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PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR PUPUK KADAR AMONIAK TINGGI DENGAN PROSES GABUNGAN MICROALGAE DAN NITRIFIKASI-DENITRIFIKASI AUTOTROFIK Sumantri, Indro; Sumarno, .; Afiati, Norma
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains Dan Teknologi Fakultas Teknik Vol 1, No 1 (2010): PROSIDING SEMINAR NASIONAL SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI 1 2010
Publisher : Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains Dan Teknologi Fakultas Teknik

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Proses biologis konvensional untuk penghilangan urea dan amonium pada air limbah pabrik urea menggunakan proses algae mikro atau proses nitrifikasi-denitrifikasi heterotrofik.  Proses yang menggunakan berbagai mikro algae mempunyai keunggulan input hara hanya senyawa P dan mampu menghilangkan urea secara total tetapi tidak mampu menghilangkan kandungan amoniumnya.  Proses nitrifikasi-denitrifikasi heterotrofik  membutuhkan input karbon organik yang tinggi pada proses denitrifikasinya sehingga biaya pengolahan menjadi tinggi. Tujuan penelitian dengan skala bangku ini untuk mengevaluasi kemampuan sistem gabungan proses algae mikro dan nitrifikasi-denitrifikasi autotrofik.  Algae mikro yang digunakan merupakan spesies algae yang tahan terhadap konsentrasi amonium tinggi dan mampu menghilangkan amonium selain urea.  Untuk proses nitrifikasi-denitrifikasi  menggunakan lumpur nitrifying yang bersifat autotrofik sebagai biokatalis.   Penyediaan lumpur nitrifying secara teknis sangat mudah.  Lumpur nitrifying berasal dari lumpur aktif yang diperoleh dari unit pengolahan limbah industri partikel board yang telah diaklitimasi pada kondisi konsentrasi amonium tinggi dan autotrofik. Keunggulan masing-masing proses tersebut bila digabung akan menghasilkan proses yang lebih efisien dan murah. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan kondisi sebagai berikut : kadar SVI mikro algae 25 mL/L, kadar SVI lumpur 100 mL/L, laju aerasi yang digunakan 5 L/menit, waktu tinggal limbah 1 hari, rasio Ndan P : 20 : 1. Sedangkan sebagai variabel yang digunakan adalah beban amoniak antara 1000 – 3000 mg/L. Penurunan kadar amoniak yang diukur dilakukan pada akhir pengolahan yaitu setelah  bak lumpur. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa prosentase penurunan kadar amoniak bisa mencapai 67 %. Kata kunci : proses mikroalga, proses nitrifikasi-denitrifikasi autotrofik, pengayaan dan breeding lumpur nitrifikasi  
PENGAMBILAN OLEORESIN DARI LIMBAH AMPAS JAHE INDUSTRI JAMU (PT. SIDO MUNCUL) DENGAN METODE EKSTRAKSI Amir, Alyssa Nahla; Lestari, Puspita Firsty; Sumantri, Indro
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 3, Tahun 2013
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro,

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Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine industry in Indonesia currently used for making fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contain high oleoresin. It is expected that the results of this study may utilize the ginger dregs of herbal medicine industry to be oleoresin products, suggest the appropriate extraction techniques, affecting operation variables and the optimum conditions for batch extraction of ginger oleoresins. This research used extraction method with various solvents in batch. Fixed variable used in this study is the weight of ginger 50 gr, volume of solvents 300 mL, extraction time 5.5 hour and stirring speed of 450 rpm. While the change variable is extraction temperature 30oC, 40oC, 50 oC and 60 oC and types of solvent (ethanol, n-Hexane and acetone). As the result from the research that the type of solvent and temperature variations affect oleoresin extracted. The optimum extraction conditions to produce a high yield of ginger oleoresin and good quality obtained in the combined treatment of ethanol solvent type, time of 5.5 hours and a temperature of 40oC with oleoresin concentration of 12.2%, 0.955 density (g/ ml) and a refractive index of 1.370.
EKSTRAKSI DAUN SIRSAK (ANNONA MURICATA L) MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ETANOL Hermawan, Galih Prihasetya; Laksono, Hendrawan; Sumantri, Indro
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 2, Tahun 2013
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro,

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Soursop (Annona muricata L) is one of fruit that originated from Caribbean, middle America and south America. Acetogenins contain in the soursop especially in the leaves. Acetogenins is polyketides compound with structure straight carbon chain 30-32 that bounded with group 5-methyl-2-furanone. Furanone chain in the group of hydrofuranone have cytotoxic activity. One of the problem in the usage of soursop leaves extract is lack of efficiency of the solvent. This research have purpose to know affected variable and determined operation condition optimum in the extraction with maseration method of cytotoxic substance from soursop leaves. This research was engineered with factorial design method with 2 level and 4 independent variables which are drying material with and without drying, extraction time 1 and 2 days, samples mass 4 and 7 grams, fractination solvent etanol and n-hexane. The dependent variables are extraction?s volume solvent 200 ml, extraction temperature 28oC (room condition), and etanol solvent. The 4 independent variables give positive result / increases fenol level and the most affected variables are drying, samples mass, and extraction time. Optimum condition in the extraction process are 7 grams of weight, with drying process, and extraction time 2 days.
PEMANFAATAN NIKOTIN PADA DAUN TEMBAKAU UNTUK MEMPRODUKSI BIOINSEKTISIDA DENGAN PROSES EKSTRAKSI CAIR-CAIR Paramartha, Dibran; Lazuardi, Yuda; Sumantri, Indro
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 2, Tahun 2013
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro,

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Produksi tembakau di Indonesia sangat melimpah, tetapi hanya bermanfaat sebagai industry rokok saja yang dampaknya buruk bagi kesehatan manusia. Tembakau mengandung alkaloid nikotin yang berdampak buruk bagi manusia juga sangat beracun untuk serangga sehingga nikotin dapat dimanfaatkan oleh manusia sebagai bioinsektisida. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan variabel variabel yang berpengaruh dalam proses ekstraksi daun tembakau dalam usaha untuk mengambil nikotin di dalamnya dan mendapatkan kondisi optimum proses ekstraksi daun tembakau. Metode penelitian yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini memiliki tiga tahap utama, yaitu persiapan bahan baku daun tembakau yang akan diekstrak, tahap maserasi, dan tahap ekstraksi daun tembakau dengan sktraksi cair-cair. Variabel berubah dalam penelitian ini adalah temperatur ekstraksi (40 dan 60oC), volume solvent (150 dan 250 ml), pH solvent (6 dan 7), dan jenis solvent (etanol dan methanol). Analisa hasil kualitatif nikotin dari ekstrak daun tembakau menggunakan metode Gas Cromathography Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Kondisi optimum dilakukan dengan menggunakan Response Surface Method (RSM) dengan software statistica 10. Hasil ekstraksi optimum didapat pada temperatur 64oC dengan pH solvent 5,6.
PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN BIOCHAR LIMBAH PERTANIAN DAN PESTISIDA PADA INKUBASI TANAH INCEPTISOL UNTUK MENEKAN EMISI GAS METANA (CH4) SEBAGAI GAS RUMAH KACA Cahayaningtyas, Winda Prihantarawati; Sumantri, Indro
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 1, Nomor 1, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro,

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Methane (CH4) is one of the gases that cause global warming, which ranks second only to carbon dioxide (CO2).Naturally, peat lands, wetlands, and sediments in coastal areas are major source of methane gas in the atmosphere (Hardy, 2003). The use of biochar as a companion or replacement for pesticides in agricultural system can increase crop productivity and reduce the emission of methane (CH4) significantly. The research method used is an incubation inceptisol soil. Variables that were varied were the addition of agricultural waste biochar (without biochar, rice husks biochar and corn cobs biochar) and the addition of several types of pesticides like organophosphate insecticides, carbamate insecticides, pyrethroid insecticides, paraquat herbicides and bio-insecticides. The analysis of methane emissions by Gas Chromatography (GC), analysis of degree acidity (pH) using pH-meter and analysis of the number of bacteria at the end of the incubation period using Standard Plate Count (SPC). In the analysis of total methane emissions, the addition of rice husk biochar and without the addition of pesticides (P0B1) to the treatment, produced the largest emissions of methane (CH4) to 4.494 mg CH4/g soil (increase 348.7% ), and the treatment given to the addition of pyrethroid insecticides and rice husk biochar (P3B1) produced the lowest emissions at 0.011 mg CH4/g soil (reduce 98.9%). This incubation process takes place in the pH range 5.2 to 6.7. The population of bacteria in the end incubation, P3B2 treatment (addition of pyrethroid pesticides and biochar corn cobs) has largest population of bacteria which is equal to 4.2 x 108 the bacteria/mL, whereas the P2B1 treatment (addition of carbamate pesticides and rice husk biochar) has lowest population of bacteria about 3.5 x 106 bacteria / mL.
PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI JAMU DAN FARMASI MENGGUNAKAN ANAEROBIC BAFFLED REACTOR SECARA SHOCK LOADING DALAM UPAYA MENGHASILKAN BIOGAS N, Fachry Amin; N.I., Afifah Darda; Sumantri, Indro
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 3, Tahun 2013
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro,

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PT. Sidomuncul is one of the factories that produce waste. Wastewatergenerated at 130m3 per day. Because of the big amount of wastewater produced, it is necessary to accommodate a short in time wastewater processing, that won?t required a large area and much time. Wastewater processing results of PT. Sidomuncul has a COD value of about 15000 mg /l. Wastes with high levels of COD is well treatedby anaerobically better than aerobic. Anaerobic wastewater treatment can be done if the value of minimal COD is 1500mg /l. This research will try to process the wastewater anaerobically by shockloading method using activated sludge. The purpose of this study was to determine the activated sludgestability when it is done with shock loading method and also the effect of COD level and biogas production as changed variables such rector design, HRT, activated sludge type, and activated sludge height. Observed responses are pH effluent, COD levels, and gas production. The results of this research are the process of anaerobic wastewater shock loading on herbal medicine and pharmaceutical industry could reduce COD levels ranged from 78.46% to 93.97% and produce biogas at it?s best using organic fertilizer sludge with 1/3 height of ABR.
EFEKTIFITAS PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR DENGAN AERASI DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR COD PADA LIMBAH BIODIESEL Fauzi, Maris Anindita; Sunardi, Setyani Hardiana; Sumantri, Indro
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 1, Nomor 1, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro,

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Disposal of wastewater into bodies of water with a high content of COD load can cause a decline in the amount of oxygen in the water. Biodiesel manufacturing process wastewater to be discharged into the environment contains high COD, ie 1200 ppm. Processing carried out aerobically with COD values ??of less than 1500 ppm to shorten the processing time. In addition, microbial & nutrients can be used to streamline the processing of waste in aerobic waste so that the output can meet environmental quality standards and certainly within a relatively short time. In this study degrasimba added bacteria and micro nutrients to the removal of COD in waste biodesel. Variable fixed in these experiments were MLSS 3000 mg / l, pH 7, the bacteria and micro nutrients that are used, the volume of waste, and waste type. Independent variable in this experiment is hidarulic retention time (HRT) with variations (8,12,14,dan16hours.). The results showed that the longer Hidarulic Retention Time (HRT), the higher removal of COD in the effluent. From the experimental results obtained COD with the longest HRT showed a decrease of 77.92% with a decrease from 1200 ppm to 265 ppm, and for HRT 8,12,14 hours respectively were 70.75%, 71.75% and & 72 , 83%. COD value obtained is 351.339, and 326 ppm in HRT each - respectively 8, 12, and 14 hours. With the COD levels of the average - average has decreased constantly on days 3 and 4..
THE POTENTIAL USED OF EPIPELIC DIATOM AS BIOINDICATOR OF WATER QUALITY: PART I Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih; Soegondo, Hendarko; Hendarto, Boedi; Sumantri, Indro; Toha, Budiyanto
JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 2, No 2 (1999): Volume 2, Number 2, Year 1999
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Biomonitoring methods for water quality, such as coli form content, diversity and evenness indices of macrobenthic invertebrates and plankton which are recently used, actually have some weaknesses. Escherichia coli only indicated pollution caused by faecal coli; macrobenthic invertebrates have not ability to live in all substratum, whereas the population of phytoplankton are affected by current as they are floating in the surface water. Therefore, the method which are more effective have to be developed. Epipelic diatoms have potential characteristics as bioindicator of water quality because the have ability to accumulate physic-chemical component of aquatic ecosystem and respond it immediately. This research is conducted in order to find out a new alternative of biomonitoring method ( species indices of diatoms ) which are more significant, effective and efficient by determine water quality map absed on diatoms and determines the species which responsible to the grouping. Sediments samples were taken from 7 rivers in the Northern Coast of Central Java (called Pantura): Karanggeneng-Rembang, Juana-Pati, Banjir Kanal Timur-Semarang, Banjir Kanal Barat-Semarang, Banger-Pekalongan, Pekalonghan-Pekalongan, and Gung-Tegal. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH and turbidity were measure in-situ.  Analysis of water and sediment samples include total nitrogen, total phosphorus,silica, heavy metals of Cu, Cr, and Cd. Extraction, preparation and identification of diatoms followed Wetzel & Likens (1991) and Round (1993). The`data were then analysed using Primer package progamme version 4.0 which is produced by Plymouth Marine Laboratory, United Kingdom (Carr, 1997). The Multi Dimentional Scaling (MDS) ordination was done to make grouping and was followed by SIMPER analysis to determine responsible species (Clarke & Warwick, 1994). Based on diatom community, 7 river Pantura could be divided into 3 groups: Group I, consisted of Gung and Pekalongan Rivers, Group II of Banjir Kanal Timur, Barat and Banger Rivers and Group III Karenggeneng and Juana Rivers. Synedra ulna was responsibled for those grouping and are therefore could be promoted as bioindicator of water quality in the Indonesian river. Research still should be developed, especially for diatoms in the bottom layer of sediment samples to reconstruct ecological condition in the past and to predict the condition in the future.
PENENTUAN NILAI ENERGI AKTIVASI DAN FAKTOR TUMBUKAN PADA PEMBUATAN GLISEROL DARI REAKSI ANTARA SODA DAN MINYAK GORENG CURAH Sumantri, Indro; Rachmaniah, .; Hapsari, T
MOMENTUM Vol 1, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : MOMENTUM

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Tujuan utama penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan faktor tumbukan, energi aktivasi, orde reaksi, konstanta kecepatan reaksi, dan kondisi optimum reaksi dari reaksi saponifikasi minyak kelapa curah. Minyak kelapa dan larutan NaOH dimasukkan dalam reaktor berpengaduk dengan komposisi tertentu dan kecepatan pengadukan yang konstan selama satu jam. Reaksi dilakukan pada suhu 400C sampai dengan 1000C. Sampel diambil untuk dianalisis setiap 10 menit. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa jenis reaksi yang terjadi adalah reaksi searah dengan orde reaksi 0,5 terhadap gliseril tristearat, konstanta kecepatan reaksi (k) berdasarkan signifikansi (R2) optimum dicapai pada suhu 700C dengan harga k adalah 3,38x10-3 mol/L.det dan siginifikansi sebesar 95,36 % untuk ralat maksimum 5 %.dan harga Ea : 1345,85 mol/L.detik dan A : 0,017.   Kata Kunci : faktor tumbukan, energi aktivasi,  minyak goring  curah, gliserol,  larutan NaOH
PEMBUATAN ALUMINIUM SULFAT DARI CLAY Nurcahyo, Wahyu; Sumantri, Indro; Kurnisari, Laeli
MOMENTUM Vol 10, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : MOMENTUM

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Aluminium sulfat adalah senyawa dengan rumus molekul Al 2 ( SO4  )3. Zat ini dapat dihasilkan dari  reaksi  antara  asam  sulfat dengan  aluminium  atau  mineralnya.  Kegunaan  aluminium sulfat antara lain penjernih air, pengatur pada industri kertas, pengatur warna pada industri kain  dan  bahan  penolong  pada  alat  pemadam,  dan  bahan  baku  pembuatan  bahan  kimia lainnya.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat aluminium sulfat dari bahan baku clay atau tanah liat dengan cara mereaksikan  clay dan  asam sulfat  dengan variabel excess asam, suhu dan  ukuran  feed.  Selain  itu juga  akan  dibandingkan  hasil  perolehan  alum  berdasarkan  asal clay.  Pada  penelitian  ini digunakan  clay  dari  Soka  dan  Jatiwangi.  Kedua  bahan  tersebut direaksikan dengan asam dengan variabel yang telah ditentukan selama satu jam.  Hasil yang telah  diperoleh  dibersihkan  dan  dikeringkan  hingga  terbentuk  kristal  anhidrat.  Setelah  itu efisiensi dihitung berdasarkan kandungan logam aluminium dari produk. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh  bahwa  genting  dapat  digunakan  sebagai  bahan  baku  alternatif  dalam  pembuatan aluminium sulfat.  Hasil yang didapatkan  bahwa genteng soka kadar aluminiumnya lebih besar dari genteng jatiwangi dan kondisi ideal proses tersebut adalah pada suhu 70°C ukuran 100 mesh dan excess asam sebesar 20%’.Kata kunci : alum, clay, asam sulfat