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AMELIORAN ORGANIK DAN MIKORIZA MENINGKATKAN STATUS FOSFAT TANAH DAN HASIL JAGUNG PADA TANAH ANDISOL Sufardi, Sufardi; Syakur, Syakur; Karnilawati, Karnilawati
Jurnal Agrista Vol 17, No 1 (2013): Volume 17 Nomor 1 April 2013
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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ABSTRAK. Persoalan utama pada Andisol adalah tingginya kapasitas jerapan P tanah, sehingga tidak tersedia bagi tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan amelioran organik dan mikoriza dalam meningkatkan status P tanah dan hasil jagung. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan percobaan pot yang ditata menurut rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) faktorial 4 x 2 dengan 3 ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah pemberian amelioran organik yang terdiri atas 4 taraf (jenis) yaitu tanpa amelioran, pupuk kandang, jerami padi dan daun gamal masing-masing sebanyak 20 ton ha-1 atau setara 111 g per polibag. Faktor kedua adalah aplikasi mikoriza dengan 2 taraf yaitu tanpa mikoriza dan pemberian mikoriza sebanyak 10 g per polibag. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian amelioran organik dan mikoriza berpengaruh terhadap pH tanah, P total (ekstrak HCl 25 %), P tersedia (Bray 1) dan indek ketersediaan P tanah serta dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan hasil jagung. Kombinasi perlakuan yang memberikan  pengaruh terbaik terhadap status P dan pertumbuhan serta hasil jagung diperoleh pada pemberian pupuk kandang atau daun gamal yang dikombinasi dengan mikoriza. Organic Ameliorant and Mycorrhiza Increase Soil Phosphate Status and Maize Yield on AndisolABSTRACT. A common problem of Andisol soils is the high capacity for P adsorption, although total P content is relatively high. This characteristic causes inefficient use of P fertiliser, to the point that P deficiency can become a major constraint for crop production. This study aimed to determine the effect of organic ameliorants and mycorrhiza on the status of soil phosphate and yield of maize in Andisol.  The experiment was carried out in pots and arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) 4x2 factorial with 3 replications. The first factor is the addition of organic ameliorant consisting of 4 treatments: without ameliorant, manure, rice straw and Gliciridea leaves. The dosage of each ameliorant is 20 ton ha-1 or equivalent to 111 g per polybag. The second factor is the application of mycorrhiza, consisting of 2 levels, no mycorrhiza and mycorrhiza  at 10 g per polybag. The results showed that the application of organic ameliorant and mycorrhiza  affected soil pH, total P (HCl 25% extractable P), available P (Bray 1), and the P availability index and increased the growth and yield of maize in Andisol. The two treatments that provided the most effect on the status of soil phosphate and plant growth and yield of maize were manure, and Glyricidea leaves, in combination with the addition of mycorrhiza.
UJI FUNGI MIKORIZA ARBUSKULA SPESIFIK LOKAL DAN KOMPOS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN JAGUNG PADA TANAH SUB-OPTIMAL ULTISOL Arabia, Teti; Syakur, Syakur; Mayani, Nanda
Jurnal Agrista Vol 20, No 3 (2016): Volume 20 Nomor 3 Desember 2016
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Abstrak: Untuk mengantisipasi menurunnya luas panen dan produksi jagung di Aceh serta untuk tercapainya swasembada jagung nasional di tahun 2017 pemanfaatan lahan-lahan sub-optimal seperti Ultisol dapat dijadikan alternatif. Namun penanganan khusus perlu dilakukan untuk mengatasi permasalahan-permasalahan yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan tanaman. Dewasa ini, keinginan yang kuat terhadap pertanian berkelanjutan telah mendorong peningkatan pemanfaatan mikrobia tanah indigenus dan aplikasi bahan organik ke tanah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh fungi mikoriza arbuskula spesifik lokal dan kompos terhadap pertumbuhan jagung pada tanah sub-optimal Ultisol. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) faktorial 3 x 3 dengan 3 ulangan. Faktor yang diuji adalah jenis fungi mikoriza arbuskula (kontrol, Glomus sp. dan Acoulospora sp), dosis kompos (0, 25, dan 50 g pot-1). Peubah yang diamati dalam penelitian ini adalah tinggi tanaman dan jumlah daun pada umur 15, 30, dan 45 hari setelah tanam (HST). Hasil analisis ragam menunjukkan bahwa tidak terjadi pengaruh yang nyata baik secara tunggal maupun interaksi antara pemberian mikoriza asbuskula spesifik lokal dan kompos terhadap tinggi tanaman dan jumlah daun 15, 30 dan 45 hari setelah tanam (HST) pada Ultisol. Abstract: To anticipate the decline in harvested area and production of maize in Aceh as well as to achieve national self-sufficiency in maize in 2017 the use of sub-optimal land as Ultisols can be used as an alternative. However, special care needs to be done to address issues that can inhibit plant growth. Today, a strong desire to sustainable agriculture has prompted increased use of soil microbial indigenus and application of organic material to the soil. This study aims to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) specific local and compost on the growth of maize in sub-optimal soil Ultisols. The design used was a randomized block design (RBD) factorial 3 x 3 with three replications. Factors to be examined is the type of AMF (control, Glomus sp., and Acoulospora sp.), the dose of compost (0, 25, and 50 g pot-1). The parameters observed in this study were plant height and number of leaves at 15, 30, and 45 days after planting (DAP). The results showed that there was no significant effect either singly or interaction between local specific of mycorrhizal asbuscular and compost application on plant height and number of leaves at 15, 30 and 45 DAP.
Kesuburan Tanah pada Sistem Budidaya Konvensional dan SRI di Kabupaten Aceh Besar Nurhasanah, Nurhasanah; Sufardi, Sufardi; Syakur, Syakur
Jurnal Manajemen Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 1, No 2 (2012): Volume 1, Nomor 2, Desember 2012
Publisher : Program Studi Magister Konservasi Sumberdaya Lahan, Pascasarjana, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Soil Fertility of Rice Land Management of Conventional Farming and SRI in Aceh Besar.Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics of wetland soil fertility levels in the conventional cultivation system and System of Rice Intensification. This research used descriptive and comparative surveys conducted by soil sampling in the field at two wetland sites under study. The results showed that the characteristics of soil chemical properties such as pH, C-organic, total N, the ratio C/N, available P, P2O5, K2O, Ca-exch, Mg-exch, K-exch, Na-exch, Cation Exchange Capacity and Base Saturation between conventional cultivation and System of Rice Intensification no different that the fertility status did not change significantly (p > 0,05) except Al-exch is experiencing significant changes (p ≤ 0,05). Soil fertility levels in the conventional cultivation system and System of Rice Intensification nonsignificant.Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengkaji karakteristik tingkat kesuburan tanah sawah pada sistem budidaya konvensional dan System of Rice Intensification. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei dengan pendekatan deskriptif dan komparatif yang dilakukan dengan pengambilan contoh tanah di lapangan pada dua lokasi lahan sawah yang diteliti. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik sifat-sifat kimia tanah seperti pH, C organik, N total, nisbah C/N, P tersedia, P2O5, K2O, Ca dd, Mg dd, K dd, Na dd, KTK dan KB antar budidaya konvensional dan System of Rice Intensification tidak berbeda sehingga status kesuburan juga tidak berbeda secara signifikan (p>0,05) kecuali Al dd yang mengalami perubahan signifikan (p≤0,05), dengan lain perkataan tingkat kesuburan tanah pada sistem budidaya konvensional dan System of Rice Intensification secara keseluruhan tergolong sama.
Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Padi (Oryza sativa L.) Akibat Pemberian Arang Aktif dan Urea Jamilah, Jamilah; Muyassir, Muyassir; Syakur, Syakur
Jurnal Manajemen Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 1, No 2 (2012): Volume 1, Nomor 2, Desember 2012
Publisher : Program Studi Magister Konservasi Sumberdaya Lahan, Pascasarjana, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Growth and Yield of Rice With Charcoal and UreaAbstract: The objectives of the research were to study effects of urea and charcoal on growth and yield of rice.  The experiment was arranged in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replicates. Factor of urea are without urea, 100, 200, and 300 kg urea ha-1.  Factor of charcoal consisted are i.e. without charcoal, 60, and 120 kg charcoal ha-1 . Result showed that urea exerted highly significant effects on plant height at 30 days after transplanting (DAT), 45 DAT, at harvest, tiller numbers at 30 DAT, grain weight per plot, N-total, K-available, and exerted a significant effect on tiller numbers at 45 DAT.  Charcoal exerted highly significant effects on N-total and K-available and exerted significant effects on tiller numbers at 30 DAT and C-organic. Factors of urea and charcoal interacted highly significantly on tiller numbers at 30 DAT and interacted significantly on N-total and K-available.Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian urea dan arang aktif terhadap pertumbuhan serta hasil tanaman padi sawah. Perlakuan penelitian disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok pola faktorial dengan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan urea terdiri atas tanpa urea, 100, 200 dan, 300 kg urea ha-1. Perlakuan arang aktif  terdiri dari tanpa arang aktif, 60, dan 120 kg arang aktif ha-1. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, perlakuan urea memberikan pengaruh sangat nyata terhadap tinggi tanaman umur 30, 45 HST dan saat panen, jumlah anakan 30 HST, berat gabah per plot. Arang aktif memberikan pengaruh sangat nyata terhadap jumlah anakan umur 30 HST.   Interaksi antara kombinasi perlakuan urea dan arang aktif memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap jumlah anakan umur 30 HST.
SIFAT TANAH DAN AIR YANG TERPENGARUH TSUNAMI DI KECAMATAN LHOKNGA KABUPATEN ACEH BESAR Syakur, Syakur; Basri, Hairul; Sufardi, Sufardi; Hatta, Muhammad
Jurnal Floratek Vol 7, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Program Studi Agroteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Lhoknga Sub District was one of regions experiencing earthquake and tsunami disaster occurred on 26 December 2004. The aims of the research were to evaluate soil characteristics, to study land suitability and to propose recommendation of land use and rehabilitation of the tsunami affected agricultural area in Lhoknga Sub District. The result showed that soil textures were varied from very coarse at the area near to the coastline to rather fine at the area far from the coast. The soil structures of topsoil was generally plate and blocky, while that of subsoil was generally massive. The quality of irrigation water in was still suitable for crops, the pH of water was neutral and low in salinity (0,4 mS cm-1). The water quality of wells was high (good) and water quality of drainage and surface water was low (rather bad). Water quality of wells was good enough, indicated by low water salinity (0,26-0,78 mS cm-1) and  low of SAR value. The recommendations for land reclamation were (1) cleaning and repairing of irrigation and drainage channel  (2) leaching of salinity in topsoil from soil profile by flooding method (basin irrigation) or furrow irrigation,  (3) constructing the ditches for cultivation in managing the excess of salinity, (4) establishing ditches for paddy, and (5) removing the sediment above the topsoil.
SIFAT-SIFAT TANAH DAN AIR YANG TERPENGARUH TSUNAMI DI KECAMATAN LHOONG KABUPATEN ACEH BESAR Basri, Hairul; Syakur, Syakur; Rusdi, Alfian
Jurnal Floratek Vol 6, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Program Studi Agroteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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ABSTRACT The aims of the research were to evaluate soil characteristics, to study land suitability and to propose recommendation of land use and rehabilitation of the tsunami affected agricultural area in Lhoong Sub-District. The result showed that soil textures were varied from very coarse at the area near the coastline to rather fine at the area far from the coast. The soil structures of topsoil were generally plate and blocky, and at subsoil generally massive. The quality of irrigation water in Sub District of Lhoong was still suitable for crops. The pH of water was neutral and low in salinity (0, 4 mS cm-1). The recommendations for land of class A were (1) cleaning and repairing of irrigation and drainage channel, (2) leaching of salinity in topsoil from soil profile by flooding method (irrigation basin) or furrow irrigation,  (3) making the ditches for cultivation in managing the excess of salinity, (4) establishing ditches for paddy, and (5) requiring a specified amount of water for the leaching processes and the amount of water required for crops. The recommendation for land class B were (1) cleaning and repairing of irrigation and drainage channel, (2) removing the sediment above the topsoil, (3) leaching the salt from topsoil passing soil profile  by irrigation water, (4) constructing ditches for cultivation in managing the  excess of salinity.
KARAKTERISTIK TANAH INCEPTISOL YANG DISAWAHKAN DI KECAMATAN INDRAPURI KABUPATEN ACEH BESAR Arabia, Teti; Manfarizah, Manfarizah; Syakur, Syakur; Irawan, Bambang
Jurnal Floratek Vol 13, No 1 (2018): April 2018
Publisher : Program Studi Agroteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the soil characteristics of the Inceptisols which has been converted to paddy soils in Indrapuri Subdistrict, Aceh Besar District, using quantitative descriptive survey method. The results showed the morphological properties of rainfed rice fields and irrigated rice fields characterized by mottles Fe and Mn, in pedon BI1 found in all horizons (Ap, Bdg, Bg, Cg), in BI2 found in the horizon of Bdg, Bg, and BCg, while in the mixed garden (BI3) mottles is found only on the BCx horizon. In the plow pan layer (Bdg) rainfed rice fields and irrigated rice fields have a firm moist consistency, the wet is very sticky, while in the mixed garden is loose and rather sticky. The physical properties of soil at BI1, BI2 are characterized by the highest bulk density in the plow pan layer/Bdg (1.34 and 1.24 g.cm-3), slow and rather slow permeability (0.40 and 1.02 cm.jam-1), with lower porosity (38.01 and 42.15%) than BI3 horizon Bw1 (52.22%). Whereas at BI3 in the Bw1 horizon the lowest bulk density (1.18 g.cm-3), with moderate permeability (4.17 cm.hour-1). Soil chemical properties in BI1, BI2, and BI3 are classified as fertile with pH on Ap horizon 6.33 - 6.89 rather acid - neutral), Al dd is not measurable (very low), and CEC 24 - 36 cmol (+) kg-1 (medium - high). Keywords: soil characteristics, Inceptisols, irrigated paddy soils, paddy soils, mixed garden
APLIKASI MIKORIZA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERTUMBUHAN BEBERAPA JENIS RUMPUT MAKANAN TERNAK TERHADAP CEKAMAN KEKERINGAN PADA TANAH PODSOLIK JANTHO Elviwirda, Elviwirda; Sufardi, Sufardi; Syakur, Syakur
Jurnal Floratek Vol 11, No 2 (2016): Oktober 2016
Publisher : Program Studi Agroteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Problems that arise in forage supply are continuity of farm and it?s low productivity and limited soil water availability in dry season. This study aims to: 1) examine the role of AMF on the growth of some types of grass fodder by different levels of water stress on podzolic soil; and 2) understand the interaction between application of AMF in different water stress and the types of grass on growth of forage grasses. This research was conducted in plastic house of Field Laboratory of Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (BPTP) Aceh. Randomized block design (RAK) with 6 x 3 factorial for three replications was used. The first factor was application the AMF and water stress which consists of six levels, namely: C1 = Without AMF + water stress 60% of field capacity, C2 = Without AMF + water stress 80% of field capacity, C3 = Without AMF + without water stress (100 % of field capacity), C4 = AMF + water stress 60% of field capacity, C5 = AMF + water stress 80% of field capacity, C6 = AMF + without water stress (100% field capacity). The second factor was type of grass that consists of three levels, namely: R1 = Brachiaria decumbens, R2 = Brachiaria mutica, R3 = Cynodon plectostachyus. The parameters observed in this research were canopy fresh weight, root dry weight, leaf relative water content. Results showed AMF addition of water stress 60% of field capacity on Jantho podzolic soil increased the canopy fresh weight, root dry weight, and leaf relative water content. There were interaction effects between applications AMF at different water stresses and the types of grass against canopy fresh weight, root dry weight and leaf relative water content. 
BIOCHAR AND TILLAGE SYSTEMS INFLUENCED ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Darusman, Darusman; Syahruddin, Syahruddin; syakur, syakur; Manfarizah, Manfarizah
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology Vol 6, No 2 (2017): August 2017
Publisher : Graduate School of Syiah Kuala University

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Biochar is known as a huge carbon storage in the soil.  In the soil, biochar absorbs CO2 from air and keep them for hundred years.  In addition to preventing reduce emission and green house effects, Biochar also contributes to soil productivity such as physical dan chemical properties of the soil. How biochar amends soil physical properties combined with some tillage systems are imperative to find out.  Study aimed to determine the influence of biochar and tillage systems on some soil physical properties. Treatment arranged in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The treatment of biochar effect consisting of four levels; 0, 10, 15, and 20 t ha-1 Biochar. The tillage systems were three levels; no, minimum, and conventional tillage. The results showed that we found an interaction effect on the biochar application with tillage systems on dried bulk density, soil porosity, and soil permeability. No interaction was found on aggregate stability indexes and soil water holding capacity at water content at -0.3 and -15 bar of water potential (pF 2.54 and 4.2, accordingly).  Biochar amounting 10 t ha-1 combined with minimum tillage gave significant benefits on soil productivity in terms of dried bulk density, porosity and soil permeability. 
Prediksi Tingkat Bahaya Erosi di Kecamatan Lembah Seulawah Kabupaten Aceh Besar Syahputra, M. Haris; Alibasyah, M. Rusli; Syakur, Syakur
Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Pertanian Vol 3, No 2 (2018): Mei 2018
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat bahaya erosi di Kecamatan Lembah Seulawah Kabupaten Aceh Besar. Metode penelitian menggunakan metode survei yang didasarkan pada hasil pengamatan di lapangan  dan analisis tanah di Laboratorium. Erosi dihitung dengan menggunakan persamaan Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) yang dikemukakan oleh Wischmeier dan Smith pada tahun 1978. Metode USLE mengamati beberapa aspek seperti erosivitas, erodibilitas, faktor panjang dan kemiringan lereng, dan faktor pengelolaan tanaman dan tindakan konservasi. Secara garis besar penelitian ini dilaksanakan beberapa tahap yaitu, tahap persiapan, pengumpulan data, pelaksanaan lapangan dan pengambilan sampel tanah, dan analisis data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di lokasi penelitian terdapat tujuh belas satuan peta lahan (SPL) dengan total luas areal 31.935,56 Hektar. Erosi aktual tertinggi dijumpai pada SPL 7 yaitu sebesar 2.699,92 ton ha-1 th-1 dan erosi aktual terendah dijumpai pada SPL 14 yaitu 0,82 ton ha-1 th-1. Erosi potensial tertinggi dijumpai pada SPL 1 yaitu sebesar 5.774,84 ton ha-1 th-1 dan erosi potensial terendah dijumpai pada SPL 16 yaitu 48,53 ton ha-1 th-1. Terdapat 5 klasifikasi tingkat bahaya erosi yaitu tingkat bahaya erosi sangat ringan (SR) pada SPL 16, tingkat bahaya erosi ringan (R) pada SPL 17, tingkat bahaya erosi sedang (S) pada SPL 10, 14, dan 15, tingkat bahaya erosi berat (B) pada SPL 4, 7, 11, 12, dan 13, dan tingkat bahaya erosi sangat berat (SB) pada SPL 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, dan 9.Prediction of Erosion Hazard at Lembah Seulawah Sub-distrik Aceh BesarAbstract. This study aims to determine the level of erosion hazard in Lembah Seulawah, Aceh Besar District. The research method is used survey method based on field observation and soil analysis in the laboratory. Erosion is calculated by using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) which proposed by Wischmeier and Smith in 1978. The USLE method looked at several aspects such as erosivity, erodibility, long factor and slope, and crops management and conservation measures. In general, this research is carried out several stages, namely, preparation phase, data collection, field implementation and soil sampling, and data analysis. The results showed that in the study sites there were seventeen units of land maps (SPL) with a total area of 31,935.56 hectares. The highest actual erosion was found in SPL 7 of 2,699.92 tons ha-1 th-1 and the lowest actual erosion was found in SPL 14 of 0.82 tons ha-1 th-1. The highest potential erosion was found in SPL 1 of 5,774.84 ton ha-1 th-1 and the lowest potential erosion was found in SPL 16 of 48.53 ton ha-1 th-1. There are 5 classifications of erosion hazard level which is very light erosion (SR) on SPL 16, light erosion hazard (R) on SPL 17, moderate erosion level (S) on SPL 10, 14, and 15, (B) on SPL 4, 7, 11, 12, and 13, and very severe erosion (SB) on SPL 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, and 9.