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PENGOLAHAN EFFLUENT DARI IPAL INDUSTRI FARMASI DENGAN SISTEM LAHAN BASAH BUATAN ALIRAN BAWAH PERMUKAAN (STUDI KASUS : PT PHAPROS TBK, SEMARANG) Anggraeni, Mega; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Hadiyanto, Hadiyanto
Prosiding Seminar Biologi Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Seminar Nasional X Pendidikan Biologi
Publisher : Prodi Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UNS

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Abstract

Upaya pengelolaan lingkungan terus dilakukan oleh berbagai pihak termasuk PT. Phapros yang merupakan salah satu industri yang bergerak di bidang farmasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan sebagai upaya pemanfaatan effluent dari IPAL PT. Phapros yang sudah memenuhi baku mutu untuk industri farmasi agar tidak dibuang begitu saja ke badan air. Salah satu upaya pengolahan yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan  Sistem  Lahan Basah Buatan Aliran Bawah Permukaan (SSF-Wetland). Tanaman yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Cyperus alternifolius   dan Canna indica, L. dengan menggunakan dua media tanam yang berbeda yaitu pasir dan kerikil. Parameter kualitas air yang diukur adalah BOD, COD, ammonia, dan nitrit. Jumlah reaktor SSF- wetland yang digunakan sebanyak empat buah yaitu masing-masing berisi tanaman Cyperus alternifolius dengan media pasir, tanaman Cyperus alternifolius dengan media kerikil, tanaman Canna indica, L. dengan media pasir, dan tanaman Canna indica, L. dengan media kerikil. Aklimatisasi tanaman dilaksanakan selama tujuh hari dan pelaksanaan penelitian SSF  -wetland selama 15 hari. Pengujian parameter kualitas air dilaksanakan selama dua hari sekali. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa reaktor dengan tanaman Cyperus alternifolius media kerikil lebih efektif dalam menurunkan parameter BOD, COD, nitrit, dan ammonia dalam penerapan SSF-wetland dibanding dengan ketiga reaktor lainnya. Reaktor SSF-wetland dengan Cyperus alternifolius media kerikil memiliki efisiensi penurunan BOD 98,9 %, COD  sebesar 9,58 %, ammonia  sebesar 86 %, dan nitrit  sebesar 97,23%.  Kata kunci: SSF-Wetland, Cyperus alternifolius, Canna indica, L., effluent IPAL, industri farmasi
STATUS KEBERLANJUTAN SISTEM PENGELOLAAN AIR LIMBAH DOMESTIK KOMUNAL BERBASIS MASYARAKAT DI KOTA PROBOLINGGO Afandi, Yusdi Vari; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Kismartini, K
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 11, No 2 (2013): Oktober 2013
Publisher : Program Studi Ilmu Lingkungan,Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.586 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jil.11.2.100-109

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ABSTRAKKonsep pengelolaan berbasis masyarakat dalam pembangunan saranapengolahan air limbah domestik komunal disinyalir hanya mengedepankanpembangunan fisik saja tanpa memperhatikan kesiapan sumber daya manusia ditingkat lokal sehingga sering kali pembangunan sarana tersebut gagal dan tidakberkelanjutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui status keberlanjutan sistempengelolaan air limbah (IPAL) komunal berbasis masyarakat di Kota Probolinggo sertamerumuskan strategi yang diperlukan untuk mempertahankan keberlanjutan sistem.Penelitian dilakukan di Kelurahan Pilang dan Mayangan dengan jumlah responden total107 orang yang mewakili keluarga pemanfaat sarana IPAL komunal. Statuskeberlanjutan sistem pengelolaan air limbah komunal di Kota Probolinggo masukkategori sedang dengan skor 2,30. Kondisi tersebut didukung oleh pemilihan teknologiyang tepat baik dari sisi kehandalam maupun kemudahan pengoperasian danpemeliharaannya sehingga menghasilkan penurunan beban pencemaran yang tinggi.Pengelolaan air limbah domestik komunal dilakukan oleh kelembagaan di tingkat lokaldalam berbentuk Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat (KSM), namun dalam pelaksanaannyabelum sepenuhnya optimal. Telah memiliki mekanisme pembiayaan untuk operasionaldan pemeliharaan, keterlibatan masyarakat dalam pembangunan dilakukan melaluikontribusi dalam bentuk incash dan inkind, sedangkan keterlibatan masyarakat dalamtahap operasional yang nampak adalah kesediaan membayar iuran rutin sebesar Rp.1000/bulan untuk Kelurahan Pilang dan Rp. 3000/bulan untuk Kelurahan Mayangan.Strategi yang diperlukan dalam upaya meningkatkan keberlanjutan sistem pengelolaanair limbah domestik komunal di Kota Probolinggo adalah pengembangan kapasitasmasyarakat dan kelembagaan pengelola air limbah, pengembangan alternatifpembiayaan pengelolaan air limbah berbasis kemitraan, dan peningkatan koordinasiserta pembagian peran pada POKJA sanitasi dalam mendukung pengelolaan air limbahdi tingkat lokal.Kata Kunci : Air Limbah Domestik, Keberlanjutan,Pengelolaan Berbasis Masyarakat,Sistem komunal
THE ANALYSIS, IDENTIFICATION, AND FORMULATION OF METALLOTHIONEIN EXTRACT AVAILABLE IN ROOTS, STEMS, LEAVES , FLOWERS , AND GRAINS OF RICE, CORNS, BEANS , AND SOYBEANS Santosa, Budi; Sunoko, Henna Rya; S, Andri
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 10, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1265.243 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.10.1.

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Abstract ?Vegetable materials are easily found around us but are frequently considered useless. The Metallothionein content in vegetable materials such in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit of rice, corns, beans, and soybeans has not been investigated before.  Metallothionein protein has the role to bind heavy metals and serves as means of detoxification of heavy metals. This studi investigated to analyze, identify, and formulate metallothionein extracts from vegetable materials such as in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit of rice, corns, beans, and soybeans. The Experimental, each vegetable material available in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruit of rice, corns, beans, and soybeans was made into simplisia (crude medication) ??and then was processed into infuse. ELISA method was conducted as the measurement techniques upon protein level of each vegetable material infuse. The levels of Metallothionein protein available in vegetable materials were identified to determine the highest. The extract formula was taken from the highest levels of metallothionein. The result showed that the average metallothionein protein level from the entire vegetable materials was 0.62 ng: the highest in rice leaves of 1.4 ng and the lowest in bean flowers of 0.2 ng. The rice leaves were further formulated into metallothionein Extract. The analysis of metallothionein levels of vegetable materials such as in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit of rice, corns, beans and soybeans found that the highest level was in rice leaves of 1.354539 ng, and the lowest was in bean flowers of 0.22478.   Key Words - Vegetable, metallothionein..
EFFLUENT TREATMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY BY USING SUBSURFACE FLOW WETLAND SYSTEM Anggraeni, Mega; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Hadiyanto, Hadiyanto
Waste Technology Vol 2, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : University of Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (366.897 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/wastech.2.1.8-12

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Constructed wetland is one of the alternatives to increase water quality before it flowed into waterways. Sub Surface Flow Wetland System is one type of the constructed wetland for waste water treatment which is using symbiotic relation between water plants and microorganism around rooting system (rhizosphere) in media. Cyperus alternifolius and Canna indica, L. as well as gravel and sand media are plants and medias that can be used in constructed wetland. This research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of plant species between Cyperus alternifolius and Canna indica, L. as well as the effectiveness of gravel and sand media to decrease nitrite, ammoniak, BOD, and COD concentrations. Four reactors SSF-Wetlands with dimension of 120 cm x 30 cm x 50 cm were used in this research. The study was conducted over 12 days following the  acclimatization of plants for 7 days. Data analysis were performed by comparing the degradation coefficient (k) of BOD, COD, nitrite, and ammonia concentrations with retention time of the effluent. The results showed that  the degradation rate for the reactor with with gravel media and Cyperus alternifolius for nitrite variable was 0.60,  ammonia 0.49, BOD 0.45, and COD 0.36. Cyperus alternifolius have a higher effectiveness in reducing the concentration of nitrite, ammonia , BOD and COD than Canna indica , L. Reactors with gravel media have higher effectiveness in reducing BOD , COD , ammonia and nitrite concentration than sand media. Keywords : Canna indica. L. , Cyperus alternifolius, SSF - Wetland, , WWTP effluent of pharmaceutical industry
AKUMULASI KADMIUM (CD) PADA IKAN NILEM SEBAGAI BIOINDIKATOR PENCEMARAN LOGAM BERAT DI KALIGARANG Prabowo, Rossi; Purwanto, Purwanto; Sunoko, Henna Rya
MEDIAGRO Vol 8, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Unwahas

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.31942/md.v8i2.1311

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Industrial development along Garang Watershed has been worrying people for allegedly nearly all plants waste products into Garang watershed that would trigger changes in water quality, which can lead to contamination of the river water. Cadmium and Lead are toxic substances that cause chronic poisoning in human. Both types of heavy metals have very high toxicity value and much produced as industrial waste that is along Garang Watershed. This research is an exploratory observation with a quantitative approach that has purpose to describe the content of heavy metals Cd and Pb in water, sediment, wader fish (Puntius bramoides), nilem fish (Osteochilus hasselti), lunjar fish (Rasbora argyrotaenia)  in Kaligarang. The result of this research suggests that the content of heavy metal Cd on Kaligarang average of 0008 mg/l and the content of heavy metal Pb average of 0020 mg/l. The content of heavy metals Cd and Pb in Kaligarang sediment vary. The content of heavy metal Cd between 0.0071 mg/kg - 0.0474 mg/kg, while the content of heavy metal Pb between 0.0493 mg/kg - 0.3481 mg/kg. The research of the content of Cd and Pb in wader fish (Puntius bramoides), nilem fish (Osteochilus hasselti), lunjar fish (Rasbora argyrotaenia) in Kaligarang suggests that the highest content of Cd and Pb is found in nilem fish (Osteochilus hasselti)  liver, that is the content of Cd 0.096 mg/kg and Pb 0.180 mg/kg at station 3. This value is substandard set by the FDR New Zealand, FAO, and SNI. 7387.2009, About Heavy Metal Contamination Maximum Limit in Food. Accumulation of heavy metals Cd and Pb in fish between Tugu Suharto and Simongan station is relatively similar. It is caused the location both of stations adjacent to the condition of water are relatively slope slightly and quiet, making it easier for fish organism migrates between both of stations. Nilem Fish (Osteochilus hasselti) is the best bio indicator for heavy metals Cd and Pb because it can accumulate heavy metals Cd and Pb greater than wader fish (Puntius bramoides) and lunjar fish (Rasbora argyrotaenia). Kaligarang is a standard water source of drinking water, it should be intensified in Garang Watershed management, so it can reduce contamination into Kaligarang. Keywords: Accumulation, Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Bioindicator
PERAN GEN POLIMORFIK δ ASAM AMINO LEVULINAT DEHIDRATASE PADA INTOKSIKASI PB Sunoko, Henna Rya
MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA 2008:MMI Volume 43 Issue 1 Year 2008
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA

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Abstract

ABSTRACTThe role of ? amino levulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism gene in lead intoxication.Background: Three distinct isozymes, designated ALAD 1-1,  1-2, and 2-2 are resulted from the expression of two common alleles, designated ALAD1 and ALAD2. The existence of this polymorphism gene whose product was implicated in the pathogenesis of lead toxicity suggested the potential for a genetically determined differential susceptibility. This study was attempted to investigate the role of ALAD polymorphism gene in lead intoxication showed by children blood lead levels.Methods: The study involved 54 children with 5-10-year-old, coming from Gebang Sari, Sekaran and Moro Demak. Cross-sectional design was adopted in this research. Blood lead level was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The ALAD polymorphism in exon 4 was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with restriction fragment length polymorphism, according to the methods described by Schwartz et al. Data were not statistically analyzed due to only two samples were ALAD2.Results: Two samples were ALAD2 (1-2 isozymes) with blood lead levels (BLL) of 24.50 ppb and 91.70 ppb respectivelly. The mean of ALAD2 BLL was about 48.60 ppb higher compared to that of ALAD1BLL.Conclusion: Individuals with ALAD2genotype had blood lead levels higher than those of individuals with the ALAD1 genotype, therefore, ALAD2genotype was much more susceptible to lead .Key Words: ALAD polymorphism gene, ALAD1, ALAD2, blood lead levelABSTRAKLatar belakang: ALAD 1-1, 1-2, dan 2-2, adalah tiga isozym yang berasal dari dua macam alel yaitu ALAD1 dan ALAD2. Keberadaan gen ALAD polimorfik dengan produknya ini, dalam patogenesis toksisitas Pb telah mengimplikasikan bahwa secara genetik sangat potensial untuk menyebabkan terjadinya perbedaan suseptabilitas terhadap Pb. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mempelajari peran gen ALAD polimorfik pada intoksikasi Pb yang ditunjukkan oleh tingkat kadar Pb darah.Metode: Penelitian mengikutsertakan 54 anak, umur 5-10 tahun, berasal dari Gebang Sari, Sekaran dan Moro Demak. Penelitian didesain secara cross-sectional. Kadar Pb darah diukur dengan alat atomic absorption spectrophotometer. ALAD polimorfik pada exon 4 dideterminasi dengan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) dengan restriksi ?fragmentlength polymorphism? sesuai dengan metoda Schwartz et al. Analisis statistik tidak dilakukan sebab hanya ada dua sampel dengan ALAD2.Hasil: Ditemukan dua sampel anak dengan ALAD2 (1-2 isozymes), kadar Pb darah masing-masing 24,50 ppb dan 91,70 ppb. Rerata kadar Pb darah dengan ALAD2 lebih tinggi sekitar 48,60 ppb dibanding rerata kadar Pb darah dengan ALAD1.Simpulan: Genotipe ALAD2 lebih suseptibel terhadap Pb.
ANALISIS KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT TIMBAL (Pb), KADMIUM (Cd) DAN MERKURI (Hg) DALAM CUMI-CUMI (Loligo Sp.) YANG DIPEROLEH DARI TPI TAMBAK LOROK SEMARANG budiarti, aqnes; rosmini, rosmini; sunoko, henna rya
e-Publikasi Ilmiah Fakultas Farmasi Unwahas Semarang JURNAL ILMU FARMASI DAN FARMASI KLINIK VOL. 5 NO. 1 JUNI 2008
Publisher : e-Publikasi Ilmiah Fakultas Farmasi Unwahas Semarang

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Abstract

ABSTRACTThe research about analysis of heavy metal lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in Octopuses (Loligo sp.) obtained from TPI Tambak Lorok Semarang has been carried out. This research was intended to identify heavy metals accumulating in octopuses (Loligo sp). The objects studied in this research were octopuses obtained from Tambak Lorok marketplace in Semarang. The sample for this research was taken by simple random sampling at three different points of locations. The locations 1, 2 and 3 were located each from the west, the north and the east, respectively, from the port. The contents of lead, cadmium and mercury in the octopuses’ bodies were measured using SSA (Atom-Absorption Spectrophotometer). The obtained data were then tested using One-way anava. The differences in metal contents were analyzed using Scheffe’s tests and then compared with the basic quality standard stipulated in the Decision Number 03725/B/SK/VII/1989 by the POM Directorate General The study based on the three different points of locations showed the following results. The average lead contents in the octopuses obtained from the points of locations 1, 2 and 3 were 0.29 mg/kg, 0.24 mg/kg and 0.25 mg/kg respectively. The average cadmium contents in the octopuses obtained from the points of locations 1, 2 and 3 were 0.04 mg/kg, 0.05 mg/kg and 0.06 mg/kg respectively. The average mercury contents in the octopuses obtained from the points of locations 1, 2 and 3 were 0.06 mg/kg, 0.07 mg/kg and 0.07 mg/kg respectively The lead, cadmium and mercury contents in the octopuses obtained from the three locations had not exceeded upper limit stipulated in the Decision Number 03725/B/SK/VII/1989 by the POM Directorate General. Based on the One-way ANOVA statistical tests on the lead contents, there was no significant difference among the three samples, but the statistical tests on the cadmium and mercury contents showed a significant difference among the three different points of locations relating to these heavy metal contents in the octopuses Keywords : SSA (Atomic-Absorption Spectrophotometer), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Octopuses (Loligo sp), Heavy Metal
METALLOTHIONEIN PADA HATI IKAN SEBAGAI BIOMARKER PENCEMARAN KADMIUM (Cd) DI PERAIRAN KALIGARANG SEMARANG Dewi, Nur Kusuma; Purwanto, Purwanto; Sunoko, Henna Rya
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 21, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Penanda dini pencemaran kadmium  di sungai Kaligarang perlu diketahui sebagai alat monitoring pencemaran logam berat,  mengingat sungai Kaligarang digunakan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air minum bagi masyarakat kota Semarang. Ikan yang hidup di Kaligarang diambil sampelnya secara random. Sampel diambil hatinya, untuk diperiksa ada tidaknya metallothionein pengikat Cd, menggunakan  HPLC. Sebagai kontrol diambil sampel ikan secara  random, dari perairan yang tidak tercemar yakni dari Balai Benih Ikan Air Tawar. Sampel  dianalisis sama seperti sampel ikan dari sungai Kaligarang. Hasil analisis  HPLC sampel dari Kaligarang  dibandingkan dengan sampel ikan dari Balai Benih Ikan untuk menentukan ada tidaknya metallothionein pengikat Cd. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada hati ikan yang hidup di Kaligarang didapatkan metallothionein-Cd, sedangkan ikan yang hidup di Balai Benih Air Tawar tidak ditemukan metallothionein-Cd. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ikan dari balai Benih tidak mengakumulasikan Cd, sedang ikan dari Kaligarang mengkumulasikan Cd. Hasil penelitian ini diperkuat oleh hasil AAS sampel air sungai Kaligarang mengandung Cd dan sampel air  Balai Benih ikan tidak mengandung Cd.  Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa metallothionein-Cd merupakan Biomarker pencemaran Cd di Kaligarang. Biomarker metallothionein yang ditemukan dapat digunakan sebagai alat deteksi dini dalam monitoring pencemaran Cd  di perairan. 
Zinc supplementation decreases basophilic stippling in rats exposed to lead Santosa, Budi; Subagio, Hertanto Wahyu; Suratmo, Lisyani; Sunoko, Henna Rya
Universa Medicina Vol 33, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18051/UnivMed.2014.v33.11-18

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BACKGROUND Lead acetate inhibits pyrimidine-5’-nucleotidase resulting in ribonucleic acid and ribosome accumulation in erythrocytes (RBC), visible as basophilic stippling (BS). Lead exposure disrupts RBC membrane, shortens the RBC life span and decreases hematocrit. Zinc supplementation increases lead-binding proteins (metallothioneins). The study objective was to determine whether zinc supplementation prior to lead exposure decreases BS and increases the hematocrit in rats. METHODS The study was a randomized post-test only control-group trial, using 28 rats allocated to one control and 3 intervention groups (Zinc I, Zinc II, Zinc III) receiving 0.2 mg, 0.4 mg, and 0.8 mg of zinc by oral gavage daily for 3 weeks. All groups were then exposed to lead at 0.5 g/kg BW/day by gavage for 10 weeks. On the last day of the 10 weeks BS was determined from Giemsastained blood smears and hematocrit by hematology analyzer. Between-group differences were tested with one-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni’s test. RESULTS Mean BS was significantly decreasing 7.93 ± 0.99% in controls, 6.91 ± 1.04%, 4.66 ± 0.79%, and 1.73 ± 0.88%, respectively, in intervention groups (p=0.000). Mean hematocrit was significantly increasing 26.16 ± 3.60% in controls, and 30.33 ± 6.12%, 36.83 ± 3.31%, and 40.00 ± 4.77%, respectively, in intervention groups (p=0.000). One-way Anova and Bonferroni’s test showed significant differences in BS and hematocrit between controls and intervention groups receiving zinc supplementation of 0.4 and 0.8 mg (p=0.000). CONCLUSION Zinc supplementation before lead exposure significantly decreases basophilic stippling and increases hematocrit level in rats exposed to lead
PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH RUMAH TANGGA DI KECAMATAN DAHA SELATAN Riswan, R; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Hadiyarto, Agus
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 9, No 1 (2011): April 2011
Publisher : Program Studi Ilmu Lingkungan,Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (121.857 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jil.9.1.31-38

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Pembuangan sampah rumah tangga secara sembarangan di sekitar rumah ataupun ke sungai telah menjadi kebiasaan sebagian masyarakat di Kecamatan Daha Selatan Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Selatan, sehingga menimbulkan beberapa penyakit yang berbasis lingkungan serta mencemari Sungai Negara. Oleh karena itu, maka perlu dilakukan suatu kajian tentang pengelolaan sampah rumah tangga berdasarkan aspek teknis operasional, kelembagaan, pembiayaan, hukum/peraturan serta peran serta masyarakatnya. Penelitian analitik observasional ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengelolaan sampah rumah tangga dan faktor-faktor yang berkorelasi, serta merencanakan pengelolaan sampah rumah tangga yang berbasis masyarakat. Hasilnya didapatkan rata-rata sampah rumah tangga yang dihasilkan sebanyak 1,46 liter/orang/hari atau 0,38 kg/orang/hari, yang terdiri dari 47% sampah organik, 15 % kertas, 22% plastik, serta 16% logam dan sebagainya. Pengelolaan sampah rumah tangga di Kecamatan Daha Selatan belum dilaksanakan secara optimal. Tingkat pendidikan, tingkat pendapatan, perilaku terhadap kebersihan lingkungan, pengetahuan tentang perda persampahan, serta kesediaan membayar retribusi sampah berkorelasi positif dengan cara pengelolaan sampah rumah tangga. Saran yang diberikan di antaranya peningkatan pelayanan persampahan, pembentukan kelompok pengelola persampahan desa, pelibatan masyarakat dan swasta dalam pembiayaan, peningkatan koordinasi lintas sektoral dan pelibatan tokoh masyarakat dan tokoh agama, serta penerapan peraturan persampahan secara tegas.