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PRODUKSI BIODIESEL DARI AMPAS KELAPA (COCONUT WASTE) SECARA TRANSESTERIFIKASI IN SITU MENGGUNAKAN BANTUAN GELOMBANG MIKRO Maurina, Lancy; Marwan, Marwan; Supardan, Muhammad Dani
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 12, No 2 (2017): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v12i2.8480

Abstract

Biodiesel merupakan bahan bakar alternatif pengganti minyak diesel berbasis fosil. Upaya mendapatkan bahan baku yang murah dan ekonomis untuk memproduksi biodiesel perlu terus dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajariproses produksi biodiesel dari limbah ampas kelapa menggunakan proses transesterifikasi in situ dengan bantuan gelombang mikro. Proses transesterifikasi in situ dilakukan pada daya mikrowave 450, 600 dan 800 watt, waktu reaksi 3-6 menit, rasio molar metanol 10:1 hingga 25:1 dan jumlah katalis KOH 2-5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, rendemen biodiesel tertinggi adalah sebesar 98,23% pada kondisi daya mikrowave 800 watt, waktu reaksi 4 menit, rasio molar pelarut 20:1 dan konsentrasi katalis KOH 4%. Hasil pengujian mutu biodiesel dari hasil penelitian ini adalah viskositas kinematik 2,7 mm2/s, densitas 850 kg/m3 dan angka asam 0,4 mg-KOH/g. Komposisi asam lemak biodiesel dari ampas kelapa adalah methyl laurate (29,41%), methyl oleate (21,05%), methyl myristate (20,21%), methyl palmitate (14,18%), methyl caprate (6,94%), methyl linoleate (5,47%) dan methyl octanoate (2,25%).
PURIFICATION OF BIODIESEL FROM WASTE COOKING OIL USING BENTONITE AS DRY WASHING AGENT Suriaini, Nanda; Febriana, Tika Thalia; Yulanda, Andesta; Adisalamun, Adisalamun; Syamsuddin, Yanna; Supardan, Muhammad Dani
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 14, No 2 (2019): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v14i2.13165

Abstract

The process of biodiesel purification is an important step in getting biodiesel products that meet specifications as a substitute for fossil-based fuels. Dry washing method has been developed to achieve an effective puri?cation strategy in order to produce high-quality biodiesel. Bentonite can be used as dry washing agent because it has a good adsorbing properties as well as a large pore and surface area therefore can attract polar substances such as glycerol and methanol. The purpose of this research is to know the capability of activated bentonite as dry washing agent for purification of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. The activation process of bentonite was carried out using sulfuric acid with concentration 1.5 M. Characterization of the bentonite was conducted using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for minerals content and Brunauer?Emmett?Teller (BET) method for surface area. Bentonite was used as dry washing agent for biodiesel purification by varying washing time (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes) and adsorbent amount (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%). The experimental results showed that purification of biodiesel by dry washing using activated bentonite resulted in a better yield and quality than wet washing and dry washing using non-activated bentonite, except the acid number. The best operation condition resulted from this research is at 10 minutes washing time and 1% adsorbent with yield of 94.1%; acid number of 0.4208 mg KOH/gram; density of 0.8838 gram/cm3, viscosity of 3.0617 mm2/s and water content of 1.17%.
ESTERIFICATION OF FREE FATTY ACID IN CRUDE PALM OIL OFF GRADE Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Satriana, Satriana
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 7, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

The esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) found in crude palm oil (CPO) off grade with methanol is a promising technique to convert FFA into valuable fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, biodiesel) and obtain a FFA-free oil that can be further transesterified using alkali bases. In this work, the effects of the main variables involved in the esterification process i.e. alcohol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, agitation speed and the initial amount of FFA of oil, were studied in the presence of sulphuric acid as catalyst at concentration of 1%-w. The experimental results show that the esterification process could lead to a practical and cost effective FFA removal unit in front of typical oil transesterification for biodiesel production.Keywords: CPO off grade, esterification, free fatty acid
MODIFIKASI ALAT PENYULING UAP UNTUK PENINGKATAN RENDEMEN DAN MUTU MINYAK NILAM (POGOSTEMON CABLIN BENTH) Mahlinda, Mahlinda; Arifiansyah, Vinno; Supardan, Muhammad Dani
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 14, No 1 (2019): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v14i1.13475

Abstract

Penyulingan minyak nilam konvensional umumnya menggunakan peralatan penyulingan sederhana yang memilikii beberapa kekurangan yaitu: waktu proses yang lama, konsumsi energi yang besar dan rendemen minyak yang rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan modifikasi alat penyuling uap untuk peningkatkan rendemen dan mutu minyak nilam yang dihasilkan. Modifikasi yang dilakukan adalah: penambahan pipa api pada boiler, pengaturan aliran air yang masuk ke dalam boiler, pemasangan economizer dan penambahan unit pemanas lanjut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan penggunaan alat penyuling uap modifikasi dapat menghasilkan rendemen yang lebih tinggi dan waktu proses yang lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan alat penyuling uap konvensional. Hasil analisis gas chomatography-mass spectrometry menunjukkan kandungan  patchouli alcohol minyak nilam  hasil penyulingan alat modifikasi sebesar 31,96%. Spektra hasil analisis Fourier Transform Infrared menunjukkan minyak nilam hasil penyulingan alat penyuling modifikasi dan konvensional memiliki gugus fungsi yang sama. Namun, warna minyak hasil penyulingan alat penyuling modifikasi lebih gelap dibandingkan alat penyuling konvensional. Hasil pengujian mutu minyak nilam menunjukkan warna, densitas, indeks bias dan putaran optik sudah memenuhi standar SNI No. 062385-1998.
PENGGUNAAN MICROSOFT EXCEL DALAM MEMPREDIKSI ALIRAN FLUIDA DALAM PACKED BED Hidayati, Hidayati; Supardan, Muhammad Dani
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 9, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

Flow distribution is often a problem in the operation of the packed bed reactor. The problem is often referred as flow maldistribution and formation of localized hot spot region. This research is generally aimed to predict  fluid flow distribution in the packed bed containing porous media by finite difference method using the software MS. Excel. Model verification result shows conformity between analytic method and  result of calculation. Simple study of the finite difference method using the software MS. Excel can describe the fluid velocity profile in a packed bed containing porous media. This profile is similar with experiment of Kufner and Hofmann (1990) and Stephenson and Stewart (1986). The simulation was performed to determine the effect of process variables on the fluid flow velocity profile. Particle diameter influences fluid flow velocity. Bulk porosity also influences fluid flow velocity at axis up to certain distance from wall of reactor. Keywords: finite difference method, flow distribution, packed bed reactor
USE OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION: A LITERATURE SURVEY Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Satriana, Satriana
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 5, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

Biodiesel has been shown to be the best substitute for fossil-based fuels to its environmental advantages and renewable resource availability. There is a great demand for the commercialization of biodiesel production, which in turn calls for a technically and economically reactor technology. The production of biodiesel in existing batch and continuous-flow processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. In this study, a novel reactor system using a reactive distillation (RD) technique was discussed for biodiesel production. RD is a chemical unit operation in which chemical reactions and separations occur simultaneously in one unit. It is an effective alternative to the classical combination of reactor and separation units especially when involving reversible or consecutive chemical reactions such as transesterication process in biodiesel production.
CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN APPLIED TO PURIFY LEMONGRASS ESSENTIAL OIL USING VACUUM DISTILLATION Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Ermaya, Dewi; Meilina, Hesti
Proceedings of The Annual International Conference, Syiah Kuala University - Life Sciences & Engineering Chapter Vol 3, No 2 (2013): Engineering
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

Vacuum distillation process can be applied for purification of lemongrass essential oil by increasing the concentration of citral in lemongrass essential oil. In this study, the relationship between experimental parameters of purification of lemongrass oil was investigated. The effect of pressure, temperature and pH was examined to determine the best performance of the product yield. CentralComposite Design was applied to optimize the operating parameters of the process. It was found that the product yield of bottom product achieved an optimum level of 98.4% yield at the following reaction conditions, i.e. pressure of 55.9 mbar, temperature of 104.6oC and pH of 4.8
Transesterifikasi In Situ Biji Jarak Pagar Menggunakan Kavitasi Hidrodinamik Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Satriana, Satriana; Moulana, Ryan
Agritech Vol 34, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (359.723 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9521

Abstract

In this study, the in situ transesterification of jatropha seed using hydrodynamic cavitation for the production of biodieselwas studied. Experiments were carried out under the following conditions: 800 mL of methanol volume, 50oC of reaction temperature, 2 g of potassium hidroxide catalyst, less than 3% of moisture content in jatropha seed and 0,355-1,18 mm of particle size. From experiment without co-solvent addition, the highest biodiesel yield of 35% obtained at condition: time of process of 120 minute and ratio of methanol to jatropha seed of 16 (mL/g) . The use of co-solvent of hexane provided a higher yield of biodiesel compared to the system without co-solvents. The highest biodiesel yield of 60% were obtained under the addition of 95 mL of hexane volume. In addition, the use hydrodynamic cavitation provided a higher yield of biodiesel compared to the system using mechanical stirring. The biodiesel produced in the experiment was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which showed that methyl oleate was the highest compound in biodiesel.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari proses produksi biodiesel dari biji jarak pagar melalui proses transesterifikasi in situ menggunakan kavitasi hidrodinamik. Transesterifikasi in situ dilakukan pada kondisi: volume metanol 800 mL, temperatur proses 50oC, katalis kalium hidroksida 2 g, kandungan air biji jarak kurang dari 3% dan ukuran partikel biji jarak 0,355-1,18 mm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rendemen biodiesel tertinggi sebesar 35% yang dihasilkan dari proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak pagar menggunakan kavitasi hidrodinamik tanpa penambahan co-solvent diperoleh pada penggunaan waktu proses 120 menit dan rasio volume metanol terhadap berat biji jarak 16 (mL/g). Penggunaan co-solvent heksana terbukti dapat meningkatkan rendemen biodiesel yang dihasilkan dimana pada penambahan volume heksana sebanyak 95 mL diperoleh rendemen biodiesel sebesar 60%. Proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak menggunakan kavitasi hidrodinamik menghasilkan rendemen biodiesel yang lebih besar dibandingkan proses menggunakan pengaduk mekanik. Hasil analisis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) menunjukkan komponen terbesar dalam produk biodiesel adalah metil oleat.
METODE EKSTRAKSI PELARUT BERBANTUAN ULTRASONIK UNTUK RECOVERY MINYAK DARI LIMBAH CAIR PABRIK KELAPA SAWIT Application of Ultrasound-assisted Solvent Extraction for Recovery of Oil from Palm Oil Mill Effluent Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Asnawi, Teku M.; Putri, Yulia; Wahyuni, Sri
Jurnal Agritech Vol 31, No 04 (2011)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (239.595 KB)

Abstract

In this study, application of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME)was studied. Extraction conditions such as volume ratio of POME to solvent, extraction time and type of solvent were investigated. Extraction was carried out at room temperature with total volume (POME and solvent) of 300 ml. The experimental results showed that ultrasound-assisted extraction provided higher yield than without ultrasound using mechanical stirring. The highest oil yield of 0.265 % obtained at ultrasound-assisted extraction condition of volume ratio of POME to solvent 5:1, extraction time of 60 minutes using n-hexane as solvent. The highest oil yield and carotene concentration were obtained by n-hexane. Meanwhile, there was no significant differenece of carotene concentration obtained from ultrasound-assisted and without ultrasound-assisted extraction.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari metode ekstraksi pelarut berbantuan ultrasonik untuk recovery minyak dari limbahcair pabrik kelapa sawit. Ekstraksi dilakukan pada temperatur kamar dengan menggunakan volum total campuran (limbah dan pelarut) sebanyak 300 ml. Variabel penelitian yang digunakan adalah rasio volum limbah terhadap pelarut (1:1; 2:1; 4:1; dan 5:1), waktu ekstraksi (30, 60, 90 dan 120 menit), dan jenis pelarut (n-heksan dan petroleum eter). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstraksi berbantuan ultrasonik menghasilkan rendemen minyak yang lebih besar dibandingkan ekstraksi tanpa bantuan ultrasonik dengan menggunakan pengadukan mekanik. Rendemen minyak tertinggi sebesar 0,265 % diperoleh pada proses ekstraksi berbantuan ultrasonik dengan rasio volum limbah terhadap pelarut 5:1, waktu ekstraksi 90 menit dengan menggunakan pelarut n-heksan. Rendemen minyak dan konsentrasi karoten yang lebih tinggi diperoleh pada ekstraksi menggunakan pelarut n-heksan. Metode ekstraksi pelarut berbantuan ultrasonik dan tanpa bantuan ultrasonik memberikan perbedaan yang tidak signifikan terhadap konsentrasi karoten yang terdapat dalam minyak yang telah direcovery.
ADSORPSI MINYAK SEREH DAPUR MENGGUNAKAN BENTONIT (Lemongrass Oil Adsorption Using Bentonite) Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Fatanen, Arief; Erika, Cut
Jurnal Hasil Penelitian Industri Vol 28, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Baristand Industri Banda Aceh

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (23.353 KB)

Abstract

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) is one of the plants which produce essential oil. Thequality of the essential oil can be determined from the physiochemical properties of the oil. In this study,chemical purification method is implemented by using bentonite as adsorbent. The Completely RandomDesign (CRD) factorial consisted of two factors is used in statistical data analysis. The first factor whichis observed is the time of adsorption (T) which is consisted of 4 levels which are T1 = 30 minutes, T2 = 60minutes, T3 = 90 minutes, and T4 = 120 minutes. The second factor is the absorbent concentration whichis consisted of 3 levels which are K1 = 1%, K2 = 5%, and K3 = 10%. The result of this study showed thatpurification using bentonite can improve the quality of the oil. Time of adsorption and adsorbentconcentration influenced the yield of lemongrass oil (P≥0,01). The physical properties of the oil producedwere in accordance with the Essential Oil Association of America standard. Adsorption processes notonly reduce the citral content of lemongrass oil, however, also reduce the content of non-oxygenatedterpenes which can damage the quality of the lemongrass oil.