Articles

DISTRIBUSI SEL PORI PADA KAYU TARIK DAN KORELASINYA DENGAN KOMPOSISI LIGNIN Nawawi, Deded Sarip; Rahayu, Istie Sekartining; Wistara, Nyoman Jaya; Sari, Rita Kartika; Syafii, Wasrin
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 13, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (349.755 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jik.46207

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Sifat anatomi kayu tarik dianalisis untuk parameter jumlah dan diameter pori dan korelasinya dengan komposisi lignin. Sampel kayu reaksi diambil dari batang pohon mindi (Melia azedarach) yang tumbuh miring. Pembentukan kayu tarik menurunkan jumlah dan diameter pori dan sebagai implikasinya meningkatkan proporsi serat. Jumlah dan diameter pori berkorelasi positif dengan kadar lignin. Nisbah siringil/guaiasil dan erythro/threo struktur ?-O-4 berkorelasi negatif dengan jumlah dan diameter pori. Hasil penelitian ini mengkonfirmasi bahwa perubahan proporsi sel penyusun kayu akibat tegangan pertumbuhan merupakan salah satu faktor penting yang berpengaruh terhadap perubahan karakteristik kimia lignin kayu tarik. Distribution of Vessels in Tension Wood and Its Correlation with Lignin CompositionAbstractThe anatomical properties of tension wood were investigated for number and diameter of vessel and its correlation with lignin composition. Reaction wood sample was taken from the leaning stem of mindi (Melia azedarach). The formation of tension wood reduced the number and size of vessel and, consequently, increased the proportion of fiber. Number and diameter of vessels positively correlated with lignin content. However, syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin and erythro/threo ratio of ?-O-4 structures were negatively correlated with number and diameter of vessels. It was confirmed that changes in the proportion of wood cell was an importance factor influencing the changes in chemical characteristic of tension wood lignin.
THE CHARACTERISTIC CHANGES OF BETUNG BAMBOO (DENDROCALAMUS ASPER) PRETREATED BY FUNGAL PRETREATMENT Fatriasari, Widya; Syafii, Wasrin; J Wistara, Nyoman; Syamsu, Khaswar; Prasetya, Bambang
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 3, No 2 (2014): July 2014
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (41.984 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143

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The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g) was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin) was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan) after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.
BIOAKTIVITAS ZAT EKSTRAKTIF KULIT ACACIA AURICULIFORMIS A. CUNN. EX BENTH. TERHADAP RAYAP TANAH (COPTOTERMES CURVIGNATHUS HOLMGREN) Hikma, Yanti; Syafii, Wasrin; Darma, IGK Tapa
TENGKAWANG : JURNAL ILMU KEHUTANAN Vol 2, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Tengkawang
Publisher : Universitas Tanjungpura

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.26418/jt.v2i2.3138

Abstract

This research was undertaken mainly to isolate and identify antitermitic substances that may be prospective as wood natural preservative from the bark of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. The woodmeal of the samples were extracted with acetone. The acetone extract was then fractionated into n-hexane soluble fraction, ethyl ether soluble fraction, ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and insoluble fraction. The antifeedant bioassay test was carried out by treating paper discs with extracts at six level of concentration i.e. 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w). The bioassay test revealed that ethyl ether soluble fraction exhibited high toxicity to subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (concentration of 4% has been indicated very strong activity). Keywords: Bioactivity, extractives, Acacia auriculiformis, termites, Coptotermes curvignathus
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AFFORDED BY THE EXTRACT FROM RARU BARK TO INHIBIT ACTION OF ALPHA- GLUCOSIDASE ENZYMES Pasaribu, Gunawan; Syafii, Wasrin; Darusman, Latifah K.
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 8, No 1 (2011): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

Raru (Shoreabalanocarpoides Sym) signifies one of the tree species that grows widespread in Sumatra Island.  Its bark portion is commonly used by local villagers as additional ingredient mixed to nira (sugar palm juice).  This addition is intended to make the juice more durable and also to enrich its taste after the juice is previously fermented to become traditional toddy beverage or the so-call “tuak”.  Local villagers believe that raru bark can reduce the level of blood sugar. As the relevance, the research was conducted to confirm that the extract from raru bark could afford its biological activities to inhibit alpha-glucosidase enzyme through its characterization, quantification, and isolation of its boactive compound. The extraction was performed using two methods (i.e.reflux and maceration techniques). Result revealed that the bark extract obtained from both techniques contained polyphenol compounds: flavonoid, saponin and tannin. Further, raru-bark extract from the reflux and maceration techniques could inhibit the action of alpha glucosidase enzymes on carbohydrate substrate ( i.e. p -nitrophenil-α-D-glucopyranose), at respectively 90.67% and 97.33%. Meanwhile, the inhibition activities afforded by the patented drug as a control (i.e. glucobay) equaled to 97.05%.  Assesment using UV-VIS spectroscopy, showed that the maximum spectrum of bioactive compound in the extract was at the wave length of 288.6 nm. Scrutiny using FTIR spectroscopy could identif y the presence of aromatic groups in the compound, containing -OH, C-H, C=C, C-O and C-H bond types. Analysis using GC-MS exhibited that the compound had molecular weight of 390 with molecular structure as C20H22O8. Ultimately, data analysis scrutiny with the aid of NMR judged the most plausible compound as bioactive was 4-Glucosyl-3, 4’, 5-trihydroxystilbene.
MODEL PRODUKSI DAUN PADA HUTAN TANAMAN KAYU PUTIH ( Melaleuca cajuputi Subsp cajupti. POWELL) SISTEM PEMANENAN PANGKAS TUNAS utomo, Pudja Mardi; Suhendang, Endang; Syafii, Wasrin; Simangunsong, Bintang C H
Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman Vol 9, No 4 (2012): JURNAL PENELITIAN HUTAN TANAMAN
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peningkatan Produktivitas Hutan

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Abstract

ABSTRACTCajuput oil is one of important non-timber forest product in Indonesia, which is resulted from processing of kayuputih ( Melaleuca cajuputi Subsp. cajuputi Powell) leaves. Perum Perhutani is now managing about 24,000 hectarsof kayu putih plantation in Java and 10 units of leaves processing mills with installed capacity of 53,760 tonnes peryear. However, these mill were not optimally operation due to low leaves kayu putih production. The objective of thisstudy were: (1) to develop kayu putih leaves production model, for one leaves harvesting rotation, and (2) to developkayu putih leaves production model for one biological rotation, to determine a silviculture rotation age of kayu putihstand. Subject to field condition, number of tree, stand density, and biomass by part of tree from36 temporary sampleplot (TSP) of Age Class II at BKPH Sukun were then measured to develop kayu putih leaves production model andfrom 24 TSP of all Age Class (Age Class I - VIII) at BKPH Sukun were measured to determine a biological rotationage. The result show that Morgan-Mercer-Flodin (MMF) equation was the best model representing kayu putih leavesproduction model, with option sprout age of 7 months. Polynomial equation was a model inrepresenting kayu putihleaves production model. Abiological rotation age was estimated around 25 years (with Age Class V).ABSTRAKKayu putih merupakan salah satu hasil hutan non kayu yang penting di Indonesia. Hutan tanaman kayu putih di Jawacukup besar, diperkirakan Perum Perhutani mengelola sekitar 24.000 ha areal produktif jenis ini dan memiliki 10Pabrik Pengolahan Minyak Kayu Putih (PMKP). Namun Pengelolaannya belum optimal karena sampai saat iniproduksi daun kayu putih masih jauh dari kapasitas terpasang pabrik, yaitu sebesar 53.760 ton daun kayu putih pertahun. Tujuan penelitian adalah: (1) mengetahui model produksi daun tanaman kayu putih dalam satu periodepemangkasan dan (2) mengetahui model produktivitas daun tanaman kayu putih dalam satu daur biologis. Hasilmodel yang diperoleh digunakan untuk menentukan saat daun dipanen dan saat tanaman kayu putih diganti dengantanaman baru. Metode pengambilan data dilakukan dengan survey, pengamatan langsung di lapangan denganpengukuran plot-plot ukur sementara (PUS). Plot ukur untuk pembuatan model dalam satu daur panen dibuatsebanyak 36 PUS dan 24 PUS untuk pembuatan model dalam satu daur biologis. Model produksi daun kayu putihterbaik dalam satu daur panen adalah Morgan-Mercer-Flodin model (MMF) dan pemangkasan optimum adalah padaumur tunas 7 bulan, dimana kurva laju pertumbuhan rata-rata bulanan maksimum berpotongan dengan kurvapertumbuhan bulan berjalan. Model produktivitas dalam satu daur silvikulktuyr adalah model polinomial. Daurbiologis atau saat tanaman diganti dengan tanaman baru diperkirakan pada umur 25 tahun (kelas umur V), dimanaproduk-tivitas setelah umur ini menurun.
ANTI FUNGAL ACTIVITY OF WOOD EXTRACT OF Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte AGAINST AGARWOOD-INDUCING FUNGI, Fusarium solani Novriyanti, Eka; Santosa, Erdy; Syafii, Wasrin; Turjaman, Maman; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 7, No 2 (2010): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

This paper provided information regarding artificial agar wood production. Fungi are considered as biological agent for agarwood formation and agarwood is assumed as tree defense mechanism product. This research was aimed at investigating the anti fungal activity (AFA) of Aquilaria crassna, one of the agar wood-producing trees, against Fusarium solani in vitro. Aquilaria crassna wood mill was extracted by 70% ethanol to investigate the anti fungal activity. The result are Aquilariacrassnaexhibited low extractives content, which was only 2.0% (w/w) and a low anti fungal activity in vitro, especially for ethanol extract. However, further fractionation and bioassay showed that the most active component was likely in the ethyl-acetate soluble fraction that exhibited strong anti fungal activity (52.5%) at 4.0% of concentration.
THE INFLUENCE OF REACTANT RATIO (EUPCALYPTUS LIGNIN – SODIUM BISULFITE) AND INITIAL PH TOWARDS CHARACTERISTCS OF SODIUM LIGNOSULFONATE Syahbirin, Gustini; Darwis, ABDUL Aziz; Suryani, Ani; Syafii, Wasrin
Journal of Agroindustrial Technology Vol. 19 No. 2 (2009): Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Publisher : Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Bogor Agricultural University

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Eucalyptus lignin was isolated from kraft black liquor through by acidification using H2SO4. Sulfonation of eucalyptus lignin produced sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) which can be used as dispersants, and emulsifier. In this research, sulfonation was carried out towards lignin with mass ratio of eucalyptus lignin-NaHSO3 (b/b) of 1:0.4, 1:0.5, and 1:0.6, and initial pH of 5, 6, 7, 8. Studies on the effect of various ratio of eucalyptus lignin versus NaHSO3 (1 based on w/w) and initial pH of 5,6,and 7 for the sulfonation reaction showed an  increasing yield and improved purity of SLS obtained.  However, no significant result was observed on the application of initial pH  7 and 8 toward increasing of SLS yield and purity.  The highest SLS  yield of 83.8% with  purity of 82.9% was obtained under condition of initial pH at 7 and the mass ratio of eupcayptus lignin over NaHSO3 was 1:0.5.  The resulted SLS was light brown, water soluble, with  pH level between 6.3 and 7.24, and released sulfur-like odor.Key words: lignin, kraft black liquor,  sodium lignosulfonate.
Digestibility of Betung Bamboo Fiber Following Fungal Pretreatment Fatriasari, Widya; Syafii, Wasrin; Jaya Wistara, Nyoman; Syamsu, Khaswar; Prasetya, Bambang
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (292.278 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v18i2.394

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This research evaluated the effect of fungal pretreatment of betung bamboo fibers and enzymatic- and microwave-assisted hydrolysis on the reducing sugar yield. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass was carried out with cellulase and 10 and 20 FPU/g of substrate in a shaking incubator at 50 °C and 150 rpm for 48 h. The sulfuric acid concentration used in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was 1.0, 2.5, and 5%, either with or without the addition of activated carbon. Microwave irradiation (330 Watt) was applied for 5–12.5 min. The yield of reducing sugar was better with the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and the yield tended to increase with an increase in the irradiation time. Based on the dry weight of the initial biomass (bamboo), pretreatment with 5% inoculum loading resulted in a higher reducing sugar yield (17.06%) than with 10% inoculum loading (14.54%). At a 1% acid concentration, the formation of brown compounds decreased, followed by a reduction in the reducing sugar yield. The addition of activated carbon at a 1% acid concentration seemed to be of no benefit with respect to the yield in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment with the 5% inoculum loading for 12.5 min at 1% acid concentration resulted in the highest reducing sugar yield. Under these conditions, the yield was 6.3-fold that of the reducing sugar yield using 20 FPU/g of cellulase. The rate of bamboo hollocellulose hydrolysis reached 22.75% of the maximum theoretical reducing sugar reducing sugar of dry biomass.
SIFAT DAN MUTU ARANG AKTIF TEMPURUNG KEMIRI Lempang, Mody; Syafii, Wasrin; Pari, Gustan
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 30, No 2 (2012):
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

Arang aktif adalah produk dari proses aktivasi arang yang kemampuan penyerapannya lebih tinggi dan memiliki kegunaan lebih banyak daripada arang biasa. Beberapa bahan yang banyak digunakan sebagai sumber bahan baku pembuatan arang aktif adalah batubara, kayu dan limbah pertanian seperti tempurung dan kulit biji. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan teknologi pengolahan arang tempurung kemiri menjadi arang aktif yang bermutu dengan sifat-sifat memenuhi persyaratan SNI 06-3730-1995. Tempurung kemiri dikarbonisasi menggunakan tungku drum untuk menghasilkan arang, selanjutnya arang diaktivasi di dalam retort listrik menggunakan aktivator panas dan uap H2O dalam waktu 90 dan 120 menit pada suhu 550 °C, 650 Cdan 750 °C. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan aktivasi arang tempurung kemiri berpengaruh terhadap sifat-sifat arang aktif yang dihasilkan. Arang aktif yang memiliki sifat penyerapan tertinggi terhadap Iodium (758,70 mg/g ) didapatkan dari proses aktivasi dengan perlakuan aktivator uap H2O dalam waktu 120 menit pada suhu 750 °C. Proses aktivasi tersebut menghasilkan arang aktif dengan rendemen 56,67% dan memilikimutu yang memenuhi persyaratan SNI 06-3730-1995.
STRATEGI PENINGKATAN DAYA SAING PENGGUNAAN FAKTOR PRODUKSI INDUSTRI PULP INDONESIA Rosadi, Husni Y; Sa, E Gumbira; Sailah, Illah; Syafii, Wasrin; Aman, Amril
Jurnal Riset Industri Vol 1, No 1 (2007): Jurnal Riset Industri
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Industri

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Abstract

ABSTRAK Strategi peningkatan daya saing penggunaan faktor produksi digunakan sebagai upaya untuk meningkatkan daya saing industri dengan mengoptimalkan penggunaan faktor tersebut. Stragtegi peningkatan daya saing industri dilakukan diantaranya dengan memperhatikan faktor-faktor kritis dalam penggunaan faktor produksi. Penentuan faktor kritis diperoleh berdasarkan hasi analisa terhadap penggunaan faktor produksi dengan menggunakan metode analisa daya saing non-parametrik, yaitu Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Operational Competitiveness Rating Analysis (OCRA) dan Analisa Perbandingan Daya Saing (APD). Berdasarkan analisa terhadap faktor kritis, maka strategi yang diperluka untuk meningkatkan daya saing industri pulp Indonesia diantaranya adalah strategi efisiensi penggunaan dan biaya bahan baku, strategi peningkatan skala produksi industri pulp.Kata kunci: strategi, daya saing, faktor produksi, industri pulp.