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Space truss is a three dimensional structure, which can draw forces work on its member either tension or compression without torsion. Space truss is favorable to build a large, light and stiff structure, which are made from relatively short bars.  This research is a feasibility study of using bamboo as space truss members.  This study focuses on designing bamboo connection, that strong enough for both tension and compression.  According to the analysis done, bamboo culm with diameter 4 cm and Gina Bachtiar, Gina; Surjokusumo, Surjono; Nugroho, Naresworo; Hadi, Yusuf Sudo
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 31 No. 1 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Abstract

Space truss is a three dimensional structure, which can draw forces work on its member either tension or compression without torsion. Space truss is favorable to build a large, light and stiff structure, which are made from relatively short bars.  This research is a feasibility study of using bamboo as space truss members.  This study focuses on designing bamboo connection, that strong enough for both tension and compression.  According to the analysis done, bamboo culm with diameter 4 cm and 6 cm could be use to make space truss member for a simple 3m x 4 m canopy structure.  The critical point of failure was on shear, because the shear strength of bamboo observed was only 3.9kg/cm2.  Designing with uniform length members of one meter, it’s found that for bamboo of 4 cm and 6 cm in diameter, depth of shear area of 5 cm and 3 cm, respectively, are needed.   Keywords: bamboo connection, space truss member, tension, compression
KAJIAN KONSEP DESAIN TAMAN DAN RUMAH TINGGAL HEMAT ENERGI Kurniawaty, Prima; Gunawan, Andi; Surjokusumo, Surjono
Jurnal Lanskap Indonesia Vol. 4 No. 1 (2012): Jurnal Lanskap Indonesia (JLI)
Publisher : http://arl.faperta.ipb.ac.id/

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (437.225 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jli.2012.4.1.%p

Abstract

The primary factor of high energy consumption in housing sector is caused by unconformity between architectural and landscape design. Housing design which has been developed and adopted by people now is more oriented towards building aspect and in current trends design, but lack of environmental and landscape aspect. The environment and landscape aspects has a profound influence as the results of this study. Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, the study results in the influence of landscape (site design) on energy saving in housing landscape unit is very significant (67%) compared to building design (33%). In this case, the plant is a ma-jor component that contribute to energy saving design (48.3%). The Criteria for each component are discussed specifically in this paper, both physically and visually.
Rasio Ikatan Pembuluh sebagai Substitusi Rasio Modulus Elastisitas pada Analisa Layer System pada Bilah Bambu dan Bambu Laminasi Bahtiar, Effendi Tri; Nugroho, Naresworo; Karlinasari, Lina; Darwis, Atmawi; Surjokusumo, Surjono
Jurnal Teknik Sipil Vol 21, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Institut Teknologi Bandung

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Abstract

Abstrak. Anatomi bambu disusun oleh sel-sel yang heterogen. Komponen anatomi bambu yang memberikan sumbangan terbesar pada sifat mekanisnya adalah ikatan pembuluh, sehingga kerapatan ikatan pembuluh dapat digunakan sebagai variabel dasar untuk menganalisa sifat mekanis bambu. Kerapatan ikatan pembuluh bergradasi dari tepi hingga ke dalam bambu sehingga dapat diturunkan suatu fungsi linier ataupun non linier sebagai pendekatannya. Rasio modulus elastisitas (E) yang lazim digunakan pada metode transformed cross section, pada penelitian ini dicoba diganti dengan rasio ikatan pembuluh dengan asumsi bahwa keduanya adalah ekuivalen. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa terdapat nilai korelasi Pearson yang tinggi antara hasil teoritis dan hasil empiris, sedangkan hasil uji t-student data berpasangan menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara keduanya. Dengan demikian model transformasi yang diturunkan dapat digunakan untuk melakukan analisa layer system pada bilah bambu maupun bambu laminasi dengan hasil yang dapat dipertanggungjawabkan. Dari ketiga model transformasi terpilih (linier, logaritmik, dan power) model power adalah model yang terbaik karena menghasilkan nilai yang paling mendekati data empiriknya.Abstract. Bamboo anatomy is constructed from many types of cells. Vascular bundles are the cells which give the highest contribution to the bamboo strength, thus the density distribution of vascular bundles could be used as the main variable for analyzing the layer system of bamboo strip and laminated bamboo. The density of vascular bundles distribution degrade from outer to inner in a regular manner which could be fitted by linear and nonlinear function. Ratio of modulus of Elasticity (E) which widely used in transformed cross section method for analyzing the layered system was substituted by ratio of density distribution of vascular bundles within assumption that both are highly correlated. The data in this study proved that there was high Pearson’s correlation between the theoretical and empirical result, and the paired t-student test also showed both were not significantly different; thus the new method could be applied in very good result. There are three model applied in this study namely linear, logarithm, and power. Power model is the best among others since its theoretical results the nearest estimation to the empirical measurement.
Aplikasi Buluh Bambu untuk Konstruksi Rangka Batang Ruang Application of Bamboo Culm for Space Truss Bachtiar, Gina; Surjokusumo, Surjono; Hadi, Yusuf S; Nugroho, Naresworo
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 7, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

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Abstract

Space truss is a three dimensional structure composed of short slender interconnected bars. The bars are selected to produce lightweight members. Since joints are frictionless pins, truss members carry out only axial force either tension or compression, without bending moment. Bamboo is a potential building material for this structure, because it is relatively light and high strength especially in tension. This research is aimed to develop bamboo joint that could carry out both tension and compression and it application in space truss for 3 m x 4 m simple roof structure.Connection designed using a taper rounded wooden plug attached to the inner part of bamboo and a tapered steel ring was used at the outside of the bamboo culm. Structural analysis using a program with finite element methods indicated that 4 cm diameter bamboo could use for 3 m x 4 m space truss with four supports, whereas for  cantilever  truss, the used of 4 cm diameter bamboo must be varied by using 6 cm diameter bamboo for elements  that resist larger compression force.
Keandalan Papan Lapis dari Kayu Damar (Agathis loranthifolia Salisb.) Terpadatkan sebagai Pelat Buhul pada Arsitektur Konstruksi Atap Kayu The Strength of Densified Agathis (Agathis loranthifolia Salisb.) Plyboard as Gusset in Wood Roof Construction Rilatupa, James; Surjokusumo, Surjono; Nandika, Dodi
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 2, No 1 (2004): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

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Abstract

The aim of this research is to know the densified agathis plyboard characteristics and reliability is used for semi isotropic gusset in wood roof construction, and also to look for suitable models of its connectors for roof construction.  The material use for this research is agathis board with dimension of 36 cm (L) x 12 cm (T) x 2 cm (R).  This board has been densified until it reached 1 cm in thickness (R). Glue used for this research is epoxy with the trade name Eurepox-710 (resin) and mixed with Euredur-140 (hardener).  The bolt used for the testing of embedded strength is bolt St.37 with diameter of 11.12 mm.The result showed that densification could increase physical nature and mechanical strength. The physical nature and mechanical strength also indicated that densified agathis board could be used as gusset in wood roof construction.  Results of bolt embedded strength and its ANOVA showed that the gusset of densified agathis plyboard will be reliable for each connection angles, and indicated that the Hankinson theory could not be implemented to forecast the bolt embedded strength for another connection angles. Based on questioners model of the gusset will revealed which is in accordance with the roof construction as issued for the second drawing of the gusset for each connection type.  This model has been considered to posses aesthetical and harmonically features wood roof construction of a building
Stiffness Prediction of 17 Years Aged Mangium (Acacia mangium Willd) By Non-Destructive Testing Priyono, Dwi J; Surjokusumo, Surjono; Hadi, Yusuf Sudo; Nugroho, Naresworo
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 9, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

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Abstract

Non-destructive test of mechanical properties of wood is an alternative methode which it is done without damaging the wood. The study tried to find the relationship between wood stiffness through non-destructive with MoE estimation. The 17 years mangium wood beam were tested both in the sorts of sample beam and small clear specimen. Beams were tested by ultrasonic wave propagation using Sylvatest- Duo NDT equipment and Panter Timber Sorting Machine, while destructive testing using Shimadzu UTM. The small clear specimen tested using Sylvatest-Duo equipment, while it’s destructive using Instron UTM. Destructive test were according to ASTM D 143-94 (2008) for the small clear specimen (scs), while ASTM D 198-05a (2008) applied for the beam samples. The results showed that the scs sample with 14.7% moisture content and density of 0.61 gr cm-3 have ultrasonic wave propagation velocity (V) of 5,764 m s-1, the dynamic modulus of elasticity (MoEd) and static (MoEs) each for 243,933 and 104,004 kg cm-2, while the value of static flexural strength (MoRs) was 889 kg cm-2. For the beam sorts with 15.4% moisture content and density of 0.58 g cm-3 has a velocity of ultrasonic waves propagation at 4,944 m s-1, the value of MoEd and MoEs respectively 167,357 and 51,780 kg cm-2, while the value of MoRs was 449 kg cm-2. The beam MoRs and MoEs values which resulted by Panter (called MoEp and MoRp) were 146,756 and 538 kg cm-2 respectively. Through simple linear regression equations were discovered relationships on eight prediction equations that can be considered good to use.Key words: beams, MoE-dynamic, MoE-static, non-destructive testing, prediction equation, small clear specimen.
Korelasi antara Pola Ikatan Pembuluh dengan Sifat Fisis dan Mekanis Tiga Jenis Bambu (Correlation of Vascular Bundle Pattern with Physical and Mechanical Properties of Three Bamboo Species) Nuriyatin, Nani; Surjokusumo, Surjono
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 8, No 2 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

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Abstract

The physical and mechanical properties of three species of bamboo, namely Dendrocalamus giganteus, Dendrocalamus asper, and Gigantochloa apus were investigated in relation to its vascular bundle pattern. As physical and mechanical properties, specific gravity, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), compressive strength parallel to grain and tension strength parallel to grain were determined, and the vascular bundle pattern was evaluated by method according to Grosser and Liese (1971). The relationship between physical and mechanical properties with the vessel bundle pattern was analyzed by regression with dummy variables. Pattern combination of vessel bundle was found on G. apus and D. asper, while D. giganteus has a single pattern of vessel bundle type. The difference of vascular bundle pattern did not contributed to the physical and mechanical properties of bamboo investigated, except for MOR. The difference species of bamboo and vertical position of samples contribute to the different value of compressive strength parallel to grain, whereas tension strength was only affected by bamboo species
Distribusi Kandungan Kimia Kayu Kelapa (Cocos nucifera L) Distribution of Chemical Compounds of Coconut Wood (Cocos nucifera L) Wardhani, Isna Yuniar; Surjokusumo, Surjono; Hadi, Yusuf Sudo; Nugroho, Naresworo
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 2, No 1 (2004): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

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Abstract

Within a tree from base to top (longitudinal) and dermal to core (lateral), the chemical compounds of wood such us celluloses, lignin, holocelluloses, ash content and extractives are different. The distribution should be known to process the wood, including coconut wood, easily and to utilize the wood optimally. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of chemical compound of coconut wood within a tree.  The analysis was conducted according to TAPPI Standard with three replications for each sample. Average values and graphs were use to analyze the results.The results indicated that coconut wood contains of wood extractives that soluble in hot water of 3.75 ~ 8.92%; alcohol benzene of1.88 ~ 8.78%; 1% NaOH of 18.76 ~ 33.61%; ash content of 0.75 ~ 4.08%; celluloses of 28.1 ~ 36.55%; holocelluloses of 69.51 ~ 80.07% and lignin of 26.58 ~ 36.35%. From base to top, wood extractives soluble in 1% NaOH increased but in other solutions did not have uniform distributions. Laterally, only holocelluloses and lignin did not have uniform distributions, whereas the others increased from dermal to core
Menduga Modulus Geser dengan Memanfaatkan Modulus Elastisitas Contoh Uji Ukuran Pemakaian dan Bebas Cacat Predicting Shear Modulus Using the Elasticity Modulus of Full-Scale and Small-Clear Wood Specimen Sulistyawati, Indah; Husin, Abdul Muhar; Surjokusumo, Surjono
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 3, No 1 (2005): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

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Abstract

To predict the elasticity modulus of wood, an assumption is made that all of deflection is due to the bending moment. Actually the total deflection of a beam made up of a bending and shear component. The composition of the bending deflection has EI as the bending stiffness factor and for the shear deflection has a GA as the shear stiffness factor, where E is the elasticity modulus, I is the moment of inertia, G is the shear modulus and A is the cross sectional area of a beam. The shear modulus of wood can be determined by using the true elasticity modulus of full-scale specimen test and the apparent elasticity modulus of small-clear specimen test of the beam with single load at mid-point for simply supported beam. From the comparison of them the shear modulus of wood can be obtained. The result of this research shown that the shear modulus of Acacia mangium is 1/17.45 multiplies by the elasticity modulus.
Penampilan Kayu Kelapa (Cocos nucifera Linn) Bagian Dalam yang Dimampatkan Performance of Densified Inner-Part of Coconut Wood (Cocos nucifera Linn) Wardhani, Isna Yuniar; Surjokusumo, Surjono; Hadi, Yusuf Sudo; Nugroho, Naresworo
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 4, No 2 (2006): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

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Abstract

The inner-part of coconut wood has low to medium density, which have not been utilized yet optimally as construction material. The purpose of this study was to improve the properties of inner-part of coconut wood by densification, such as it can be considered as a substitute of wood. Pre-treatments were steaming (a1) and boiling (a2) at 120°C for 15 minutes, and pressing temperature were 150°C (b1) and 175°C (b2). Deformation targets were 10% (c1), 20% (c2) and 30% (c3) from the initial thickness. The results indicated that the treatments did not affect to some of the densified wood properties. The appearance of panel surface was smooth and shine, but darker than that of solid. The increasing of density was 4.43 ~ 27.21% with strain recovery of 0.17 ~ 0.52 after soaking in water for 24 hours at room temperature.