MUCHTAN SUJATNO
Departemen Farmakologi dan Terapi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran

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AKTIVITAS DEPIGMENTASI FRAKSI N-HEKSANA BUAH MALAKA (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA) PADA SEL MELANOSIT MOUSE MELANOMA B16 HINDRITIANI, RETI; SUTEDJA, ENDANG; SETIAWAN, SETIAWAN; SUJATNO, MUCHTAN
Indonesian Journal of Applied Sciences Vol 3, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5754.736 KB) | DOI: 10.24198/.v3i1.16825

Abstract

PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN SENDOK (PLANTAGO MAYOR L.) TERHADAP PENGHAMBATAN OVEREKSPRESI GEN REGENERATING-1, PENINGKATAN KADAR CASPASE-3 DAN GAMBARAN HISTOPATOLOGI JARINGAN MUKOSA LAMBUNG TIKUS MODEL HIPERGASTRINEMIA - The Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Plantain (Plantago Mayor L.) on Inhibition of Over-expression of Regenerating-1 Gene, Increasing Caspase-3 Level and Histopatologic Feature of Gastric Mucosa of Hypergastrinemic Rat Model Eman Sutrisna, Eman Sutrisna; Maskoen, Ani M; Sujatno, Muchtan; Sastramihardja, Herri S.
Indonesian Journal of Applied Sciences Vol 4, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6694.477 KB) | DOI: 10.24198/ijas.v4i1.16680

Abstract

AbstrakEkstrak etanol daun sendok mengandung banyak zat aktif, termasuk triterpenoid dan flavonoid yang memiliki efek anti proliferatif, anti angiogenesis dan menginduksi apoptosis sel kanker. Hipergastrinemia dapat menginduksi over-ekspresi Gen Regenerating 1, menekan produksi Caspase 3 dan perubahan histopatologi jaringan mukosa lambung. Penelitian ini menganalisis pengaruh pemberian ekstrak etanol daun sendok terhadap penghambatan over ekspresi gen Regenerating 1, peningkatan kadar Caspase 3 dan perubahan histopatologi  jaringan mukosa lambung tikus model hipergastrinemia. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental dengan post test only with control group design. 28 tikus putih dibagi menjadi empat kelompok. Kelompok I (kontrol) diberi Omeprazol dosis 8mg/200gBB tikus/hari, Ciprofibrate dosis 12,5mg/200gBB tikus/hari dan 3 kelompok studi (Kelompok II, III dan IV diberi Omepr azol dosis 8mg/200gBB tikus/hari, Ciprofibrate dosis 12,5mg/200gBB tikus/hari dan ektrak etanol daun sendok masing-masing dosis 50mg, 100 mg dan 200mg per 200gBB tikus/hari). Semua hewan coba dikorbankan dibawah pengaruh anestesi setelah perlakuan selama 2 bulan. Sampel darah dan gaster hewan coba diambil untuk pemeriksaan kadar gastrin dan Caspase 3 dengan metode ELISA, ekspresi Gen Regenerating1 dengan RT-PCR serta histopatologi jaringan mukosa lambung. Kadar gastrin hewan coba meningkat 3-4 kali kadar gastrin normal (>169 pg/mL). Rerata ekspresi Gen Regenerating 1 terendah terjadi pada Kelompok III (1,226±0,108) Analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan ekspresi Gen Regenerating 1 secara bermakna antara Kelompok III dengan kontrol (nilai p= 0,016;IK 95%). Rerata kadar Caspase 3 tertinggi terdapat pada IV (0,603±0,172ng/mL). Analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan kadar Caspase 3 secara bermakna antara kelompok IV dan Kelompok lainnya (nilai p <0,05;IK 95%). Gambaran histopatologi mukosa lambung menunjukan atropi dan tidak terdapat perbedaan ketebalan jaringan mukosa lambung secara bermakna diantara kelompok penelitian (nilai p=0,092; IK95%). Pemberian ekstrak etanol daun sendok mencegah over-ekspresi Gen Regenerating 1 dengan dosis 100mg/200gBB/hari, meningkatkan kadar Caspase 3 dengan dosis 200mg/200gBB/hari tetapi pada dosis penelitian yang digunakan tidak dapat menghambat perubahan histopatologi jaringan mukosa lambung tikus model hipergastrinemiaKata Kunci: Ekstrak etanol daun sendok, Over ekspresi Gen Regenerating 1, Caspase 3, Histopatologi mukosa lambung, Model HipergastrinemiaAbstractPlantago major L has a lot of active substances, including triterpenoid  and flavonoid  that show anti proliferative effect, anti angiogenesis and induce cancer cells apoptosis. Hypergastrinemia able to induce overexpression of Regenerating 1 gene, inhibit activation of caspases include Caspase 3 and cause histopathologic alteration  of gastric mucosal tissues. This study was to evaluate  the effect of Plantago major L extract.on inhibition of Regenerating 1 gene overexpression, increasing of Caspase-3 level and histopathologic alteration of gastric mucosal tissues on hypergastrinemic rat (Rattus norvegicus) model. By experimental study and post test only with control group design,  28 of rats was divided in to 4 groups. Group I  as a negative control was given Omeprazole 8mg/200gbw rat and Ciprofibrate dose 12,5 mg/200gbw rat/day and aquadest per oral. Group II was given Omeprazole 8mg/200gbw rat and Ciprofibrate dose 12,5 mg/200gbw rat/day and Plantago major L. extract 50mg/200gbw rat/day per oral. Group III was given Omeprazole 8mg/200gbw rat and Ciprofibrate dose 12,5 mg/200gbw rat/day and Plantago major L. extract 100mg/200gbw rat/day per oral. Group IV was given Omeprazole 8mg/200gbw rat and Ciprofibrate  dose 12,5 mg/200gbw  rat/day  and Plan tago major  L. extract  200mg/200gbw rat/day per oral. They were killed after 2 month intervention under anaesthetic. Blood sample and gaster organs were collected for measurement of gastrin and caspase 3 level by using ELISA method, expression of Regenerating 1 gene by RT-PCR and histopatological examination of gastric mucosal tissues. There were increasing of gastrin level of rats up to 3-4 times fold compared to normal level and  to indicate hypergastrinemic condition. The lowest average of Regenerating 1 gene expression was found on Group III (1,226±0,108). Statistic analysis show that there were significantly difference of Regenerating 1 gene expression between group III and Control (p= 0,016; 95%CI) The highest average of Caspase-3 level was found on Group IV(0,603±0,172ng/mL) and there were significantly difference of caspase-3 level between group IV and the other Groups (p< 0,05; 95%CI). There were atrophic process on gastric mucosal tissue but there were not significantly difference of gastric mucosal thickness between group  (p= 0,092; 95%CI). This study can be concluded that administration of Plantago major L extract able to inhibit overexpression of  Regenerating 1 gene by dose 100mg/200gbw rat/day, to increase Caspase 3 level by dose 200mg/200gbw rat/day but can not to inhibit histopathologic alteration of gastric mucosal tissues by using all of the doses.  Keyword: Ethanol extract of Plantago major L, Regenerating 1 gene overexpression, Caspase 3, gastric mucosal histopatology, Hypergastrinemia model
Soybean is a good source of protein. It has two major fractions, b-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S). b-conglycinin’s function was known to suppress food intake, and this effect may be due to stimulating endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) release. The aims of this study were to determine the highest content of total b-conglycinin and b-conglycinin sub unit-b level obtained from two varieties of soybean i.e. Wilis and Detam 1 varieties using different preparation and extraction methods. These t HIDAYAT, MEILINAH; SUJATNO, MUCHTAN; SUTADIPURA, NUGRAHA; SETIAWAN, .; FARIED, AHMAD
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol. 18 No. 1 (2011): March 2011
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.4308/hjb.18.1.37

Abstract

Soybean is a good source of protein. It has two major fractions, b-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S). b-conglycinin’s function was known to suppress food intake, and this effect may be due to stimulating endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) release. The aims of this study were to determine the highest content of total b-conglycinin and b-conglycinin sub unit-b level obtained from two varieties of soybean i.e. Wilis and Detam 1 varieties using different preparation and extraction methods. These two soybean varieties were prepared into tempeh. Then the seed and tempeh were extracted using Deak and Panthee methods. There were six extracts analysed using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) and coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) staining. The result was shown that Detam variety and raw seed contained the highest total b-conglycinin level. And Panthee method was the best method for extraction of total b-conglycinin, while Deak method was the best method for extraction of b-conglycinin subunit-b.
Penurunan Aktivitas Tirosinase dan Jumlah Melanin oleh Fraksi Etil Asetat Buah Malaka (Phyllantus emblica) pada Mouse Melanoma B16 Cell-Line Hindritiani, Reti; Dhianawaty, Diah; Sujatno, Muchtan; Sutedja, Endang; Setiawan, -
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Akumulasi melanin menyebabkan hiperpigmentasi dan bila terdapat pada wajah dapat menimbulkan masalah psikososial. Bahan depigmentasi dari tanaman semakin banyak digunakan. Bahan yang dikembangkan harus efektif menghambat sintesis melanin serta tidak toksik terhadap melanosit. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji efek fraksi etil asetat buah Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) atau buah malaka, terhadap sintesis melanin dengan mengukur jumlah melanin dan aktivitas tirosinase, yang merupakan enzim utama sintesis melanin, secara spektrofotometrik pada kultur sel melanosit mouse melanoma B16 cell-line. Sitotoksisitas diukur dengan metode 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Penelitian dilakukan pada November–Desember 2009 di Department of Biochemistry and Diabetes Research Centre, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Korea Selatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan aktivitas tirosinase dan jumlah melanin menurun bergantung pada dosis perlakuan berbagai konsentrasi fraksi etil asetat buah P. emblica dengan inhibition concentration (IC) 50 berturutturut 95,63 dan 16,90 μg/mL, serta lethal dose (LD) 50 pada konsentrasi 106,64 μg/mL. Simpulan, fraksi etil asetat buah P. emblica mempunyai potensi sebagai bahan depigmentasi, karena mampu menurunkan sintesis melanin melalui inhibisi aktivitas tirosinase. [MKB. 2013;45(2):118–24]Kata kunci: Aktivitas tirosinase, etil asetat, melanin, Phyllanthus emblicaReduction of Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Amount by Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Malaka (Phyllanthus emblica) Fruit in Mouse Melanoma B16 Cell-LineMelanin accumulation can lead to hyperpigmentation, and if it occurs on the face can cause psychosocial problem. Depigmenting agents derived from plants are increasingly utilized. Agents being developed have to be effective in inhibiting melanin synthesis and should not be toxic to melanocyte. This study aimed was to examine the effect of ethyl acetate fraction from Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) fruit, also known as malaka fruit, towards melanine synthesis, which was measured from the melanin amount and tyrosinase activity, the key regulatory enzyme in melanin synthesis, spectrophotometrically towards melanocytes of mouse melanoma B16 cell-line. The cytotoxic effect towards melanocytes was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. This study was conducted on November−December 2009 in Department of Biochemistry and Diabetes Research Centre, Chonbuk National University Medical School, South Korea. The result of this study showed that tyrosinase activity and melanin amount decreased in a dose-dependent manner towards various concentrations of ethyl acetate fraction of P. emblica fruit with inhibition concentration (IC) 50=95.63 and 16.90 μg/mL, respectively and lethal dose (LD) 50 concentration 106.64 μg/mL. In conclusion, ethyl acetate fraction of P. emblica fruit is a potential depigmenting agent, since it can reduce melanin synthesis by inhibition of tyrosinase activity. [MKB. 2013;45(2):119–24]Key words: Ethyl acetate, melanin, Phyllanthus emblica, tyrosinase activity DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.115
Toksisitas Akut per Oral Ekstrak Etanol Daun Dewa (Gynura pseudochina (Lour.) DC) terhadap Kondisi Lambung Tikus Jantan dan Betina Galur Wistar Astri, Yesi; Sitorus, Truly; Sigit, Joseph I.; Sujatno, Muchtan
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 44, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Toksisitas oral akut merupakan efek samping yang terjadi dalam waktu singkat melalui pemberian tunggal peroral ataupun dengan dosis berulang dalam waktu 24 jam dan dapat terjadi pada setiap organ tubuh. Traktus gastrointestinal sangat potensial terhadap paparan agen toksik yang tampak sebagai gambaran erosi dan tukak. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental uji toksisitas akut per oral dan dilakukan di laboratorium Farmakologi Klinik RS Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung pada bulan Juli–September 2009. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui toksisitas akut ekstrak etanol daun dewa terhadap lambung dengan menghitung indeks tukak ekstrak etanol daun dewa (Gynura pseudochina (Lour.) DC) pada tikus galur Wistar. Untuk mengatasi dampak negatif, tindakan penelitian ini dilakukan dengan pendekatan 3R (reduction, refinement, dan replacement). Indeks tukak dinilai dengan menentukan jumlah dan diameter tukak melalui pembedahan hewan coba pada hari ke-15 dan dilakukan pemeriksaan secara mikroskopis dengan penilaian histopatologi. Data dianalisis dengan uji Kolmogorov-Smirnov yang dilanjutkan dengan one sample t-test pada Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows versi 13.0 pada derajat kepercayaan 95%. Indeks tukak antar kelompok tikus jantan dan betina menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna antara kelompok kontrol dan kelompok ekstrak etanol dosis >1,625 g/kgBB (p<0,05). Simpulan, pemberian ekstrak etanol daun dewa pada tikus galur Wistar menyebabkan tukak lambung pada dosis >1,625 g/kgBB. [MKB. 2012;44(1):38–43].Kata kunci: Gynura pseudochina (Lour.) DC, indeks tukak, toksisitas oral akutAcute Oral Toxicity of Ethanol Extract of Dewa Leaf (Gynura pseudochina (Lour.) DC) to Male and Female Wistar Rats’ Gaster MucosaAcute oral toxicity is the adverse effects occurring within a short time of oral administration of a single dose of a substance or multiple doses given within 24 hours through body’s organs. Gastrointestinal tract potentially influenced by toxic materials exposure, shown as gastric erosion and ulcer. This is an acute oral toxicity experimental research, held in Pharmacology laboratorium of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital on July–September 2009. This research aims to determine ethanol extract of Dewa leaf acute toxicity to gaster by measuring ulcer index of ethanol extract of Dewa leaf (Gynura pseudochina (Lour.) DC) in Wistar rats. This research approached with 3R (reduction, refinement and replacement) to overcome negative impact. Ulcer index determined by ulcer’s quantity and diameter due to rats necropsy at 15th day, and histopathology examined. The results are statistically analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and then continued with one sample T-test on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 13.0, at 95% confidence interval level. Ulcer index significantly different between control group and ethanol extract of Dewa leaf group dose >1.625 g/kgBB (p<0.05). In conclusion, ethanol extract of Dewa leaf on Wistar rats cause gastric ulcer at dose >1.625 g/kgBB. [MKB. 2012;44(1):38–43]Key words: Acute oral toxicity, Gynura pseudochina (Lour.) DC, ulcer index DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v44n1.71 
EFEK ANTIBAKTERI VIRGIN COCONUT OIL TERHADAP METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Susanto, Tirta Darmawan; Sujatno, Muchtan; Yuwono, Hendro Sudjono
Medicinus Vol 4, No 8 (2015): Medicinus: Jurnal Kedokteran
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Pelita Harapan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19166/med.v4i8.1186

Abstract

Kejadian infeksi, baik di lingkungan rumah sakit yang disebut infeksi nosokomial maupun di luar rumah sakit, cukup besar. Infeksi mempertinggi angka kematian dan kesakitan, serta memperlama waktu perawatan di rumah sakit. Saat ini banyak tanaman yang terbukti secara empiris memiliki efek antibakteri, diantaranya adalah minyak kelapa murni (Virgin Coconut Oil / VCO), oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan penelitian ini guna mengetahui efek anti bakteri VCO pada luka yang telah diinfeksi dengan Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).Telah dilakukan penelitian eksperimental laboratorium dengan desain penelitian Rancangan Acak Lengkap. Hewan coba yang digunakan adalah marmut jantan galur albino sebanyak 15 ekor . Dermis hewan coba diinsisi hingga diperoleh luka berukuran 9cm2 dasar otot, luka diinfeksi dengan suspensi bakteri MRSA, kemudian diberi 3 macam perlakuan yaitu dibiarkan saja tanpa pengobatan untuk control negatif, terapi VCO per oral 3 cc / hari dan terapi VCO topikal 0,4 cc / hari. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan analysis of variance (ANOVA) dan two sample – T test.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian VCO topikal dengan dosis 0,4 cc / hari mampu mengobati infeksi dan mempercepat penyembuhan luka hewan coba secara bermakna (p = 0,043 &lt; α = 0,05), tetapi pemberian VCO peroral 3 cc / hari menunjukkan hasil yang tidak bermakna (p = 0,376 &gt; α = 0,05). Pemberian VCO per oral 3 cc / hari dan topikal 0,4 cc / hari mampu menurunkan jumlah lekosit darah pada hewan coba. Pemberian VCO topikal 0,4 cc / hari mampu membunuh bakteri sehingga dapat mengurangi jumlah bakteri pada luka secara bermakna (p = 0,0092 &lt; α = 0,05), namun pemberian VCO per oral tidak mampu mengurangi jumlah bakteri pada luka secara bermakna (p = 0,17 &gt; α = 0,05). Pada hasil penelitian di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian VCO topikal menunjukkan efek antibakteri yang bermakna untuk mengatasiinfeksi MRSA.