Yadi Suryadi
Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian, Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3A, Bogor 16111 Telp. (0251) 8337975

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PRODUKSI KITOSAN SECARA ENZIMATIK OLEH BACILLUS FIRMUS E65 UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT ANTRAKNOSA PADA BUAH MANGGA (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) Mulyaningtyas, Dwina; Purwantisari, Susiana; Kusdiyantini, Endang; Suryadi, Yadi
Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 5 No. 4 Oktober 2016
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

Anthracnose is postharvest disease on mango caused by fungi Colletotrichum gloesporioides. Anthracnose can be inhibited development by chitosan as a preservative anti-fungal for fruit. Effectiveness of chitosan can be increased by enzymatic hydrolyze method to obtain a low molecular weight chitosan. Low molecular weight chitosan can be reducing the particle size into nano chitosan. This study aims to obtain the low molecular weight of chitosan by hydrolyzing the commercial chitosan enzymatically using B. firmus E65, the production of nano chitosan with ionic gelation method and to determine the volume ratio of low molecular weight of chitosan and natrium tripolifosfat (NaTPP) to conduct in vitro and in vivo inhibition on the growth of fungi C. gloeosporioides. The method consist of the production of chitinase from B. firmus E65, the production chitinase of low molecular weight chitosan, ionic gelation, in vitro and in vivo nanochitosan bioassay test on the growth of C. gloeosporioides. The research result showed that the activity of  the crude extract of chitinase is 0.05 U/mL and the purity is 0.07 U/mL. The spesific activity value of crude extract is 0.44 U/mg, and the purity is 0.82 U/mg. The purity level of crude extract is increased 0.83 times from 1 to 1.83 times after purification process. Molecular weight of enzimatically hydrolyzed chitosan is  511.850 Kda. In vitro and in vivo bioassay showed the best result on the growth of C. gloeosporioides are 90 and 91% is obtained in the combination 3:1 of the low molecular weight chitosan and NaTTP. This comparison showed that the size of nano chitosan is 228.74 and the polidispesity index is 0.884. Keywords : Chitinase, chitosan, B, firmus E65, antrachnose, C. gloesporioides.
Kajian Keragaman Genetik Isolat Ralstonia solanacearum BIOVAR 3 menggunakan Penanda REP-PCR Suryadi, Yadi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9957

Abstract

Study of DNA fingerprinting of genomic DNA of Australian Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 3 was characterized by a DNA BOX primer that correspond with repetitive sequence using PCR amplification (rep-PCR). Based on rep-PCR DNA profiles different band mobility were observed among Australian biovar 3. Most of isolates have shown common DNA amplification product at 600 bp. Cluster analysis to the DNA profiles showed two different DNA banding patterns that correlated with geographical origins of the isolates. Subgroup A correspond well with isolates from South Queensland/New South Wales, whilst subgroup B correspond with isolates from North Queensland origin.Key words: Ralstonia solanacearum, rep-PCR, marker
EKSPLORASI CENDAWAN ENDOFIT ASAL PADI SAWAH SEBAGAI AGENS PENGENDALI PENYAKIT BLAS PADA PADI SAWAH Sucipto, Irwanto; Munif, Abdul; Suryadi, Yadi; Tondok, Efi Toding
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 11 No 6 (2015)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (395.254 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.11.6.211

Abstract

Blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) in Indonesia is initially known to cause problem on upland rice, but since 2000?s blast disease was also reported occurred on lowland rice. Application of endophytic fungi is very potential to be used as disease control method. This study was conducted to isolates endophytic fungi from lowland rice, and determine its capability to reduce  blast disease severity. Isolation of endophytic fungi was done from root, tiller, and the leaves of lowland rice.  Kencana Bali variety was used for in vivo inhibition test due to its most susceptible response against P. oryzae. Forty seven endophytic fungi isolates were obtained from Bogor, Sukabumi and Blitar. Based on colony morphology, endophytic fungi can be differentiated into 9 morphotype. Four out of fourteen endophytic fungi showed antibiosis activity in in vitro inhibition test against P. oryzae. Inhibition test conducted on Kencana Bali variety in the green house showed that four isolates was able to suppress blast disease development by 30-70%.
WAKTU INKUBASI PADA DERAJAT DISTILASI KITOSAN ENZIM DAN EFEKTIFITAS PENGHAMBATANNYA TERHADAP PENYAKIT ANTRAKNOSA Suryadi, Yadi; Priyatno, Tri Puji; Samudra, I Made; Susilowati, Dwi Ningsih; Nurzulaika, Hermawati; Syaefudin, Syaefudin
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 12 No 6 (2016)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (302.716 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.12.6.209

Abstract

The use of chitosan as a coating agent of harvested fruits is an alternative method in controlling anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum sp.). This study aimed to obtain an optimal enzymatic chitosan (EC) that hydrolyzed using chitinase from Burkholderia cepacia isolate E76. The optimal incubation condition to produce EC was 2 h with the yield of 3.52 ± 0.38 g. The degree of deacetylation (DD) chitosan and  EC was 66.91% and 80.91%, respectively. Based on in vitro assays, EC 2% was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum sp. (94.22%)  than chitosan, while the highest inhibition for chitosan 3% was 55.26%. Moreover, the EC 2% showed the highest inhibition of spore germination (74.12%). The in vivo assay revealed that EC 2% showed the highest inhibition on the fungal growth (88.88%), compared to the other concentrations. On the other hand, the EC 2% and 3% gave similar results on inhibition of Colletotrichum sp.of chili (55.55%). 
Identifikasi Entomopatogen Bakteri Merah pada Wereng Batang Coklat (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.) Priyatno, Tri Puji; Dahliani, Yohana A; Suryadi, Yadi; Samudra, I Made; Susilowati, Dwi Ningsih; Rusmana, Iman; Wibowo, Baskoro S; Irwan, Cahyadi
Jurnal AgroBiogen Vol 7, No 2 (2011): Oktober
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian

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Abstract

Indentification of Entomopathogenic Red Bacterial fromBrown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.). Tri P.Priyatno, Yohana A. Dahliani, Yadi Suryadi, I MadeSamudra, Dwi N. Susilowati, Iman Rusmana, Baskoro S.Wibowo, and Cahyadi Irwan. Red bacteria isolated frombrown planthopper (BPH) has been proven pathogenicagainst BPH and others insects. Application of 106 to 107cells/ml of red bacteria caused 65.6-78.2% mortality of BPH.The 50% effective concentration (EC50) and lethal time of redbacteria against BPH is 2.8 x 105 cells/ml and 6.8 days,respectively. Based on phenotypic characters tested on GNMicroPlateTM Biolog kit and 16S rRNA sequneces analysis,red bacteria was identified as Serratia marcescens with 99%similarity. Red pigmen produced by S. marcescens strainBPH is secondary metabolite determined as prodigiosinshowing bactericidal activities against Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae. We concluded that S. marcescens did not onlypotent as biocontrol agent to BPH, but also it can be used tocontrol plant pathogenic bacteria.
Potensi Pemanfaatan Perangkat Diagnostik ELISA serta Variannya untuk Deteksi Patogen Tanaman Suryadi, Yadi; Manzila, Ifa; Machmud, muhammad
Jurnal AgroBiogen Vol 5, No 1 (2009): April
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian

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Abstract

Diseases aremajor constrains to agricultural crop productions in Indonesia.In the current free world trade system, the chances ofintroduction of plant quarantine agents are higher, and aredifficult to control, due to importation of seeds and otherplanting materials. Principles of the plant disease controlinclude exclusion and eradication. Early and accurate diseasediagnosis is an early and important step for a successfuldisease control. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay(ELISA) is a promising technique for an aneffective andefficient disease diagnosis. Some advantages of techniqueover the conventional and molecular diagnostic techniquesare economical use of reagents, high sensitivity, relativelysimple and quick, suitable for large numbers of samples,and adaptable for automation. In the past decade, severalvariants and kits of ELISA had been introduced, such asIndirect ELISA, F(ab’)2 ELISA, Dot Blot ELISA, and ImmunoFluorescence Assay (ELFA). Based on the solid membraneused, the Dot Blot ELISA some variants were developed,such as the NCM-ELISA, Tissue Blotting ELISA, dan Paper ELISA. The ELISA variants had different limit of detection levels. The limit detection of the variants for bacteria is ranging from 102-105 cells/ml, while those for viruses were from 1-10 ng/ml. The times required for the ELISA tests ranging from 5-48 hours. Models and components of ELISA kits for some viral and bacterial plant pathogens had been developed, but more are still needed since generally for each pathogen needs a different kit. The commercially available ELISA kits are limited in numbers, some of themare for pathogens that are not present in Indonesia. Production of ELISA kits for domestic uses will be more effective and efficent, particularly for pathogens that are present in the country. The ELISA kits are applicable not only fo detection and identification of pathogens, but also forecological study of the pathogens in conjuction with epidemiological study of the disease. This paper is a brief review on the ELISA technique and its variants and potential uses for detection of plant pathogens
AKTIVITAS ANTICENDAWAN BACILLUS CEREUS 11UJ TERHADAP RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI DAN PYRICULARIA ORYZAE Suryadi, Yadi; Samudra, I Made; Priyatno, Tri Puji; Susilowati, Dwi Ningsih; Lestari, Puji; Sutoro, Sutoro
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 11 No 2 (2015)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (433.705 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.11.2.35

Abstract

Microbial secondary metabolites is an important resource for antifungal development in disease control strategy. The objective of this study was to screen Bacillus cereus 11UJ, an antagonistic rhizosphere bacteria for potential secondary metabolite production against rice fungal pathogens, i.e. Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia oryzae. The antagonistic effect of crude exract was evaluated using sterile filter paper discs on PDA medium. The ethyl acetate extracts of the bacterium showed a better antifungal activity to P. oryzae than those of R. solani. The inhibitory effect of the filtrate proved the potency of the isolates to produce antifungal. Analysis of pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that B. cereus 11UJ produces 3 major compounds i.e; 9,19-cyclolanostan-3-ol, acetate, (3.beta.)- (CAS) cycloartanyl acetate (13.14%); 4-(2?,2?-dimethyl-6?-methyliden-1?-cyclohexyliden)-3-methyl-2-butanone (9.72%); and stigmast-5-en-3-ol oleat (9.09%) which suggested to play an important role in the suppression of rice fungal pathogens.  
Peningkatan Ketahanan Tanaman Pisang Kepok Kuning terhadap Penyakit Darah melalui Variasi Somaklonal dan Simbiosis Endofitik Wibowo, Arif; Joko, Tri; Subandiyah, Siti; Mariska, Ika; Supriyati, Yati; Suryadi, Yadi; Roostika, Ika
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 16, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3699.305 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11738

Abstract

One of the obstacles that was encountered in the banana cultivation is blood disease. Blood diseases is caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that is subsequently revised to become blood disease bacteria (BDB). Until now the control of banana blood disease is very difficult. Control of banana blood disease with chemical injections and soil treatment is not effective. This study was aimed to obtain Kepok Kuning cultivar banana seedlings which was resistant towards blood disease obtained from in vitro selection by using BDB growing filtrate and induced resistance by inoculation of antagonistic endophytic bacteria.The observation of Kepok Kuning banana explants treated with various concentrations of BDB growing filtrate showed that the percentage of living explants decreased to 83.33% when the BDB growing filtrate concentration increased to 15%. Treatment of banana explants with BDB growing filtrate also affected the number of roots, shoots, and leaves. Treatment with a single antagonistic endophytic bacteria suppressed the intensity of banana blood disease to 0% in comparison with the mixture of antagonistic endophytic bacteria if Kepok Kuning banana explants were not treated with BDB growing filtrate. When Kepok Kuning banana explants were treated with BDB growing filtrate, the intensity of banana blood disease suppressed to 0% after the high concentration of BDB growing filtrate and the antagonistic endophytic bacteria mixture were applied. Salah satu kendala yang dihadapi dalam usaha budidaya pisang adalah adanya penyakit darah. Penyakit darah disebabkan oleh bakteri Ralstonia solanacearumyang selanjutnya direvisimenjadi bakteri darah pisang (Blood Disease Bacteria orBDB). Sampai saat ini pengendalian penyakit darah pisang sangatsukar dilakukan. Pengendalian penyakit darah dengan suntikan bahan kimia dan perlakuan tanah tidak efektif untuk diaplikasikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmendapatkan bibit pisang kultivar Kepok Kuning yang tahan penyakit darah yang diperoleh dariseleksi in vitro dengan menggunakan filtrat pertumbuhan BDB dan induksi ketahanan melalui inokulasi jasad renik endofitik yang bersifat antagonis. Hasil pengamatan terhadap eksplan pisang Kepok Kuning yang diperlakukan dengan berbagai konsentrasi filtrat BDB menunjukkan bahwa pada eksplan yang diperlakukan dengan filtrat pertumbuhan BDB, persentase tumbuhnya akan berkurang hingga 83,33% jika konsentrasifiltrat pertumbuhanBDBmencapai 15%. Selain itu perlakuan planlet pisang dengan filtrat pertumbuhan BDB akan mempengaruhi jumlah akar, tunas, dan daun. Perlakuan dengan jasad renik endofitik antagonis secara tunggal mampu menekan intensitas penyakit darah hingga 0% jika dibandingkan dengan perlakuan campuran apabila sebelumnya eksplan pisang Kepok Kuning tidak diperlakukan dengan filtrat pertumbuhan BDB. Apabila sebelumnya planlet pisangKepokKuning diperlakukan dengan filtrat pertumbuhan BDB maka mampu menekan intensitas penyakit darah hingga 0% jika konsentrasi filtrat pertumbuhanBDBsemakin tinggi dan diperlakuan campuran jasad renik endofitik.
PATOGENISITAS ISOLAT BAKTERI Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae DAN PEMANTAUAN PENYAKIT HAWAR DAUN BAKTERI PADA PADI GALUR ISOGENIK [Pathogenicity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Isolates and Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease Monitoring on Rice-Near Isogenic Lines (NILs)] Suryadi, Yadi; Kadir, Triny Suryani
BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 16, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/beritabiologi.v16i2.2393

Abstract

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is an important rice disease due to its high intensity that and  the mereased durability of its resistant variety. This study was aimed  to determine the pathogenicity of Xoo isolates, which obtained from four regions/districts in West Java on three rice near isogenic lines (NILs) containing a single resistance (R) gene; and  to study reaction of rice NILs/ differential genotypes containing mixture of resistant genes to Xoo population under endemic areas. Out of 22 Xoo isolates have been collected and further determined by ELISA assay. Ten Xoo isolates were selected and inoculated to identify their pathogenicity on three NILs i.e., IRBB5 (xa5), IRBB7 (Xa7) and IRBB21 (Xa21). Pathogenicity test showed that most of isolates produced large lesion, and four virulence groups were identified. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the dominant virulent isolates were widely distributed at several district in West Java. It was shown that 11 NILs exhibited high levels of resistant reaction to the predominant Xoo pathotypes in Cianjur, while 10 lines were susceptible. The single R gene (IRBB7, IRBB21 and Java14) exhibited lower BLB severity. The IRBB50, IRBB51, IRBB52, IRBB53 lines (carrying two R genes), IRBB56, IRBB57 (carrying three R genes); IRBB64 (carrying four R genes), and IRBB66 (carrying five R genes) showed lower severity and thus produced higher resistance to Xoo. This study may implied further work to deploy effective R genes against certain Xoo pathotypes in differ  region.   
EKSPLORASI DAN KARAKTERISASI ENTOMOPATOGEN ASAL BERBAGAI INANG DAN LOKASI [Exploration and Characterization of Entomopathogenic from Various Host and Location] Priyatno, Tri Puji; Samudra, I Made; Manzila, Ifa; Susilowati, Dwi Ningsih; Suryadi, Yadi
BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 15, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3631.714 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/beritabiologi.v15i1.2859

Abstract

Microbial groups of entomopathogenic (fungi and bacteria) had been reported causing insect mortality. The aim of the study was to explore and characterized entomopathogenic from various host and locations. Fungal identification at genus and species level was caried out based on conidial morphology, hyphal growth, conidiophore and colony color; whilst for bacterial identification was based on standard Bergey’s manual for determinative bacteria. Sixteen entomopathogenic isolates that consisted of fungal and bacteria have been collected and preserved for further characterization. Of the 16 entomopathogen collected samples, five fungal genera was found i.e. Paecilomyces; Metarhizium, Beauveria, Hirsutella; and Cordyceps. Seven isolates belonging to six fungal isolates, and one bacterial isolate had been identified based upon ITS and 16S rDNA sequences, respectively. We confirmed that 6 fungal isolates belong to species of Paecilomyces reniformis, B. bassiana, M. anisopliae, M. anisopliae var acridum, Hirsutella thomsonii. One isolate of red pigmented bacteria Sm201102 have been identified was belonging to species Seratia marcescence. It was also obtained two fungal isolates from different host (spider and beetle) which confirmed by morphological character belong to Cordyceps sp.