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PERAN PEG 400 DALAM PEMBUATAN LEMBARAN BIOPLASTIK POLOHIDROKSIALKANOAT YANG DIHASILKAN OLEH RALSTONIA EUTROPHA DARI SUBSTRAT HIDROLISAT PATI SAGU Syamsu, Khaswar; Hartoto, Liesbetini; Fauzi, Anas Miftah; Suryani, Ani; Rais, Dede
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 12 No. 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of PEG 400 addition on the characteristics of bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). PHA was obtained by cultivating Ralstonia eutropha on hydrolysed sago starch substrate using fed batch method for approximately 96 hours. The biomass concentration obtained was 4 g/L with PHA yield 20-30% of dry cell weight. The bioplastic was formed with solution casting method in which chloroform was used as solvent and PEG 400 was used as plasticizer. The concentrations of PEG 400added were 10, 20, and 30% (w/w), respectively. Bioplastic properties which were tested were tensile strength, elongation to break, density, thermal properties, cristalinity, and functional group. The addition of plastisizer tend to increase tensile strength and elongation to break, but decrease density, cristalinity and melting point. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 addition gave the best results. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 gave a value of tensile strength of 0.083 MPa; elongation to break of 0.881%; density of 0.7881 g/cm3;  melting point of 158.95 ac; and cristalinity of 44.58%. With these properties, the resulted bioi plastic may be used for surgical strings. Keywords: Bioplastic, Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Ralstonia eutropha, hidrolysed sago starch, PEG 400
DIRECT ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BREADFRUIT STARCH (ARTOCARPUS COMMUNIS FORST.) BY ENGINEERED SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION (ESSF) USING MICROBES CONSORTIUM Farida, Iftachul; Syamsu, Khaswar; Rahayuningsih, Mulyorini
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 4, No 1 (2015): February 2015
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (879.554 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.4.1.25-31

Abstract

Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst.) is one of sources for ethanol production, which has high starch content (89%). Ethanol production from breadfruit starch was conducted by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) technology using microbes consortium. The aim of the research was to examine a method to produce ethanol by SSF technology using microbes consortium at high yield and efficiency. The main research consisted of two treatments, namely normal SSF and enginereed SSF. The results showed that normal SSF using aeration and agitation during cultivation could produce ethanol at 11.15 ± 0.18 g/L, with the yield of product (Yp/s) 0.34 g ethanol/g substrate; and yield of biomass (Yx/s) 0.29 g cell/g substrate, respectively. A better result was obtained using engineered SSF in which aeration was stopped after biomass condition has reached the end of the exponential phase. The ethanol produced was 12.75 ± 0.04 g/L, with the yields of product (Yp/s) 0.41 g ethanol/g substrate, and the yield of cell (Yx/s) 0.09 g cell/g substrate.
Digestibility of Betung Bamboo Fiber Following Fungal Pretreatment Fatriasari, Widya; Syafii, Wasrin; Jaya Wistara, Nyoman; Syamsu, Khaswar; Prasetya, Bambang
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (292.278 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v18i2.394

Abstract

This research evaluated the effect of fungal pretreatment of betung bamboo fibers and enzymatic- and microwave-assisted hydrolysis on the reducing sugar yield. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass was carried out with cellulase and 10 and 20 FPU/g of substrate in a shaking incubator at 50 °C and 150 rpm for 48 h. The sulfuric acid concentration used in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was 1.0, 2.5, and 5%, either with or without the addition of activated carbon. Microwave irradiation (330 Watt) was applied for 5–12.5 min. The yield of reducing sugar was better with the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and the yield tended to increase with an increase in the irradiation time. Based on the dry weight of the initial biomass (bamboo), pretreatment with 5% inoculum loading resulted in a higher reducing sugar yield (17.06%) than with 10% inoculum loading (14.54%). At a 1% acid concentration, the formation of brown compounds decreased, followed by a reduction in the reducing sugar yield. The addition of activated carbon at a 1% acid concentration seemed to be of no benefit with respect to the yield in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment with the 5% inoculum loading for 12.5 min at 1% acid concentration resulted in the highest reducing sugar yield. Under these conditions, the yield was 6.3-fold that of the reducing sugar yield using 20 FPU/g of cellulase. The rate of bamboo hollocellulose hydrolysis reached 22.75% of the maximum theoretical reducing sugar reducing sugar of dry biomass.
The Fermentation Study on Polyhydroxyalkanoates Produced by Ralstonia eutropha from Hydrolized Sago Starch as The Carbon Source Atifah, Nur; Syamsu, Khaswar; Suryani, Ani
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 8, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial bioplastics, not only were similar in properties with those made of petrochemical products, they were also completely biodegradable. At the moment, the price of PHAs was still high. This research was conducted to investigate the ability of Ralstonia eutropha to produce PHAs on a sago starch-based substrate, one of the cheap and abundantly renewable resources in Indonesia, and to characterize the PHAs produced. The microorganism was grown on the hydrolyzed sago starch with an initial sugar concentration of 30 g/lIt was found that the best value of the maximum specific growth rate (µmax) was  0,188 h-1. Kinetic parameters at 96 hour-batch fermentation showed the respective final cell and PHA concentrations of 4,41 g/L and 1,44 g/L. The yields of cell biomass (Yx/s), PHAs per gram of cells (Yp/x), PHAs per gram of substrate (Yp/s) and the percentage of substrate consumption  (∆S/So) were, 0.15 g cell/g sugar; 0.35 g PHA/g cells; 0.06 g PHA/g sugar and 99%, respectively.  The PHAs produced were predominantly composed of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) as the functional groups with a melting point of 163,96 oC.Keywords : hydrolyzed sago starch, PHA, Ralstonia eutropha
FINANCIAL AND NON-FINANCIAL FACTORS ARE IMPORTANT INDICATORS TO EVALUATE PERFORMANCE OF CORPORATION.  THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY IS TO BUILD A MODEL FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF ESTATE AND PLANT BY USING BALANCE SCORECARD.  THE STUDY USES BALANCE SCORECARD, AND FUZZY ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS TO MODEL THE CRITERIA OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT FOR BOTH ESTATE AND PLANT.  RESULTS GENERATED FROM THE MODEL OF ESTATE PERFORMANCE CRITERIA MEASUREMENTS ARE SEED, FERTILIZING, COST MANAGEMENT, Farida, Aida; Jamaran, Irawadi; Darwis, A. Aziz; Syamsu, Khaswar; Arkeman, Yandra
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 34 No. 3 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Abstract

Financial and non-financial factors are important indicators to evaluate performance of corporation.  The main objective of this study is to build a model for improving performance of estate and plant by using balance scorecard.  The study uses balance scorecard, and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process to model the criteria of performance measurement for both estate and plant.  Results generated from the model of estate performance criteria measurements are seed, fertilizing, cost management, harvest, plant maintenance, production, and employee development.  Results generated from the model of plant performance criteria measurements are production rate, cost management, losses, plant utilization, CPO quality, employee development, and environmental friendly production process.  Estate and plant scoring board model are used to measure the performance of estate and plant based on set targets.  Results generated from estate scoring board model are low performance in cost management, production, and employed development.  Results generated from plant scoring board model are low performance in cost management, losses, and environmental friendly production process.  Performance improvement model for estate and plant are conducted by using expert management.  The result generated from this study is a software of decision support system by using expert management, and it is called In-KK v1.00.   Keywords: oil palm agroindustry, key performance indicator, scoring board
OPTIMIZATION OF PENICILLIUM LAGENA MEDIUM CULTIVICATION ON ANTIFUNGAL PATHOGEN OF PHELLINUS LAMAOENSIS USING SURFACE METHODE Nabilah, Siti; Sunaryanto, Rofiq; Syamsu, Khaswar
TEKNIK Vol 38, No 2 (2017): (Desember 2017)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (368.107 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v38i2.10306

Abstract

Phellinus lamaoensis (Murr.) Hein is fungal pathogen that can cause brown root rot disease in cocoa, tea, rubber, and coffee plants. Endophytic fungi, Penicillium lagena, isolated from bandotan (Ageratum conyzoides Linn.), medicinal plant, is able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic, P. lamaoensis. The effect of carbon source, nitrogen source, and mineral solution was studied. Lactose, yeast extract, and mineral solution were media components which showed significant effect toward production of P. lagena active compound. Composition optimization of these three medium components was done by response surface methodology (RSM). The Optimal response region of the significant factor was predicted by using a second order polynomial model with statistical design, central composite design (CCD). Higest production of P. lagena active compound by quadratic model was predicted to be 69.233%  with medium composition 44.77 g L-1 lactose, 13.02 g L-1 yeast extract, and 15.95 mL L-1 mineral solution. Verification value in laboratory is 58.365%, lower 15.7% than its prediction. Optimization increase P. lagena active compound 9 fold compared to unoptimize media.
PENENTUAN TEKNOLOGI PROSES PEMBUATAN GAMBIR MURNI DAN KATEKIN TERSTANDAR DARI GAMBIR ASALAN Yeni, Gustri; Syamsu, Khaswar; Mardliyati, Etik; Muchtar, Hendri
Jurnal Litbang Industri Vol 7, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Institution for Industrial Research and Standardization of Industry - Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24960/jli.v7i1.2846.1-10

Abstract

Uncaria gambir Roxb. is an industrial crop commodity that has a high economic value and good prospect for farmers and exporter. Gambier of traditional processed products (raw gambier) generally have various catechin content, so it is required further handling to increase the purity of catechins from raw gambier. The research was aimed to get a process technology on the making of pure gambier and standardized catechins. Sources of raw materials was obtained from extraction process through steaming leaves and twigs of gambier (KA) using equipment from aluminum (RA) and from iron (RF). Purification of raw gambier through repeated extraction with water could decrease tannin content from 24% to 2.4% and increase catechin levels between 40% to 74%. Gambier with a low tannin content (catechin KA) through re-extraction using water had the highest increase of catechin content with a color of yellowish white product. The iron-containing equipment affected the color of the pure gambier produced, which was reddish-brown. The effect of solvent on further extraction using ethyl acetate solvent resulted in higher catechin content (up to 99%) compare to ethanol (95%). The catechin purity of KA samples was tested by looking at its stability at varying levels of acidity, showing catechins of gambier was stabile at pH 6.ABSTRAK Uncaria gambir Roxb. merupakan komoditas tanaman industri yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi serta mempunyai prospek cukup baik bagi petani dan pemasok negara-negara asing. Gambir hasil olahan tradisional (gambir asalan), umumnya memiliki kandungan katekin yang beragam, sehingga diperlukan penanganan lebih lanjut untuk meningkatkan kemurnian katekin dari gambir asalan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan teknologi proses pembuatan gambir murni dan katekin terstandar. Sumber bahan baku diperoleh dari proses ekstraksi melalui pengukusan daun dan ranting tanaman gambir (KA) menggunakan peralatan dari aluminium (RA) dan dari besi (RF). Pemurnian gambir asalan melalui ekstraksi berulang dengan air dapat menurunkan kadar tanin, yaitu dari 24% sampai 2,4% dan meningkatkan kadar katekin, yaitu antara 40% sampai 74%. Gambir dengan kandungan tanin rendah (katekin KA) melalui ekstraksi ulang menggunakan air memiliki peningkatan kadar katekin tertinggi dengan warna produk putih kekuningan. Peralatan mengandung besi berpengaruh terhadap warna dari gambir murni yang dihasilkan, yaitu berwarna coklat kemerahan. Pengaruh pelarut terhadap ekstraksi lanjut menggunakan pelarut etil asetat menghasilkan kadar katekin lebih tinggi (sampai 98%) dibandingkan etanol (95%). Kemurnian katekin sampel KA diuji dengan melihat stabilitasnya pada berbagai tingkat keasaman, menunjukkan katekin dari gambir stabil pada pH 6.
Isolasi Identifikasi Bakteri Penghasil Xilanase serta Karakterisasi Enzimnya Richana, Nur; Irawadi, Tun T.; Nur, Anwar; Syamsu, Khaswar
Jurnal AgroBiogen Vol 4, No 1 (2008): April
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian

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Abstract

Xylanase is an extracellular enzyme produced bymicroorganisms. This enzyme is able to hydrolise xylane(hemicellulose) to produce xylooligosaccharide and xylose.Thermoalkaliphilic xylanase is an agent that can be used asa substitute in the pulp whitening process instead of chlorine.A study was done to isolate, identificate of bacteria andcharacterize xylanase. The isolation of xylanase producingbacteria has been done from soil and waste of starch industry.Colonies which produced clearing zone were presumedas xylanolytic bacteria and chosen for further screening.Identification of potential isolate in xylanase production wasdone using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Isolate Bacilluspumilus RXA-III5 originated from lime or alkaline soil wasmore potential isolate in xylanase production than other 24isolates. Precipitation of xylanase, that was done usingammonium sulphate followed by dialyzes produced xylanaseof a higher specific activity (267.1 U.mg-1) than that usingacetone (131.1 U.mg-1) and ethanol (186.65 U.mg-1). Xylanasewas done at purification produced three fractions of xylanase.Xylanase characteristics consist of pH and temperature(9 and 50oC), Km and Vmaks value 6 mg.ml-1 and 0.2mol.minute-1, respectively. The Fe2+ was the strongest activetorand Mg2+ was the strongest inhibitor activity. This enzymewas detected as a cellulose-free xylanase. Xylanase is aprospective agent for bio-bleaching of paper.
Purifikasi dan Karakterisasi α-amilase Termostabil dari Bacillus stearothermophilus TII-12 Lestari, Puji; Richana, Nur; Darwis, Abdul Aziz; Syamsu, Khaswar; Murdiyatmo, Untung
Jurnal AgroBiogen Vol 7, No 1 (2011): April
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian

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Abstract

Purification and Characterization of Thermostableα-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus TII-12. PujiLestari, Nur Richana, Abdul A. Darwis, Khaswar Syamsu,and Untung Murdiyatmo. Thermostable α-amylase is apotential enzyme employed in the starch processing andwidely used in food industries, but this enzyme is stillimported. The local enzyme production would be moreeconomist and useful for its broad applications. Here wereport α-amylase from indigenous bacteria TII-12 which waspurified and characterized, as well as analyzed its hydrolysisproduct on cassava starch. The enzyme of Bacillusstearothermophilus TII-12 partially purified by ultrafiltration,acetone precipitation and gel filtration (Sephadex G-100)showed the reduced total activity, total protein and yield, butincreased the specific activity. The enzyme had a Km of 1,06mg/ml and Vmax of 1,21 mol/min, with optimal activity at pH 7and 90oC. An apparent molecular mass was of 192.932,8Dalton, as estimated by Native-Polyacrylamide Agarose Gelelectrophoresis. Its activity was inhibited by the divalentcation chelator such as EDTA and CuSO4 but activated bycalcium ion. Hydrolysis products of this enzyme on cassavastarch were glucose, dextrin, maltose and oligosaccharides.After 24 hours of hydrolysis, the concentration of glucoseand maltose reached 51.970 and 10.090 ppm, respectively.The thermostable α-amylase of TII-12 is an endo-α-amylaseand prospective to be applied on starch liquefaction withhigh temperature process.
STABILITAS SENYAWA FENOLIK DALAM EKSTRAK DAN NANOKAPSUL KELOPAK BUNGA ROSELLA PADA BERBAGAI VARIASI pH, SUHU DAN WAKTU Purbowati, Ike Sitoresmi M; Syamsu, Khaswar; Warsiki, Endang; Sri, Herastuti
AGROINTEK Vol 10, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : University of Trunojoyo Madura

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21107/agrointek.v10i1.2023

Abstract

The extract which is still in liquid form, has several weaknesses, such as unstable in enviroment changes, low flexibility uses and trouble in material handling and transportation.  For these reasons, nanoencapsulation technique using β-siklodextrin as matrix agent is an alternative way. The aims of this research were characterization of total phenols, antioxidant activity of nanoencapsulation and the stability of the extract as well as nanocapsules against the changes of pHs, temperatures and boiling times.  Nanocapsules of roselle extract was containing phenol 4,53 + 0,26 mg/g, anthocyanin 2,99 + 0,18 mg/g, vitamin C 2,77 + 0,04 mg/g and water moisturizer 5,16 + 0,03%, antioxidant activity 49%.  Nanocapsules more resistence against the enviroment changes than the extract itself.  The stability test against the enviroment changes, the nanocapsules form more stable than the extract.  Showed with the slope of linier regression of nanocapsules form for phenols and antioxidant activity, respectively were: 0,111; 1,307 lower than the extract : 2,825; 7,634.  Nanocapsules more resistence against temperature and boiling time than the extract itself.  The stability test against temperature and boiling time, the nanocapsules form more stable than the extract.  Showed with the slope of linier regression of nanocapsules for phenols and antioxidant activity respectively were: 1,3315; 0,3162 lower than the extract : 1,5864; 0,5389