 0,1, 1, 10, dan 100 ?g/mL duplo. Dosis uji toksisitas bunga cengkeh dan tangkai bunga cengkeh masing-masing 625, 1250, 2500, 5000, dan 10000 mg/kg BB dan lima ulangan. Uji in vivo dengan menggunakan tiga dosis perlakuan bunga cengkeh dan tangkai bunga cengkeh masing-masing 25, 50, dan 100 mg/kg BB dan 5 ulangan. Hasil uji in vitro menunjukkan 50% Inhibition Concentration (IC50) bunga cengkeh 1,25 ?g/mL; tangkai bunga cengkeh 7,89 ?g/mL dan daun cengkeh 11,42 ?g/mL; 50% Lethal doses (LD50) bunga cengkeh 19743,327 dan tangkai bunga cengkeh 47304,436 mg/kg BB; Persentase penghambatan rata-rata uji in vivo bunga cengkeh 94,19; 95,81; 78,28% dan tangkai bunga cengkeh 90,48; 80,43; 74,14%. Ekstrak metanol cengkeh varietas Tuni Buru Selatan berpotensi sebagai antimalaria dan tidak toksik.
PERILAKU DISOLUSI KETOPROFEN DAN INDOMETASIN FARNESIL TERSALUT GEL KITOSAN-GG Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Sjahriza, Achmad; Srijanto, Bambang; Arifin, Budi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 13 No. 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Chitosan, a modification of shrimp-shell waste, has been utilized as microcapsule. However, it's fragile gel property needs to be strengthened by adding glutaraldehyde (glu) and natural hydrocolloid guar gum (gg). This research's purposes were to determine rheological properties of chitosan-guar gum gel, to study diffusion and dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen and infar through optimum chitosan-guar gum gel membrane and microcapsule, respectively, and to test the coating stability of both medicines by the gel microcapsules, which are new drug's preparation, to determine their shelf lives and to predict the degradation mechanisms. This research was designed in six (6) steps: (1) chitin isolation and chitosan synthesis; (2) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel membrane; (3) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar diffusion behaviour through the optimum membrane; (4) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule to coat ketoprofen and infar; (5) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar dissolution behaviour from the optimum microcapsule; and (6) physical and chemical microcapsule stability test using relative humidity (RH) and temperature controlled climatic chamber method. Studies on ketoprofen diffusion through chitosan-guar gum membrane showed that the formation of membrane small pores were appeared to be caused by membrane swelling, which was supported by the forcing force resulted from the difference of ketoprofen concentrations in the diffusion cells and from the temperature increase. This unique pore opening process is excellent for drug delivery process as a microcapsule. Spray drying process had successfully coated ketoprofen and infar in chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Optimization by using Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions studied, [gg] and [glu] of 0.35% (w/v) and 3.75% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat ketoprofen, whereas [gg] and [glu] of 0.05% (w/v) and 4.00% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat infar, at constant chitosan concentration (1.75% [w/v]). In vitro dissolution profile showed that chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule was more resistant in intestinal pH condition (rather basic) compared with that in gastric pH (very acidic). From stability test, formulation of ketoprofen preparation composed of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.35% (w/v) gg, and 3.50% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best, ·with ketoprofen percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of of 80.33%, 0.0351 % week-1 and 18.92 months, respectively. The degradation of ketoprofen was seem to follow autocatalytic reaction mechanism controlled by the formation and growth of reaction core. In the other hand, the formulation with composition of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.19% (w/v) gg, and 5.00% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best microcapsule, with infar percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of 77.67%, 0.0008 %-2 week-1 , and 4.28 week or about 30 days, respectively. The degradation of infar was presumably caused by hydrolysis.   Keywords: Chitosan-guar gum, diffusion, dissolution, stability
KOMPOSIT POLIANILINA/KITOSAN/PERAK NANOWIRES SEBAGAI ELEKTROKATALIS REAKSI EVOLUSI HIDROGEN DALAM MEDIUM NETRAL Fakhrullah, Fadli; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Khotib, Mohammad; Akiyoshi, Takeno; Takahashi, Shinya
ALCHEMY Jurnal Penelitian Kimia Vol 15, No 2 (2019): Vol 15, No 2 (2019) Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia
Publisher : UNIVERSITAS SEBELAS MARET (UNS)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (380.355 KB) | DOI: 10.20961/alchemy.15.2.30460.190-202

Abstract

Studi mengenai elektrokatalis untuk reaksi evolusi hidrogen (HER) dan evolusi oksigen (OER) sangat diperlukan terkait aplikasinya dalam pengembangan energi terbarukan berbasis hidrogen. Komposit perak nanowires (AgNWs) dengan polianilina (PANI) disiapkan dengan metode polimerisasi radikal dalam larutan matriks kitosan untuk menurunkan ukuran partikel PANI. Komposit disintesis dengan 3 perlakuan yang berbeda, yaitu perlakuan suhu ruang, suhu rendah, dan sonikasi. Aktivitas elektrokatalisis diukur dengan voltammetri sapuan linear (LSV). Informasi tentang densitas arus pertukaran dan overpotensial sebagai variabel utama pengukuran aktivitas elektrokatalisis diperoleh dari plot Tafel pada LSV. Semua komposit dengan perlakuan suhu dan sonikasi menunjukkan karakter katodik berdasarkan nilai overpotensialnya yang negatif (aktivitas HER), sedangkan komposit dengan perlakuan suhu rendah memiliki karakter anodik (aktivitas OER).A Composite of   Polyaniline/Chitosan/Silver Nanowires as Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalyst in Neutral Medium. Study on electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is urgently needed related to its application in hydrogen-based renewable energy development. A composite of silver nanowires (AgNWs) with polyaniline (PANI) was prepared by radical polymerization method in chitosan matrix solution to reduce the PANI particle size. Each composite was synthesized under three different treatment conditions, which are room temperature, low temperature, and sonication. Linear sweeping voltammetry (LSV) was conducted to measure electrocatalytic activity of the composites. Information about exchange current density and overpotential as important variables in this field were obtained from Tafel plot in the LSV. The temperature and sonication-treated composites have cathodic character due to its negative overpotential (HER activity), while low temperature-treated composites have anodic character (OER activity).
IDENTIFIKASI KELELAWAR PEMAKAN BUAH ASAL SULAWESI BERDASARKAN MORFOMETRI (THE MORPHOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION OF CELEBES FRUIT BATS) Ransaleleh, Tiltje Andretha; Maheswari, Rarah Ratih Adjie; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Manalu, Wasmen
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 14 No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

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Abstract

The bat is very important for human life, because of their  role as pollinator of plants, as a producer oforganic fertilizer,  and as food.  In Northern Celebes fruit eating bats serve as exotic food, so the presenceof bats were threatened to be extinct due to uncontrolled hunting.  The changes of the forest for plantationlands, damage the habitats and the bats were forced to migrate out.   The aim of the study was to identifythe fruit eating bats of Celebes.  Morphometry of body size, skull,  and physical characteristics were usedin determining the types and distribution  of fruit eating bats in Celebes. The field survey was carried outat the hunting area, bat dealers, and bat sellers. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptivemethod and interpreted by narrating to describe the entire study. The result show that  there were fivetypes of fruit eating bats : i.e.  kalong sulawesi (Acerodon celebensis),  paniki pallas (Nyctimene cephalotes),codot wallet (Thoopterus nigrescens), nyap biasa (Rousettus amplexicaudatus), and  kalong hitam  (Pteropusalecto).
PERILAKU DISOLUSI KETOPROFEN TERSALUT GEL KITOSAN-KARBOKSIMETILSELULOSA (CMC) Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Achmadi, Suminar Setiati; Yundhana, Yuyu
Jurnal Natur Indonesia Vol 13, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Universitas Riau

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (208.958 KB) | DOI: 10.31258/jnat.13.1.21-26

Abstract

Study dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen through optimum chitosan-CMC microcapsule has been carried out. Into228.6 ml of 1.0% (w/v) chitosan solution in 1% (v/v) acetic acid, 38.1 ml of CMC solution was added with concentrationvariation of 0.075; 0.0875; and 0.10% (w/v). Afterwards, 7.62 mL of glu was added slowly under stirring, withconcentrations varied: 3; 4.5; and 6% (v/v). All mixtures were shaked for 20 minutes for homogenization. Into eachmicrocapsule mixture for ketoprofen, a solution of 2 g of ketoprofen in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added. Everymixture was then added with 5 ml of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature.Conversion of suspension into fine powders/granules (microcapsules) was done by using spray dryer. Thedissolution behaviour of optimum ketoprofen microcapsules were investigated in gastric and intestinal medium.Microcapsule morphology before and after dissolution as well as empty microcapsule (blank) were observed withSEM. Spray drying process had successfully coated ketoprofen in chitosan-CMC microcapsule. Optimization byusing Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions studied, CMC and glu of0.0925% (w/v) and 3.01% (v/v), respectively, optimum to coat ketoprofen at constant chitosan concentration 1.0%(w/v). Result of SEM morphology and In vitro dissolution profile showed that ketoprofen in chitosan-CMCmicrocapsule was relatively well than chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Kinetically, dissolution of ketoprofen frommicrocapsule in intestinal pH condition was first order with release rate constant, k, of 7.285 ? 10-4 % min-1 andrelease half-time, t1/2, of approximately 15 hours.
PENGARUH IRADIASI GAMMA TERHADAP DEGRADASI ZAT WARNA DIRECT ORANGE 34 DALAM AIR Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Winarno, Ermin Katrin; Anriani, Lia
Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan Vol 1, No 2 (2000): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology - Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (622.851 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jtl.v1i2.170

Abstract

The aim of this experiment is study on technique of gamma irradiaton in analyzing dying agent direct orange 34 in waste water. Direct orange 34 was dispersed to oxalic and malic acids when the 60Co irradiated. The result showed that dose and dose rate of 60Co were less than 10 kGy and 7.57 kGy/hour, respectively. While, the pH of the first solution was 7.0. The technique showed that the chemical oxygen demand of dye solution was decreased from 60.38 to 4.90 ppm.
SINTESIS PEREKAT TANIN RESORSINOL FORMALDEHIDA DARI EKSTRAK KULIT POHON MANGIUM UNTUK PENINGKATAN KUALITAS BATANG SAWIT Rachmawati, Okti; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Santoso, Adi
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 36, No 1 (2018): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2515.762 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2018.36.1.33-46

Abstract

Batang sawit memiliki stabilitas dimensi, kerapatan, sifat fisik, dan mekanik lebih rendah daripada jenis kayu lainnya. Upaya mengatasi kelemahan sifat batang sawit dapat dilakukan melalui pemadatan (densifikasi) menggunakan kempa panas dan penambahan bahan kimia atau perekat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan komposisi optimal tanin resorsinol formaldehida (TRF) dalam aplikasinya sebagai bahan perekat untuk peningkatan kualitas batang sawit. Tanin diekstraksi menggunakan air pada suhu 75°C kemudian dikopolimerisasi dengan resorsinol dan formaldehida. Pencirian TRF dilakukan melalui analisis gugus fungsi menggunakan spektroskopi inframerah, dan kristalinitas menggunakan difraksi sinar X. Perekat TRF kemudian diaplikasikan dalam proses peningkatan kualitas pada batang sawit melalui proses kompregnasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa reaktivitas tanin pada kulit kayu Acacia mangium sebesar 65,82%, komposisi optimal perekat TRF (v/v) = 1: 0,05: 0,05 dengan kadar padatan sebesar 8,33%, formaldehida bebas 0,09%, dan derajat kristalinitas 10,92%. Ekstrak tanin yang dihasilkan memiliki karakter spesifik pada bilangan gelombang yang sesuai dengan ciri yang dimiliki oleh standar tanin akasia impor. Adanya penambahan gugus fungsional baru dan peningkatan intensitas serapan pada beberapa bilangan gelombang melalui analisis spektroskopi inframerah pada TRF dan juga batang sawit hasil kompregnasi, mengindikasikan adanya ikatan yang dihubungkan oleh jembatan eter dan metilena pada TRF serta antara TRF dan komponen kimia pada batang sawit. Batang sawit hasil kompregnasi secara signifikan meningkat kerapatannya sebesar 104,61%, kekerasan menjadi enam kali lipat, dan penurunan pengembangan tebal sebesar 85,98%. Batang sawit hasil kompregnasi juga meningkat kualitasnya dari kelas kuat kayu V menjadi kelas kuat kayu III, sehingga berpeluang untuk digunakan dalam pembuatan produk eksterior.
DISSOLUTION BEHAVIOR, STABILITY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF KETOPROFEN COATED TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE MODIFIED CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLE Hardi, Jaya; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Ambarsari, Laksmi
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 13, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (249.003 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21298

Abstract

Ketoprofen coated tripolyphosphate modified chitosan nanoparticle was resulted from ionic gelation process by ultrasonication, centrifugation, and spray dry methods. Particle was analyzed by particle Size Analyzer. Dissolution and stability of them have conducted by Row Hansen methods at 37±0.5 °C and 150 rpm and using climatic chamber at 40±2 °C and relative humidity 75±5% for 3 months, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activities have conducted by Plate Reader methods. The result showed that B formulae have particles diameter of 563.1±157.5 nm and entrapment efficiency of 89.663%, respectively. Dissolution behavior showed that ketoprofen restrained released within acid medium and maximum released within base medium of 11.35-15.87% and 45.73-99.25%, respectively. Kinetically, dissolution of ketoprofen within intestinal and gastric pH condition was Korsmeyers-Peppas kinetic models. While, stability behavior showed that B formula has ketoprofen percentage left in nanocapsule after 3 months greater than 90% with water content and shelf life of 19.68%, and 14.19 week, respectively, and degradation kinetic model followed Avrami-Eroveef equation. Anti-inflammation test showed that B formula had the COX-2 inhibitory activity of 90.86% is higher than free ketoprofen.
STABILITY OF KETOPROFEN COATED BY CHITOSAN-GUAR GUM GEL Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Srijanto, Bambang; Arifin, Budi; Setyowati, Ellin Vina
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 9, No 3 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (356.602 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21504

Abstract

The coating stability of ketoprofen by chitosan-guar gum gel has been studied. Into 228.6 mL of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan solution in 1% (v/v) acetic acid, 38.1 mL of guar gum (gg) solution was added with concentration variation of 0.35, 0.55, and 0.75% (w/v) for ketoprofen microcapsules, and stirred with magnetic stirrer until homogenous. Afterwards, 7.62 mL of glutaraldehyde (glu) was added slowly under stirring, with concentrations varied: 3, 3.5, and 4% (v/v). All mixtures were shaked for 20 min for homogenization. Into each microcapsule mixture for ketoprofen, a solution of 2 g of ketoprofen in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added. Every mixture was then added with 5 mL of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature. Conversion of suspension into fine powders/granules (microcapsules) was done by using spray dryer. Every microcapsule formula was packed into capsules, as much as 100 g per capsule. The capsules were contained in 100-mL dark bottles and the bottles were kept in climatic chamber at (40 ± 2) °C and RH (75 ± 5) % for 3 months. The microcapsule stabilities were tested chemically and physically. The result showed that formulation of ketoprofen preparation composed of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.35% (w/v) gg, and 3.50% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best, with ketoprofen percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of 80.33%, 0.0351 % week-1, and 18.92 months, respectively. Reaction kinetic model for this formula followed Prout-Tompkins equation and the degradation of ketoprofen was seem to follow autocatalytic reaction mechanism controlled by the formation and growth of reaction core.   Keywords: Ketoprofen, chitosan-guar gum gel