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Peran PEG 400 dalam pembuatan lembaran bioplastik polohidroksialkanoat yang dihasilkan oleh Ralstonia eutropha dari Substrat Hidrolisat Pati Sagu Syamsu, Khaswar; Hartoto, Liesbetini; Fauzi, Anas Miftah; Suryani, Ani; Rais, Dede
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 12 No. 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of PEG 400 addition on the characteristics of bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). PHA was obtained by cultivating Ralstonia eutropha on hydrolysed sago starch substrate using fed batch method for approximately 96 hours. The biomass concentration obtained was 4 g/L with PHA yield 20-30% of dry cell weight. The bioplastic was formed with solution casting method in which chloroform was used as solvent and PEG 400 was used as plasticizer. The concentrations of PEG 400added were 10, 20, and 30% (w/w), respectively. Bioplastic properties which were tested were tensile strength, elongation to break, density, thermal properties, cristalinity, and functional group. The addition of plastisizer tend to increase tensile strength and elongation to break, but decrease density, cristalinity and melting point. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 addition gave the best results. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 gave a value of tensile strength of 0.083 MPa; elongation to break of 0.881%; density of 0.7881 g/cm3;  melting point of 158.95 ac; and cristalinity of 44.58%. With these properties, the resulted bioi plastic may be used for surgical strings. Keywords: Bioplastic, Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Ralstonia eutropha, hidrolysed sago starch, PEG 400
Direct Ethanol Production from Breadfruit Starch (Artocarpus communis Forst.) by Engineered Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (ESSF) using Microbes Consortium Farida, Iftachul; Syamsu, Khaswar; Rahayuningsih, Mulyorini
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 4, No 1 (2015): February 2015
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (879.554 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.4.1.25-31

Abstract

Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst.) is one of sources for ethanol production, which has high starch content (89%). Ethanol production from breadfruit starch was conducted by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) technology using microbes consortium. The aim of the research was to examine a method to produce ethanol by SSF technology using microbes consortium at high yield and efficiency. The main research consisted of two treatments, namely normal SSF and enginereed SSF. The results showed that normal SSF using aeration and agitation during cultivation could produce ethanol at 11.15 ± 0.18 g/L, with the yield of product (Yp/s) 0.34 g ethanol/g substrate; and yield of biomass (Yx/s) 0.29 g cell/g substrate, respectively. A better result was obtained using engineered SSF in which aeration was stopped after biomass condition has reached the end of the exponential phase. The ethanol produced was 12.75 ± 0.04 g/L, with the yields of product (Yp/s) 0.41 g ethanol/g substrate, and the yield of cell (Yx/s) 0.09 g cell/g substrate.
Digestibility of Betung Bamboo Fiber Following Fungal Pretreatment Fatriasari, Widya; Syafii, Wasrin; Jaya Wistara, Nyoman; Syamsu, Khaswar; Prasetya, Bambang
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (292.278 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v18i2.394

Abstract

This research evaluated the effect of fungal pretreatment of betung bamboo fibers and enzymatic- and microwave-assisted hydrolysis on the reducing sugar yield. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass was carried out with cellulase and 10 and 20 FPU/g of substrate in a shaking incubator at 50 °C and 150 rpm for 48 h. The sulfuric acid concentration used in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was 1.0, 2.5, and 5%, either with or without the addition of activated carbon. Microwave irradiation (330 Watt) was applied for 5–12.5 min. The yield of reducing sugar was better with the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and the yield tended to increase with an increase in the irradiation time. Based on the dry weight of the initial biomass (bamboo), pretreatment with 5% inoculum loading resulted in a higher reducing sugar yield (17.06%) than with 10% inoculum loading (14.54%). At a 1% acid concentration, the formation of brown compounds decreased, followed by a reduction in the reducing sugar yield. The addition of activated carbon at a 1% acid concentration seemed to be of no benefit with respect to the yield in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment with the 5% inoculum loading for 12.5 min at 1% acid concentration resulted in the highest reducing sugar yield. Under these conditions, the yield was 6.3-fold that of the reducing sugar yield using 20 FPU/g of cellulase. The rate of bamboo hollocellulose hydrolysis reached 22.75% of the maximum theoretical reducing sugar reducing sugar of dry biomass.
The Fermentation Study on Polyhydroxyalkanoates Produced by Ralstonia eutropha from Hydrolized Sago Starch as The Carbon Source Atifah, Nur; Syamsu, Khaswar; Suryani, Ani
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 8, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial bioplastics, not only were similar in properties with those made of petrochemical products, they were also completely biodegradable. At the moment, the price of PHAs was still high. This research was conducted to investigate the ability of Ralstonia eutropha to produce PHAs on a sago starch-based substrate, one of the cheap and abundantly renewable resources in Indonesia, and to characterize the PHAs produced. The microorganism was grown on the hydrolyzed sago starch with an initial sugar concentration of 30 g/lIt was found that the best value of the maximum specific growth rate (µmax) was  0,188 h-1. Kinetic parameters at 96 hour-batch fermentation showed the respective final cell and PHA concentrations of 4,41 g/L and 1,44 g/L. The yields of cell biomass (Yx/s), PHAs per gram of cells (Yp/x), PHAs per gram of substrate (Yp/s) and the percentage of substrate consumption  (∆S/So) were, 0.15 g cell/g sugar; 0.35 g PHA/g cells; 0.06 g PHA/g sugar and 99%, respectively.  The PHAs produced were predominantly composed of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) as the functional groups with a melting point of 163,96 oC.Keywords : hydrolyzed sago starch, PHA, Ralstonia eutropha
Financial and non-financial factors are important indicators to evaluate performance of corporation.  The main objective of this study is to build a model for improving performance of estate and plant by using balance scorecard.  The study uses balance scorecard, and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process to model the criteria of performance measurement for both estate and plant.  Results generated from the model of estate performance criteria measurements are seed, fertilizing, cost management, Farida, Aida; Jamaran, Irawadi; Darwis, A. Aziz; Syamsu, Khaswar; Arkeman, Yandra
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 34 No. 3 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Abstract

Financial and non-financial factors are important indicators to evaluate performance of corporation.  The main objective of this study is to build a model for improving performance of estate and plant by using balance scorecard.  The study uses balance scorecard, and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process to model the criteria of performance measurement for both estate and plant.  Results generated from the model of estate performance criteria measurements are seed, fertilizing, cost management, harvest, plant maintenance, production, and employee development.  Results generated from the model of plant performance criteria measurements are production rate, cost management, losses, plant utilization, CPO quality, employee development, and environmental friendly production process.  Estate and plant scoring board model are used to measure the performance of estate and plant based on set targets.  Results generated from estate scoring board model are low performance in cost management, production, and employed development.  Results generated from plant scoring board model are low performance in cost management, losses, and environmental friendly production process.  Performance improvement model for estate and plant are conducted by using expert management.  The result generated from this study is a software of decision support system by using expert management, and it is called In-KK v1.00.   Keywords: oil palm agroindustry, key performance indicator, scoring board
Optimization of Penicillium Lagena Medium Cultivication on Antifungal Pathogen of Phellinus Lamaoensis Using Surface Methode Nabilah, Siti; Sunaryanto, Rofiq; Syamsu, Khaswar
TEKNIK Vol 38, No 2 (2017): (Desember 2017)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (368.107 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v38i2.10306

Abstract

Phellinus lamaoensis (Murr.) Hein is fungal pathogen that can cause brown root rot disease in cocoa, tea, rubber, and coffee plants. Endophytic fungi, Penicillium lagena, isolated from bandotan (Ageratum conyzoides Linn.), medicinal plant, is able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic, P. lamaoensis. The effect of carbon source, nitrogen source, and mineral solution was studied. Lactose, yeast extract, and mineral solution were media components which showed significant effect toward production of P. lagena active compound. Composition optimization of these three medium components was done by response surface methodology (RSM). The Optimal response region of the significant factor was predicted by using a second order polynomial model with statistical design, central composite design (CCD). Higest production of P. lagena active compound by quadratic model was predicted to be 69.233%  with medium composition 44.77 g L-1 lactose, 13.02 g L-1 yeast extract, and 15.95 mL L-1 mineral solution. Verification value in laboratory is 58.365%, lower 15.7% than its prediction. Optimization increase P. lagena active compound 9 fold compared to unoptimize media.
PENENTUAN TEKNOLOGI PROSES PEMBUATAN GAMBIR MURNI DAN KATEKIN TERSTANDAR DARI GAMBIR ASALAN Yeni, Gustri; Syamsu, Khaswar; Mardliyati, Etik; Muchtar, Hendri
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 7, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v7i1.2846.1-10

Abstract

Uncaria gambir Roxb. is an industrial crop commodity that has a high economic value and good prospect for farmers and exporter. Gambier of traditional processed products (raw gambier) generally have various catechin content, so it is required further handling to increase the purity of catechins from raw gambier. The research was aimed to get a process technology on the making of pure gambier and standardized catechins. Sources of raw materials was obtained from extraction process through steaming leaves and twigs of gambier (KA) using equipment from aluminum (RA) and from iron (RF). Purification of raw gambier through repeated extraction with water could decrease tannin content from 24% to 2.4% and increase catechin levels between 40% to 74%. Gambier with a low tannin content (catechin KA) through re-extraction using water had the highest increase of catechin content with a color of yellowish white product. The iron-containing equipment affected the color of the pure gambier produced, which was reddish-brown. The effect of solvent on further extraction using ethyl acetate solvent resulted in higher catechin content (up to 99%) compare to ethanol (95%). The catechin purity of KA samples was tested by looking at its stability at varying levels of acidity, showing catechins of gambier was stabile at pH 6.ABSTRAK Uncaria gambir Roxb. merupakan komoditas tanaman industri yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi serta mempunyai prospek cukup baik bagi petani dan pemasok negara-negara asing. Gambir hasil olahan tradisional (gambir asalan), umumnya memiliki kandungan katekin yang beragam, sehingga diperlukan penanganan lebih lanjut untuk meningkatkan kemurnian katekin dari gambir asalan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan teknologi proses pembuatan gambir murni dan katekin terstandar. Sumber bahan baku diperoleh dari proses ekstraksi melalui pengukusan daun dan ranting tanaman gambir (KA) menggunakan peralatan dari aluminium (RA) dan dari besi (RF). Pemurnian gambir asalan melalui ekstraksi berulang dengan air dapat menurunkan kadar tanin, yaitu dari 24% sampai 2,4% dan meningkatkan kadar katekin, yaitu antara 40% sampai 74%. Gambir dengan kandungan tanin rendah (katekin KA) melalui ekstraksi ulang menggunakan air memiliki peningkatan kadar katekin tertinggi dengan warna produk putih kekuningan. Peralatan mengandung besi berpengaruh terhadap warna dari gambir murni yang dihasilkan, yaitu berwarna coklat kemerahan. Pengaruh pelarut terhadap ekstraksi lanjut menggunakan pelarut etil asetat menghasilkan kadar katekin lebih tinggi (sampai 98%) dibandingkan etanol (95%). Kemurnian katekin sampel KA diuji dengan melihat stabilitasnya pada berbagai tingkat keasaman, menunjukkan katekin dari gambir stabil pada pH 6.
Biokonversi CPO dengan desaturase amobil sistem kontinu pada skala semipilot untuk produksi minyak mengandung GLA Bioconversion of CPO using immobilized desaturase in continuous system at semipilot scale to produce oil containing GLA SUHARYANTO, .; TRI-PANJI, .; ABDULLAH, M Irfani; SYAMSU, Khaswar
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 74, No 2: Desember 2006
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (170.541 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v74i2.111

Abstract

Summary Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid having high economic value as healthy oil. Research at laboratory scale showed that Absidia corymbifera and Rhizopus sp. fungi have the ability to increase unsaturation level of crude palm oil (CPO) and GLA formation through enzymatic bioconversion.  Stability of desatu-rase enzyme, especially ∆6 and ∆12 having significant role in this process could be enhanced by applying immobilization technique. The current research objective was to determine optimum process of CPO bio-conversion using immobilized desaturase enzyme using continuous system at semipilot scale to produce CPO containing GLA.  Crude  desaturase enzyme of A. corymbifera biomass was immobilized with zeolite particles and used for optimization of CPO bioconversion in continuous system at semipilot scale (15,000 mL per day). Optimization of bio-conversion conditions included flow rate of substrate, size of zeolite for immobilization, and enzyme stability during process.  The result showed that desaturase immobilized in small size particles of zeolite (1-3 mm) gave higher increase unsaturation level with average desaturase activity of 7.84 U, compared to that immobilized in larger zeolite  particles (8-10 mm), which reached average desaturase activity of 4.67 U.  However, the use of small zeolite particles often caused plugging substrate flow. The activity of immobilized desaturase in continuous  system was stable for 9-18 hours. Optimum flow rate of substrate using small zeolite particles (1-3 mm) was  850 mL/min, while that of using larger zeolite particles (8-10 mm) was 875 mL/min.  The bioconversion of CPO at optimum condition yielding 1.58% (w/w) GLA from initial concentration of linolenic acid 0.29%. RingkasanAsam γ-linolenat (GLA) merupakan asam lemak takjenuh majemuk yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi sebagai minyak kesehatan. Penelitian pada skala laboratorium me-nunjukkan bahwa Absidia corymbifera dan Rhizopus sp. memiliki kemampuan untuk me-ningkatkan ketidak-jenuhan minyak sawit mentah (CPO) dan menghasilkan GLA melalui biokonversi enzimatis. Stabilitas enzim desaturase, khususnya ∆6 dan ∆12yang berperan pada proses ini dapat ditingkatkan antara lain melalui teknik amobilisasi. Penelitian lanjutan ini bertujuan menetapkan kondisi optimum biokonversi CPO untuk menghasilkan minyak yang kaya akan asam lemak takjenuh majemuk, khususnya GLA menggunakan enzim desaturase amobil sistem kontinu pada skala semipilot.  Ekstrak kasar enzim desaturase asal biomassa fungi             A. corymbifera diamobilisasi dengan butiran zeolit dan selanjutnya digunakan untuk optimasi proses biokonversi secara kontinu pada skala semipilot (15.000 mL per hari). Optimasi proses kontinu meliputi laju alir substrat, ukuran butiran zeolit, dan stabilitas enzim selama proses. Hasil penelitian menun-jukkan bahwa desaturase yang diamobilisasi pada zeolit berukuran kecil (1-3 mm) memberikan peningkatan ketidakjenuhan yang lebih tinggi dengan aktivitas rata-rata 7,84 U, dibandingkan dengan yang diamobilisasi pada zeolit berukuran besar (8-10 mm) dengan aktivitas rata-rata 4,67 U. Namun, penggunaan zeolit berukuran kecil sering menimbulkan sumbatan aliran substrat. Aktivitas desaturase amobil pada proses kontinu dapat bertahan selama 9-18 jam. Laju alir optimum substrat pada penggunaan zeolit berukuran kecil (1-3 mm) adalah 850 mL/menit, sedangkan pada penggunaan zeolit besar (8-10 mm) adalah 875 mL/menit. Biokonversi CPO pada kondisi optimum menghasilkan GLA 1,58% (b/b) dari kandungan asam linolenat awal 0,29%tration of linolenic acid 0.29%.
Biokonversi minyak sawit kasar menggunakan desaturase amobil sistem curah pada skala semipilot Bioconversion of crude palm oil using immobilized desaturase in batch system at semi pilot scale TRI-PANJI, .; SUHARYANTO, .; GUNAWAN, .; SYAMSU, Khaswar
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 73, No 2: Desember 2005
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3113.418 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v73i2.154

Abstract

SummaryIncreasing unsaturation level of crude oilpalm (CPO) could be carried out by usingdesaturase enzyme of Absidia corymbifera. Thisbiocatalyst could also produce polyunsaturatedfatty acids (PUFA) such as gamma linolenic acidthat beneficial for healthy oil. The objective ofthis research was to determine the optimumcontact time and ratio of immobilized desaturaseenzyme-substrate in batch system at semi pilotscale (5,000-15,000 mL). Desaturase wasextracted from A. corymbifera biomass andimmobilized on activated zeolite (3-6 mm).Immobilized enzymes were then used forbioconversion process in batch system by mixingthe enzyme with CPO in a bottle placedhorizontally then rotated using a rotator machineat room temperature (25-30 o C). The resultshowed that optimum contact time with ratioimmobilized enzyme-substrate 1:1; 1:2; and 1:3were 30, 40, and 50 min resulted in increasingiodine number 2.84; 3.94; and 4.46 g I 2 /100 gCPO, respectively. An optimum enzyme-subtrateratio was achieved at 1:2, resulted in increasingof iodine number 9-11 g I 2 /100 g CPO, productrecovery of 17,000 mL (21 batches) up to 18 hours. It was detected that active desaturasesduring CPO bioconversion were  6 ,  9 , and  12 desaturases as shown by the increase of oleic(4.5%), linoleic (0,85%) and linolenic acids(60.7%).RingkasanPeningkatan ketidakjenuhan minyak sawitkasar (crude palm oil, CPO) dapat dilakukandengan enzim desaturase Absidia corymbifera.Biokatalis ini juga mampu menghasilkan asamlemak tidak jenuh majemuk (polyunsaturatedfatty acids, PUFA) yang bermanfaat untukkesehatan seperti asam gamma linolenat (GLA).Tujuan penelitian adalah menetapkan waktukontak dan nisbah enzim desaturase amobil-substrat optimum dalam sistem curah pada skalasemipilot (5.000-15.000 mL). Desaturase di-ekstraksi dari biomassa A. corymbifera dandiamobilisasi pada zeolite (3-6 mm) yang telahdiaktivasi. Enzim amobil kemudian digunakanuntuk proses biokonversi dalam sistem curahdengan cara mencampurkan dengan CPO dalambotol yang diletakkan secara horizontal kemudiandiputar dengan mesin rotator pada suhu ruang(25-30 o C). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwawaktu kontak optimum enzim desaturase-substratdengan nisbah 1:1; 1:2; dan 1:3 adalah 30, 40,dan 50 menit dan menghasilkan peningkatanbilangan iod berturut-turut sebesar 2,84; 3,94;dan 4,46 g I 2 /100 g CPO. Nisbah enzim-substratoptimum dalam proses biokonversi CPO adalah1:2 yang menghasilkan peningkatan bilangan iod9-11 g I 2 /100 g CPO dan perolehan produk17.000 mL (21 kali curah) selama 18 jampemakaian. Penelitian juga dapat mendeteksibahwa desaturase yang aktif selama prosesbiokonversi CPO adalah  6 ,  9 , dan  12desaturase yang ditunjukkan oleh peningkatanasam oleat (4,5%), linoleat (0,85%) dan linolenat(60,7%).
Produksi Spirulina platensis dalam fotobioreaktor kontinyu menggunakan media limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit Production of Spirulina platensis in continous photobioreactor using palm oil mill effluent media SUHARYANTO, .; TRI-PANJI, .; PERMATASARI, Shinta; SYAMSU, Khaswar
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 82, No 1: Juni 2014
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (370.61 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v82i1.25

Abstract

AbstractCultivation of Spirulina platensis in an abundant available and inexpensive medium such as palm oil mill effluent (POME) will produce biomass and valuable active materials at competitive price.  Utilization of POME  will also reduce pollution level and support cleaned production.  The objectives of this research were to determine the dilution rate of  S. platensis and the reduction rate of pollution level of POME on continuous photobioreactor. Preliminary research was conducted by growing S. platensis on POME medium with various concentration, namely 25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% POME on batch system. The experiment was conducted in 1.2 L capacity continous photobioreactor using medium containing a mixture of POME and synthetic medium. Feeding rate was set up at 0.05 mL/5 sec. (dilution rate of  0.03 hr -1), 0,05 mL/10 sec. (dilution rate of  0.015 hr -1), and 0.05 mL/15 sec. (dilution rate of 0.01 hr -1). For optimum dilution rate, the experiment was scaled up eight times using 10 L capacity continous photobioreactor. The results showed that optimum growth rate of S. platensis (µmax) = 0.233, was achieved using medium consisting of 90% POME and 10% synthetic medium after two weeks. Dilution rate of 0.015 hr -1 on photobioreactor was the optimum dilution rate for growth of S. platensis as well as for decreasing polution level of POME. The result of the eight-times scale up photobioreactor using flow rate of 0.4 mL/10 sec and dilution rate of 0.015 hr -1 showed that the growth of S. platensis was relatively constant as reflected by the OD value of the suspension culture and the concentration of cellular biomass. At the optimum condition, production of S. platensis biomass was 0.267g/L and pollution level was decrease 24%. The rate of outflow also resulted the constant decrease of polution level based on total carbon (TC), total dissolve solid (TDS), dissolve oxygen (DO), BOD, and COD parameters indicating that  continuous photobioreactor was running at steady state.Abstrak Kultivasi S. platensis dalam media yang tersedia me-limpah dan murah seperti limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit (LC-PKS) akan menghasilkan biomassa dan bahan aktif bernilai ekonomi tinggi dengan harga kompetitif. Pemanfaatan  LC-PKS  juga  akan  mengurangi  dampak pen-cemaran lingkungan dan membantu menciptakan sistem produksi bersih. Penelitian ini bertujuan menetapkan laju dilusi optimum per-tumbuhan S. platensis dan laju penurunan tingkat cemaran LC-PKS pada fotobioreaktor sistem kontinyu. Untuk mengukur laju alir sistem kontinyu, pertama S. platensis ditumbuhkan pada media LC-PKS 25%, 50%, 75%, dan 90% dengan sistem batch.  Pertum-buhan S. platensis  pada fotobioreaktor sistem kontinyu kapasitas 1,2 L dirancang dengan variasi laju alir umpan berupa LC-PKS yang dicampur media sintetik pada konsentrasi optimum. Variasi laju alir pengumpanan diatur pada variasi 0.05 mL/5 detik (laju dilusi 0,03 jam-1), 0,05 mL /10 detik (laju dilusi 0,015 jam -1), dan 0,05 mL/15 detik (laju dilusi 0,01 jam-1). Pada laju alir optimum, skala percobaan diperbesar delapan kali menggunakan foto-bioreaktor berkapasitas 10 L. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju pertumbuhan maksimum (µ maks) adalah 0,233 jam-1 yang diperoleh dengan campuran media LC-PKS 90% dan media sintetik 10%  selama dua minggu. Fotobioreaktor dengan laju dilusi 0,015 jam-1 merupakan laju alir umpan yang optimum untuk pertumbuhan S. platensis serta menghasilkan penurunan tingkat cemaran LC-PKS yang optimum.  Hasil penelitian dengan perbesaran skala delapan kali menggunakan laju alir pengumpan 0,4 mL/10 detik  (laju dilusi 0,015 jam-1)  menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan S. platensis relatif konstan. Produksi biomassa sel rata-rata sebesar 0,267g/L dan kadar cemaran limbah rata-rata menurun sebesar 24%. Laju alir keluar (outflow) juga menghasilkan kadar cemaran limbah yang konstan ber-dasarkan parameter total karbon (TC), total dissolve solid (TDS), dissolve oxygen (DO), BOD, dan COD yang menunjukkan bahwa sistem fotobioreaktor kontinyu ini berjalan dengan baik.