Articles

Pengaruh Kandungan Protein Pakan terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Efisiensi Pakan Benih Ikan Kakap Merah (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Suwirya, Ketut; Pithasari, Ayu Indriani; Marzuqi, Muhammad
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 9, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.64

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The experiment was aimed to know dietary protein requirement and the effect of dietary protein levels on juvenile red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). The experiment was conducted in 18 polycarbonate tanks, with each 30 liter volume. All tanks were equipped with aeration and flow through water system to maintain good water quality. Hatchery produced juvenile red snapper of 9.4 ± 0.1 g average body weight and total length of 7.7 ± 0.4 cm was randomly selected and 10 fish was stocked in each tank. Fish were fed with experimental diets contained different levels of protein, i.e., 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, and 52%.The experiment used completely random design (CRD) in triplicates. Results showed that dietary protein levels influenced growth, feed efficiency, feed intake, body protein content, and protein retention of juvenile red snapper (p<0.05). The highest weight gain (263.7%) was found on fish fed diet with 40% protein. Based on the growth and feed efficiency data, it was concluded that dietary protein requirement for juvenile red snapper was 40%.
PENGARUH TEPUNG AMPAS KECAP SEBAGAI SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG IKAN DALAM PAKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN NILAI KECERNAAN JUVENIL IKAN KERAPU MACAN (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) Marzuqi, Muhammad; Giri, Nyoman A.; Agustina, Eva; Suwirya, Ketut
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 10, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.8892

Abstract

The aim of the study was to know the effect of soy sauce waste as substitution of fish meal in diet on the growth and dietary nutrient digestibility of juvenile tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). The experiment used completely random design (CRD) with six treatments and three triplicates. The initial body weight of juvenile tiger grouper was 4.03 g and total length of 5-7 cm reared in 18 polycarbonate tanks with each 30 liter volume. Each of tanks was equipped with aeration and flow through water system. Six formulated diet with dry pellet form containing different level of soy sauce waste as substitution of fish meal, i.e., 0%, 7%, 14%, 21%, 28% and 28% added 0.15% methionine amino acid were teste. The result showed that the utilization of soy sauce waste as substitution fish meal influenced absolute growth, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein retention (P<0.05), but not significantly different (P>0.05) on survival rate of juvenile tiger grouper. Dietary nutrient digestibility (protein) obtained 98.05- 99.69%. Dietary nutrient digestibility decreased with utilization of soy sauce waste in diet. These experiments concluded that the utilization of soy sauce waste as substitution of fish meal could be used until optimal limit 21%, while the substitution of 28% can’t used for diet formulation for tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus).
KEBUTUHAN ASAM LEMAK -3 HUFA DALAM PAKAN UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN JUVENIL KERAPU BEBEK (Cromileptes altivelis) Marzuqi, Muhammad; Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Suwirya, Ketut
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 7, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.9066

Abstract

ω-3 HUFA are essential fatty acids for marine fish. Deficiency of these essential fatty acids is responsible for high mortality, low growth rate, incomplete formation and disfunction of swim bladder. This experiment was conducted to know dietary ω-3 HUFA requirement for growth of humpback  grouper juveniles.  Juveniles (9.8-10.3  g) were reared in 100 l of polycarbonate  tank with density of 12 juveniles/tank for 8 weeks with flow through system. The levels of ω-3 HUFA (EPA +DHA) supplementation in the test diet  were 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0  and 3.0%. The results showed that the levels of ω-3 HUFA affected the growth and feed efficiency of humpback grouper juveniles (P<0.05). The growth of juveniles fed diet with 0.0-3.0% ω-3 HUFA were  significantly different with the growth of juveniles fed diet with 0.0 and 0.5% ω-3 HUFA. The growth of juveniles fed diet with supplementation levels of ω-3 HUFA at 1.0,  1.5,  2.0,  and 3.0% were 182.2, 168.5, 183.4, and 189.4%, respectively. Whereas supplementation of  ω-3 HUFA at 0.0 and 0.5% resulted the growth of  114.9 and 139.6%, respectively. These results indicated that the requirement of ω-3 HUFA for growth of humpback grouper should be around 1.0% in diet.ω
PENGARUH PROPORSI MINYAK CUMI DAN MINYAK KEDELAI SEBAGAI SUMBER LEMAK DALAM PAKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN JUVENIL KEPITING BAKAU (Scylla paramamosain) Marzuqi, Muhammad; Rusdi, Ibnu; Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Suwirya, Ketut
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 8, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.170

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to know lipid sources requirement for growth of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) juvenile. The experiment used ninety of juveniles reared in 30 l of seawater with flow-throught water system and aeration. Initial average body weight and carapace width of juveniles were 0.21 g and 1.05-1.07 cm, respectively. Juveniles were stocked individually using a supernet material in each tank. Five isoprotein and isoenergy formulated diet with dry pellet form containing different proportion of squid oil and soybean oil as lipid sources i.e. 12%:0%, 9%:3%, 6%:6%, 3%:9% and 0%:12%. Feed were given twice a day in the morning and afternoon. The results showed that proportion of dietary squid oil and soybean oil as lipid sources had significant effects on final body weight, weight gain, carapace width, feed efficiency and essential fatty acid of mud crab (P
THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND LIPID ON THE GROWTH OF RED SNAPPER, Lutjanus sebae Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Suwirya, Ketut; Marzuqi, Muhammad; Astuti, Ni Wayan Widya
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2009): (June 2009)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (873.112 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.4.1.2009.33-40

Abstract

Red snapper, Lutjanus sebae is favored in mariculture activities because it has a relatively good market and price. Technology for big scale seed production of this species has been developed and is now adequate to supply seed for grow-out activities. However, the availability of artifical diets for L. sebae is still a major constraint for grow-out production. Data on optimum dietary protein and lipid requirements for this fish as a basic information in feed development is not available yet. The objective of the present study was to find out dietary protein and lipid requirements for juvenile of L. sebae. A 70-day feeding experiment was conducted in 24 fiberglass tanks, 200 L volume. Each tank was equipped with a flow-through water system. Twenty five hatchery-produced juveniles of L. sebae (43.1 g BW) were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. The fish were fed with the experimental diets twice everyday at a level of 3% of biomass for the first 4 weeks, and then 2% of biomass afterward. Twelve experimental diets were prepared in form of dry pellet containing casein and fish meal as the main protein sources. Experimental diet had 4 levels of crude protein (32%, 37%, 42%, and 47%) and each protein level consisted of 3 levels of lipid (7%, 12%, and 17%). The experiment employed factorial method with completely random design using 12 combination treatments and 2 replications for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that there was no significant effect of dietary protein and lipid on growth, feed consumption, and feed efficiency of tested fish. Growth and feed efficiency of fish fed on diet containing 42% and 47% crude protein were significantly higher than that of fish fed on diet containing 32% and 37% crude protein. High lipid content in the diet (17%) resulted in poor growth and poor feed efficiency. This data indicates that Lutjanus sebae has limited ability to utilize dietary lipid as an energy source. Result of the present study recommends that dietary protein and lipid requirement for good growth of L. sebae should be 42% and 12%, respectively.
APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF SELECTED FEED INGREDIENTS IN DIETS FOR MUD CRAB (Scylla paramamosain) Suwirya, Ketut; Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Marzuqi, Muhammad; Sagala, Sophia Lasma
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2007): (June 2007)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (38.697 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.2.1.2007.1-5

Abstract

Cultured mud crabs (Scylla spp.) are commonly fed with ‘trash’ fish. Insufficient supply, high cost and variable quality of ‘trash’ fish has lead to a need to develop costeffective and environmentally friendly formulated diets. This study was conducted to determine quality of selected feed ingredients as protein sources in mud crab diets based on their nutrient composition and digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD), crude protein, lipid and energy. The digestibility coefficients for ADMD ranged from 82.46% to 89.20%. Animal-based feedstuffs such as shrimp head, tiny shrimp and squid liver meal had higher ADMD values than fish meal. Of the plant-based feedstuffs, soy bean meal had the highest ADMD values (89.20%) and corn gluten had the lowest (82.46%). Corn gluten had the lowest protein digestibility (78.81%) and soy bean meal had the highest (96.05%). The lowest energy digestibility (71.13%) was obtained in corn gluten meal. Soy bean meal had a higher energy digestibility value (98.48%) than fish meal (85.95%). All animal meal sources had similar energy digestibility values (85.86%—92.09%).
TEKNOLOGI PEMELIHARAAN LARVA KERAPU SUNU (Plectropomus leopardus) SECARA MASSAL Aslianti, Titiek; Suwirya, Ketut; Asmanik, Asmanik
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 3, No 1 (2008): (April 2008)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2340.434 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.3.1.2008.1-11

Abstract

Teknologi produksi benih kerapu sunu (Plectropomus leopardus) melalui perbaikan pengelolaan pakan dan lingkungan terus dipacu guna meningkatkan sintasan dan diharapkan dapat menghasilkan benih secara kontinyu. Dalam pemeliharaan larva, jenis pakan awal yang sesuai merupakan faktor penentu keberhasilan. Pakan alami jenis rotifer, gonad tiram (trochophore), emulsi kuning telur, dan juga pakan buatan yang dilarutkan telah dicoba dalam penelitian ini sebagai pakan awal. Penelitian menggunakan wadah bak beton berkapasitas 6 m3 (12 bak) yang diisi telur kerapu sunu dengan kepadatan 100.000—150.000 butir/bak. Penebaran telur dilakukan secara bertahap pada masing-masing bak sesuai dengan jumlah telur yang tersedia. Nauplii artemia, pakan buatan, dan udang jembret (mysid) diberikan sesuai dengan perkembangan larva dimulai pada umur 20 hari (D20) hingga mencapai fase yuwana/ benih (D45). Pengamatan terhadap laju tumbuh dan sintasan larva dilakukan setelah penelitian berakhir. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif, sedangkan analisis proksimat, asam lemak pakan, dan abnormalitas tulang belakang larva (deformity) serta kualitas air diamati sebagai data pendukung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan pakan buatan yang dilarutkan dan emulsi kuning telur sebagai pakan awal, ternyata mampu memacu pertumbuhan dan meningkatkan sintasan larva. Kisaran panjang total, bobot tubuh, dan sintasan benih yang dicapai berturut-turut adalah 1,95 cm—2,85 cm; 0,64—0,73 g; dan 0,25%—3,97% dengan kisaran laju tumbuh harian sebesar 3,9%—4,22%. Hasil pengamatan terhadap tulang belakang larva tidak ditemukan abnormalitas dengan kisaran jumlah ruas 21—23 ruas dan jarak antar ruas 0,030—0,036 mm.Seed production technology of leopard coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus by improving hatchery management had been conducted in order to increase survival rate and to produce seed continuity. The initial feeding can successfully support in larval rearing. Feed organism as rotifer, trochophore gonad, egg yolk emulsion, and artificial feed emulsion, had been used as an initial feed. The twelve of concrete tanks with 6 m3 capacity were stocked with coral trout eggs at density 100,000—150,000 eggs/tank. Artemia nauplii, artificial feed, and mysid as feed, start on larvae D20 up to juvenile stage (D45). Growth rate and survival rate were observed and calculated when the experiment was terminated. The data was analyzed by descriptive. Nutrition value of food was analyzed by proximate and fatty acid composition. The others parameters such as deformity and water quality were observed. The result showed that artificial feed emulsion and egg yolk emulsion as an initial feeding can be improve the growth rate and increase survival rate of larvae. The range of total length, body weight and survival rate of the seed i.e. 1.95—2.85 cm; 0.64—0.73 g, and 0.25%— 3.97% with the daily growth rate 3,9%—4,22%, respectively. No back bone deformity in the seed, that is 21—23 segments with interspaces of segments 0.030—0.036 mm.
Dietary Methionine Requirement for Growth of Juvenile Humpback Grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Suwirya, Ketut; Marzuqi, Muhammad
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 1, No 2 (2006): (December 2006)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (532.203 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.1.2.2006.79-86

Abstract

An experiment to find out amino acid methionine requirement for growth of juvenile humpback grouper has been conducted in 18 polycarbonate 100 L tanks. Each tank was equipped with flow-through water system. Twelve juveniles of humpback grouper (5.6 ± 0.7 g each) were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. Juveniles humpback grouper for the experiment were purchased from back yard hatchery in Gondol. Fish fed test diets twice everyday at satiation level for 49 days. Test diets were prepared as dry pellet with casein and fish meal as the intact protein sources, supplemented with the mixture of crystalline L-amino acids to correspond to the amino acid pattern found in the whole body protein of the juvenile humpback grouper, except methionine. Basal diet (diet-1) containing 0.86% methionine was supplied from casein and fish meal. Graded level (0.3%) of L-methionine was added to the basal diet to get the final methionine level in each test diet of 0.86%, 1.16%, 1.46%, 1.76%, 2.06%, and 2.36 %. The experiment was designed according to completely random design (CRD) with 6 treatments (methionine levels) and three replicates for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that dietary methionine content influenced final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, protein retention, and body protein content of juvenile humpback grouper. Optimum dietary methionine for juvenile humpback grouper was calculated using broken line regression analysis.  Optimum dietary methionine requirement for growth of juvenile humpback grouper was 1.18% (2.41% of dietary protein) and 1.16% (2.37% of dietary protein) based on weight gain data and feed efficiency, respectively.
PATTERN OF LIPID AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID CHANGES IN EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF TIGER GROUPER, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus LARVAE Marzuqi, Muhammad; Suwirya, Ketut; Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 1, No 2 (2006): (December 2006)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (353.364 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.1.2.2006.129-134

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Development of early stage of larvae depends on body energy content. One of energy source in early larval stage is lipid. Lipid in eggs and early larval development stage of tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is used for energy and to maintain permeability of membrane cells. Therefore, lipid class for energy decreases and lipid class for maintaining membrane increases. Lipid quality in larvae depends on the content of essential fatty acid. Lipid from larval stage of neurula; 0, 1, 3, 4, 7, 12, 15, 17, and 20 days after hatching were observed on non polar, polar lipid, and essential fatty acid. The result of experiment showed that proportion of non polar lipid from neurula phase to three days larvae (D3) decreased from 81.9% to 36.5% and polar lipid increased from 18.1% to 63.5%. This result showed, that non polar lipid is used for energy and polar lipid for maintaining membrane of cell body. Essential fatty acid, such as EPA and DHA also decreased in non polar and polar lipid. Decreasing essential fatty acids was higher in non polar lipid than these in polar lipid.
PENGGUNAAN PENANDA GENETIK TUMBUH CEPAT UNTUK PRODUKSI CALON INDUK KERAPU SUNU, Plectropomus leopardus DALAM PROGRAM SELEKSI Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Haryanti, Haryanti; Suwirya, Ketut; Wardana, Ida Komang; Sutarmat, Tatam; Yudha, Hirmawan Tirta
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 7, No 1 (2012): (April 2012)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1866.459 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.7.1.2012.1-9

Abstract

Penurunan kualitas benih kerapu seringkali diindikasikan dengan pertumbuhan yang lambat, rentan terhadap infeksi penyakit, dan perubahan lingkungan serta terjadinya abnormalitas. Upaya perbaikan sifat genetik benih kerapu akan memberikan dampak signifikan dalam keberhasilan budidaya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh penanda gen tumbuh cepat pada benih/calon induk kerapu sunu sehingga dapat meningkatkan efisiensi dan efektivitas pemuliaan. Untuk mendapatkan penciri gen tumbuh cepat digunakan metode analisis mikrosatelit (SSR/Simple Sequence Repeats) dengan mengaplikasikan enam set primer (forward dan reverse). Calon induk yang digunakan untuk analisis masing-masing berjumlah 4 ekor ukuran kecil dan 10 ekor ukuran besar. Validasi dan akurasi lokus yang dihasilkan dianalisis lebih lanjut dengan sequencing. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa penanda gen tumbuh cepat dapat terlihat dari lokus PL-03 dengan alel/fragmen DNA pada berat molekul 370 bp. Tingkat keakuratan penanda gen tersebut pada kelompok ukuran besar mencapai 80%, sedangkan pada kelompok ukuran kecil hanya 30%. Hal ini juga didukung dengan keakuratan prediksi dari hasil sequencing memberikan nilai kemiripan sebesar 99%. Dengan demikian lokus PL-03 dapat digunakan sebagai penanda gen tumbuh cepat pada ikan kerapu sunu dalam mempercepat seleksi calon induk.