Priyono Suryanto
Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281

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SMALL SCALE ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY: FOREST-CULTURE OF PAPUA NUTMEG (MYRISTICA ARGENTEA WARB.) Ungirwalu, Antoni; Awang, San Afri; Maryudi, Ahmad; Suryanto, Priyono
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 13, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (899.913 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jik.52091

Abstract

Identities and entities can be found in the cultural and ecological environment of a community when its members interact with each other. The Papua nutmeg (Myristica argentea Warb.) has been utilized by the Baham-Matta ethnic in the western part of Papua for centuries as part of their traditional ecological knowledge of nontimber forest products (NTFPs). However, this practice has not been scientifically constructed as part of social forestry science. Therefore, this paper seeks to contribute to an empirical understanding of the forest-culture of the local community and its implications for adaptive forest governance in West Papua. This study found that adaptive resource management has been applied to the Papua nutmeg, which is called henggi in Iha language and endemic to the tropical forest of the western part of Papua. The treatment of Papua nutmeg consists of three stages, namely pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest, all of which form a holistic unity which is sustainable until today. The Papuan nutmeg is traditionally managed and locally conserved using a traditional method known as the sasi system.Ekologi dan Masyarakat Skala Lokal : Hutan Budidaya Pala Papua (Myristica argentea Warb.)IntisariIdentitas dan entitas dapat ditemukan pada lingkungan budaya dan ekologi masyarakat saat mereka berinteraksi. Pala papua (Myristica argentea Warb.) telah dimanfaatakan selama berabadabad oleh etnis Baham-Matta di Papua Barat berdasarkan sistem pengetahuan ekologis tradisional sebagai bagian dari hasil hutan bukan kayu (HHBK) unggulan. Namun disayangkan fenomena ini belum dikonstruksi secara ilmiah sebagai bagian dari ilmu perhutanan sosial. Oleh karena itu makalah ini berusaha memberi kontribusi pada pemahaman empiris tentang hutan-budaya dari praktik masyarakat lokal dan implikasinya terhadap tata kelola hutan adaptif di Papua Barat. Hasil kajian ini menemukan bahwa pengelolaan sumber daya adaptif pala papua yang disebut Henggi dalam bahasa Iha adalah tumbuhan endemik yang berasal dari hutan alam tropis di Papua Barat. Pemanfaatan pala papua terdiri dari tiga tahapan yaitu pra panen, panen dan pasca panen. Pengelolaaannya masih sangat sederhana dan bersifat tradisional dengan salah satu keunggulannya adalah konservasi tradisional menggunakan sistem ?Sasi?. 
MODEL BERA DALAM SISTEM AGROFORESTRI (FALLOW LAND MODEL IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS) Suryanto, Priyono; Aryono, WB.; Sabarnurdin, M. Sambas
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 12 No. 2 (2006)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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Abstract

The development of tree-based agroforestry model gives consequences to the space utilization dominated by trees. Farmers take action on this condition by conniving the fallow land. This research was aimed to know the fallow land model, find the key parameters of fallow land model, and formulating the management of fallow land. The spatial model of agroforestry used in this research were trees along border, alley cropping, alternate rows and mixer. The actual data obtained were tree height, tree diameter, crown diameter, land width, and light intensity; the calculated data were land extent, the percentage of crown cover and crown density. The analysis used to determining the percentage of crown cover to calculate the affective arable land area was zone system. Zonation system maked for four zone : 1) zone 1 interval 0-1 m ; 2) zone 2 interval 1-2 m; zone 3 interval 2-3 m; zone 4 interval 3-4m.Key words: agroforestry, fallow land, silviculture, land cover, resource sharing, crown dynamic
Effect of The Substitution of Compound Fertilizer With Single Fertilizer and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on The Growth and Yield of Soybean Among Eucalyptus Sinaga, Apresus; Indradewa, Didik; Suryanto, Priyono
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Vol 1, No 2 (2016): August
Publisher : Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada jointly with PISPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1192.127 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ipas.11341

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The efforts to improve the productivity of soybean can be done through technological innovation by the provision of chemical fertilizers and mycorrhizae. This study were aimed to obtain information on the effect of a single fertilizer, which can provide the same or higher level of soybean crops if compared with those compound fertilizers, as well as to find out the effect of mycorrhizae to the improvement of efficiency in the use of inorganic fertilizers. It is expected that the mycorrhizae inoculation can reduce single fertilizer’s dose to the level equivalent to the compound fertilizer given by farmers. The study was conducted in Bleberan Village, Playen Subdistrict, Gunung Kidul Regency, Yogyakarta from February to May 2015. It was conducted by using a two-factors factorial design arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was inorganic fertilizer (N, P2O5 and K2O), consisting of 5 levels, i.e. without fertilizer (0-0-0 kg/ ha), Phonska fertilizer (45-45-45 kg/ha), single fertilizer (45 -45-45 kg/ha), a low single fertilizer (23-36-30 kg/ha) and high single fertilizer (23-108-90 kg/ha). The second factor was mycorrhizal inoculation, consisting of three levels, i.e. without mycorrhizae (0 g), medium dose (2.5 g) and high dose (5 g). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 5%. If there was a significant difference, analysis was followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test with a significance level of 5%. The relationship between variables observed was examined by a correlation analysis. The results showed that there was no interaction between inorganic fertilizer and mycorrhizal application. The dose of single fertilizer which was equivalent to the dose of compound fertilizer given to soybean could increase crops by 1.37 t/ha compared with plants treated with a compound fertilizer 1.13 t/ha. The results of correlation analysis among parameters showed that there were correlations between the grain crops and height (r = 0.506**), stem diameter (r = 0.303*), and the number of pods per plant (r = 0.313*).
DINAMIKA SUKSESI VEGETASI PADA AREAL PASCA PERLADANGAN BERPINDAH DI KALIMANTAN TENGAH Maulana, Ardiatma; Suryanto, Priyono; Widiyatno, Widiyatno; Faridah, Eny; Suwignyo, Bambang
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 13, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (547.926 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jik.52433

Abstract

Indonesia memiliki luasan hutan hujan tropis terluas nomor tiga setelah Brazil dan Afrika. Namun, tingkat degradasi hutan yang tinggi di Indonesia menyebabkan negara ini menjadi salah satu penyumbang emisi gas rumah kaca terbesar di dunia. Salah satu penyebab turunnya luasan hutan tropis di Indonesia adalah praktek perladangan berpindah. Suksesi vegetasi pasca perladangan berpindah dapat memberikan layanan ekologis berupa peningkatan tutupan vegetasi dan perbaikan sifat tanah yang jarang sekali terekspose pada tingkat lanjut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dinamika suksesi vegetasi padalahan pasca perladangan berpindah tingkat lanjut. Penelitian dinamika suksesi vegetasi dilakukan dengan pengambilan sampel tanaman bawah, semai sapihan dan pohon di lahan pasca perladangan dengan tiga umur yang berbeda, yaitu bera muda (1 ? 10 tahun), bera sedang (11 ? 20 tahun), bera tua (> 20 tahun), dan hutan alam dengan menggunakan metode petak bersarang dengan plot yang ditempatkan secara sistematik. Analisis vegetasi dengan menggunakan Indeks Nilai Penting, Kelimpahan Jenis, Keragaman, dan Kemerataan. Analisis varian dengan uji lanjut DMRT digunakan jika hasil dari tiap index vegetasi berbeda signifikan antar umur perladangan. Adanya pola peningkatan serta perbedaan yang nyata (P < 0,05) antara kelimpahan dan keragaman jenis vegetasi penyusun lahan bera sedang dengan lahan bera tua pada tingkatan pohon kecuali vegetasi penyusun tanaman bawah. Nilai keragaman dan kelimpahan jenis tingkat pohon lahan bera tua tidak berbeda nyata dengan hutan alam namun memiliki komposisi yang berbeda.The Dynamics of Succession of Vegetation in the Post-Shifting Cultivation Area in Central KalimantanAbstractIndonesia?s forests is the third largest tropical forest after Brazil and Africa. However, the high rate of forest degradation in Indonesia led this country become one of the most largest contributor of greenhouse gas emissions in the world. One of the causes of the degradation of tropical forest in Indonesia is the shifting cultivation practice. The succession of vegetation after shifting cultivation practice can provide ecological services such as increasing vegetation cover and improving soil properties but takes too long to recover. This study aims to understand the dynamics of vegetation succession in the post-shifting cultivation advanced stage. This study was conducted using systematical nested sampling method to take sample of shurb and herbs, and trees, including, seedling and, sapling growth stage form three different stage of post-shifting cultivation land areas, ie young fallow (1 - 10 years), intermediate fallow (11 - 20 years), old fallow (> 20 years), and natural forest. The vegetation data were then analyzed using Important Value, Species Richness, Diversity and Evenness Indices. Analysis of variance with post-hoc test of DMRT assays was used if the results each vegetation indices differed significantly between stage of post-shifting cultivation land. The Species Richness and Diversity Index of shurb and herb, seedling, sapling, and tree have significantly increased (P < 0,05) except the herb and shrub communities. The Species richness and Diversity Index of tree stage of old fallow were not significantly different from natural forest but it was composed with different species.
EKOFISIOLOGI DAN PELUANG PENGEMBANGAN DURIAN (DURIO ZIBETHINUS) DENGAN SISTEM AGROFORESTRI DI LERENG SELATAN GUNUNG MERAPI, INDONESIA Wibowo, Febri Arif Cahyo; Suryanto, Priyono; Faridah, Eny
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 13, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (740.645 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jik.52441

Abstract

Durian (Durio zibethinus) merupakan salah satu tanaman yang banyak dikembangkan sebagai tanaman dalam sistem agroforestri di Kecamatan Cangkringan dan Kemalang di lereng selatan Gunung Merapi. Namun demikian, walaupun areal pertanamannya terus meningkat, produktivitas Durian tidak cukup optimal. Hal ini disinyalir karena kurangnya tindakan silvikultur yang tepat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh sifat fisiologi dan faktor lingkungan terhadap durian pada sistem agroforestri yang ada di pekarangan dan tegalan milik petani, serta mengamati kondisi perakarannya di kedua lokasi tersebut. Identifikasi ekofisiologi durian dilakukan dengan pengambilan sampel daun untuk mengukur sifat fisiologis (aktivitas nitrat reduktase, kandungan air nisbi daun, stomata, prolin dan klorofil), serta pengamatan langsung di lapangan untuk mengukur faktor lingkungan (suhu, kecepatan angin, sekapan cahaya dan kelembaban). Analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis varian dengan uji lanjut DMRT dan analisis statistik bertatar. Pengamatan kondisi perakaran durian dilakukan dengan metode resistivitas geolistrik. Hasil penelitian dari gatra ekofisiologi menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaan nyata pada hasil produksi buah durian dengan umur relatif sama di kedua lokasi, dimana hasil analisis statistik bertatar menunjukkan bahwa produksi durian dipengaruhi oleh kecepatan angin. Angin dengan kecepatan tinggi akan berpengaruh terhadap gugurnya buah muda. Perbedaan hasil durian juga diduga dipengaruhi oleh curah hujan yang menyebabkan proses metabolisme pada buah menjadi tidak sempurna. Hujan juga menyebabkan banyaknya buah Durian busuk sebelum dipanen. Selanjutnya diketahui bahwa kondisi tanah di kedua wilayah relatif sama, dengan kondisi rizhosfer perakaran Durian yang didominasi oleh kerikil, pasir dan air.Ecophysiology and Development Opportunities of Durian (Durio zibethinus) Through Agroforestry Systems in the Southern Slopes of Mount Merapi, IndonesiaAbstractDurian (Durio zibethinus) is widely cultivated through agroforestry system in the Cangkringan and Kemalang sub district, in the southern slope of Merapi Mountain, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Although the area to crop Durian has increased since 1990?s, the productions were not optimal, which probably is due to lack of silviculture treatments. This research aimed to assess the influence of physiological and environmental factors on Durian planted through agroforestry system of homegarden and dryland, and to analyze the condition of durian root systems under those two locations. Ecophysiological studies of Durian were carried out by leaf sampling for physiological properties (i.e.nitrate reductase activity, relative water content, stomata, proline and chlorophyll content) and field observations on environmental factors (i.e. mean air temperature, wind speed, light and moisture). Variance analysis was conducted with advanced DMRT and stepwise statistical analysis. Observation on durian rooting system was conducted by geoelectric resistivity method. The results showed that the soil conditions of the two locations were relatively similar and the root rhizosphere of durian mostly consisted of small stones, sand, and water. It was found that the Durian fruit yield between agroforestry system of homegarden and dryland were different, and based on the stepwise statistical analysis, the Durian production was mostly influenced by wind speed. It was observed that the presence of wind has caused the abscission of young fruits, where faster wind resulted in more abscission of young fruits. Another factor affecting the Durian production was rainfall. It was observed that rainfall has interfered the metabolism processes of the fruits causing fruits being rotten before harvest time.
DINAMIKA AGROFORESTRY TEGALAN DI PERBUKITAN MENOREH, KULON PROGO, DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA Hani, Aditya; Suryanto, Priyono
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea Vol 3, No 2 (2014): Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Makassar

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (371.885 KB) | DOI: 10.18330/jwallacea.2014.vol3iss2pp119-128

Abstract

Land management in agroforestry systems requires species selection and proper silviculture. Selection of species and silvicultural treatments aimed at maintaining competition in obtaining a light, water and nutrients. Farmers choose the species based on the economical factor. This study aims to determine the composition of plant species in dry land agroforestry in Menoreh Hill, Kulon Progo District. Research done by survey method. Plot observation was divided into three level of light intensity: : a) early agroforestry (light intensity >50%), b) middle agroforestry, (light intensity 30-50%), c) further agroforestry (light intensity <30%). Four planting plots were made as repetition, so that there were 12 plots observation. Observations and measurements of vegetation are done with census (100%). The Result show five important value index in early Agroforestry,: sengon (77.84), coconut (50.04), and cacao (25.47), tree density was 482 trees/hectare and basal area 5.48 m2/ha, in middle agroforestry were: sengon (88.15), mahogany (49.51), and clove (45.03), with tree density was 595 trees/ha, and basal area was 6.70 m2/ha, further agroforestry were: clove (72.37%), sengon (50.61), and coconut (37.02), tree density was 650 trees/ha, basal area was 6.78 m2/ha.Keywords: Composition of plant species, dry land agroforestry, Menoreh Hill
TRADITIONAL SILVICULTURE AND ITS OPPORTUNITY IN PRIVATELY OWNED FOREST MENOREH MOUNTAIN-KULONPROGO Suryanto, Priyono
Jurnal Kawistara Vol 4, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Sekolah Pascasarjana UGM

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Abstract

Agroforestry systems (AFS) are emerged to adapt with farmers needs, balancing economic andecological conditions. In recent years, however, there has been shifting from ecology to economy, wheretraditional silviculture emphasizes toward more monoculture with high inputs. This condition willresult in decreasing ecological function of AFS as one of the epitomes of sustainable. This research aimsto know the role of traditional silviculture techniques practiced by farmers and to develop knowledgein AFS management as the basis to compose more productive and sustainable management. Thestudy was conducted in Menoreh mountains, Yogyakarta. There zones based on altitude differenceswere distinguished, namely lowlands (&lt;300 meter above sea level, masl), medium (300-600 masl) andhigh (&gt; 600 masl). Data collecting was done by conducting deep interviews from 46 respondents, whowere chosen randomly in each zone. The data included local knowledge practices, space dynamic andmanagement, traditional silviculture, and orientation of AFS management. The analysis itself was donedescriptively which was integrated through diagnosis approach and design in agroforestry systems.There are there models of AFS management based on there strata of space utilization both in homegardenand dry field, namely initial, intermediate and advanced agroforestry. In the lowland zone is initialagroforestry practicw, characterized by food production orientation. In the middle and upper zone areintermediate and advanced Based on this findings, aproductive and sustainable adaptive silviculture(AS) scheme for AFS management (AS AFS) is required, AS AFS_1 is oriented to keep agroforetybeing able to continualy produce food and its derivatis throughout the management. Intensive spacearrangements and resources sharing silvicuculture measures are important instruments in this model.The second model, AS AFS_2 is for productive intermediate and advanced agroforestry with multilayerproductions. It is suggested in this model to do intensive enrichment planting using tolerant species andcompatible management approach of inter unit lands owned by farmers.
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF UPLAND RICE VARIETIES TO FURROW WITH ORGANIC MATTER ON AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM WITH KAYU PUTIH (MELALEUCA LEUCADENDRA L.) Tarigan, Puji Lestari; Tohari, Tohari; Suryanto, Priyono
Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture Vol 34, No 2 (2019): October
Publisher : Universitas Sebelas Maret

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (169.644 KB) | DOI: 10.20961/carakatani.v34i2.29786

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Drought is one of the major limitations in dry land cultivation. Drought affects plant physiology processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, mineral and water transportation, and transpiraton, briefly called drought stress. Drought stress can be avoided by managing environment. Furrow containing organic matter for rain fed rice has been the subject of many studies, with special emphasis on soil moisture. This research is aimed to know the effects of the furrow containing organic matter on physiological responses of several upland rice varieties on agroforestry system based on kayu putih (cajuput). The experimental design applied the strip plot design. The vertical factor is the furrow system of treatment consisting of 2 levels i.e. without furrow + without organic matter and furrow + organic matters. The horizontal factors are the upland rice varieties consisting of 3 varieties i.e. Situ Patenggang, Situ Bagendit and Ciherang. The collected data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) applying a level of significance ? = 5%. Whenever significant differences among treatments were found, further analysis was carried out by applying the Tukey's HSD (Honestly Significant Difference) test ? = 5% levels. The result shows that drought affects plant physiology and can be avoided by using furrow containing organic matters. Situ Patenggang with furrow containing organic matters has the higher physiology capability, it had photosynthesis 387.18 µmol CO2 per clump s-1, transpiration 3038.50 mg per clump per secondand CO2 721.11 mol CO2 clump per mol. There different plant requirements for Cu between varieties.
KARAKTERISTIK PETANI DAN KONTRIBUSI HUTAN KEMASYARAKATAN (HKM) TERHADAP PENDAPATAN PETANI DI KULON PROGO Dewi, Indah Novita; Awang, San Afri; Andayani, Wahyu; Suryanto, Priyono
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 12, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (383.908 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jik.34123

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Salah satu program yang dikeluarkan Kementerian Kehutanan terkait pemberdayaan masyarakat adalah program Hutan Kemasyarakatan (HKm), yang salah satunya berlokasi di Kabupaten Kulon Progo. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik sosial ekonomi petani HKm Kulon Progo dan kontribusi HKm terhadap pendapatan petani. Penelitian dilakukan mulai November 2013 sampai dengan Februari 2014. Data dikumpulkan melalui survei dan wawancara kepada anggota kelompok tani dan dianalisis secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan petani HKm rata-rata berusia 53 tahun, pendidikan petani rendah karena 53% lulusan SD. Rata-rata jumlah tanggungan keluarga 4 orang. Rata-rata luas lahan andil 2.128 m2 dan rata-rata luas lahan milik 2.947 m2 sehingga termasuk petani gurem. Tujuh puluh persen petani HKm hutan produksi dan 47,3% petani HKm hutan lindung masuk ke dalam kategori miskin sekali dan miskin. Kontribusi HKm pada pendapatan petani adalah 6,4% pada hutan produksi dan 4,8% pada hutan lindung. Kecilnya kontribusi dari HKm berimplikasi pada upaya peningkatan pendapatan petani melalui pengembangan potensi tanaman empon-empon dan umbi-umbian serta potensi wisata. Characteristic of Farmer and Contribution of Community Forestry to Farmer?s Income in Kulon ProgoAbstractOne of the project that is held by Ministry of Forestry is Community Forestry (CF), which one is located in Kulon Progo. This research aim was to obtain the social-economic characteristic of CF farmers in Kulon Progo and to know the contribution of CF to their total earning. The data collection had been held from November 2013 until February 2014 and was collected by survey and interview to some members of CF groups. The data was analyzed by descriptive qualitative method. The results showed that the average of  farmer?s age was 53; farmer?s education was in a low level as 53% were graduated from elementary school. The average of family member were 4 persons. The average of CF land was 2.128 m2 and the average of farmers?s own land was 2.947 m2. That was meant that the farmer was near to be categorized as poor farmer. Seventy percent of farmers from production forest and 47.3% farmers from protected forest were categorized as very poor and poor. CF contribution towards farmer?s income was 6.4% in production forest and 4.8% in protected forest. The low contribution of CF implicated to improve farmer?s income through developing non-timber forest product asherbs and edible root and also potential for eco-tourism.
HUTAN DALAM KEHIDUPAN MASYARAKAT HATAM DI LINGKUNGAN CAGAR ALAM PEGUNUNGAN ARFAK Salosa, Susan Trida; Awang, San Afri; Suryanto, Priyono; Purwanto, Ris Hadi
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 21, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Pegunungan Arfak adalah suatu wilayah dengan keunikan tersendiri di wilayah Propinsi Papua Barat. Wilayah ini didominasi oleh gunung-gunung yang tinggi dan ekosistemnya adalah ekosistem daerah pegunungan dan alpin, serta mengingat keunikan flora, fauna dan lingkungannya, maka wilayah ini ditetapkan sebagai Cagar Alam Pegunungan Arfak. Wilayah Pegunungan Arfak ditempati oleh suku besar Arfak yang salah satu sub sukunya adalah sub suku Hatam. Hutan merupakan bagian dari kehidupan masyarakat Hatam. Terbentuknya kabupaten-kabupaten pemekaran secara tidak langsung akan berakibat terhadap kelestarian jenis yang ada di cagar alam. Analisis SWOT yang digunakan dalam studi ini dimaksudkan untuk merumuskan strategi-strategi yang memungkinkan untuk mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat dan menjaga kelestarian cagar alam. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kampung Anggra dan Apui di Distrik Minyambouw pada bulan Juni 2013. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa hutan sangat berperan dalam kehidupan masyarakat terutama dalam mengaplikasi nilai budaya dalam kehidupan masyarakat. Strategi yang tepat untuk menjaga kelestarian hutan dan mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat diharapkan agar didasarkan pada kearifan masyarakat dalam memanfaatkan hutan.