The estimated cost at the initial or conceptual stage is an estimate made when there is still little information about the image, description and specifications of the work to be done. This estimate is needed to provide information on the initial description of the total construction costs. Estimated costs must be accurate so as not to cause problems in the future. To obtain a method that meets these needs, we compare two estimation methods, namely the Cost Significant Model and the Metode Parametrik. This study aims to determine the components of the calculation needed by the Cost Significant Model and Parametric Method and the comparison of the two in making cost estimates and for determining the most accurate method. This research was applied to the construction of a 2-storey building in the province of West Sumatra. Data related to the study were collected from consultants in the city of Padang with 9 (nine) RAB data complete with project information originating from 2013 s.d. 2016Based on the Cost Significant Model analysis, the regression analysis formula is obtained: Y = 1,340,187,179 + 3,175 X2 + 0,295 X10 + 7,072 X11 + 1,881 X4 - 4,134 X13, where X2 is Foundation Work Cost, X10 is Wall Work Cost, X11 is Door Work Cost and Window, X4 is Column Work Costs, X13 is Floor Work Costs. This cost estimation model has been validated with an average error percentage of 0%. Metode Parametrik Analysis using the formula set out in Presidential Regulation No. 73 of 2011 Article 14: Total Project Costs = HSBGN x K x Project Area, where HSBGN is the Price of the State Building Building Unit and K is the multiplier multiplier for multi-storey buildings. This cost estimation model has been validated with an average error percentage of 32%. Based on the results of this error percentage, it is concluded that the most accurate method is the Cost Significant Model.To obtain a small earth (near zero) resistivity value is determined by the number of planted electrodes and soil type properties. Difficulty in obtaining this small resistivity value often errors in estimating soil properties or soil type resistance so that failure to obtain soil barriers often occurs.To determine the desired amount of material can be measured soil type resistor value, by measuring the soil resistivity value so that the estimated material cost estimation can be achieved well. then in this research using geoelectric method with Schlumberger configuration. Schlumberger method is a method with a constant system of spacing rules with the note of the 'n' multiplier is the comparison of the distance between the C1-P1 or (C2-P2) electrodes with P1-P2. The instrument used is a resistivity meter ( Naniura) equipped with four electrodes which have the ability to read output voltage response due to current injected into the ground surface through two current electrodes and two potential electrodes. In this study used progress to map the 2D isoresistivity beneath the measured surface. .The results of this soil resistivity measurement can be determined with certainty the amount of material used and the cost of workmanship provided to establish the proper grounding system to be attached to a 20 kV Distribution substation at the State Polytechnic Padang State Electricity Laboratory. So that the grounding system in pairs meet the standards that have been determined and can be categorized both and safe for humans and equipment for grounding Distribution Distributors 20 kV Electricity Engineering Laboratory at the State Polytechnic Campus Padang.
Batang Kuranji Watershed is one of the region river at Indragiri - Akuaman with a total area of Watershed 224.7 km2 consisting of Batang Sungai Sapiah Sub Watershed, Batang Danau Limau Manih Sub Watershed, Batang Sungkai Sub Watershed, Batang Bukik Tindawan Sub Watershed and Batang Padang Janiah Sub Watershed. Batang Kuranji flows from upstream of the Bukit Barisan with the highest elevation + 1,605 meters above sea level at the peak of Bukit Tinjau Laut and empties into the Padang beach with a main river length of ± 32.41. DEM has an influence on the results of land erosion by affecting the slope accuracy. The higher the DEM resolution, the more precise the results of the soil erosion simulation. With the Musle method the rate of erosion occurs in the Batang Kuranji watershed, with DEM data of 8m and land cover in 2017, an erosion rate of 23.91 tons / ha / year is classified in hazard class II (light), DEM data of 30m erosion rate is 7. 70 tons / ha / year are classified in hazard class I (very mild), with DEM data of 90m erosion rate of 4.54 tons / ha / year classified in hazard I class (very light). It can be seen that the higher the DEM resolution, the more accurate the erosion rate calculation in the watershed.
Changing the land use of the Limau Manis area from the forest to the campus area can directly reduce water catchment areas, where water cannot soak into the ground, so that water reserves in the ground become reduced and run-off increases. To overcome this problem, an environmental friendly run-off control study was carried out, namely with recharge wells. The purpose of this study was (1) to find out the storage capacity of each infiltration well in the Padang State Polytechnic Campus, (2) to find out the number of infiltration wells to reduce run-off in the Padang State Polytechnic Campus, and (3) to know the effect of levels ground water to changes in infiltration rate. The method used in this study is land use analysis using QGIS. Analysis of rainfall using the Normal, Log Normal, Gumbel and Log Pearson Type III methods. Test the validity and suitability of the distribution with the Chi-Square and Smirnov-Kolmogorof tests. Run-off discharge analysis is calculated using the Rational method. Primary data were obtained by field testing and infiltration well making. The results of this study were (1) the capacity (volume) of storage in each infiltration well was different, where the largest infiltration well volume was 4.6 m3 while the smallest infiltration well volume was 3.1 m3, (2) the number of infiltration wells can reduce run-off varies, with 186 units of infiltration wells reducing by 34.2% runoff discharge to 65.8%, 113 infiltration well units reducing by 20.4% runoff discharge to 79.6%, 60 infiltration well units reducing by 10.8% runoff discharge to 89.2%, and 31 infiltration well units reduce by 5.5% runoff discharge to 94.5%, and (3) changes in groundwater content from 30.6% -50.6% cause a decrease in infiltration rate of 0.1 cm / minute.
Batang Kuranji is one of six rivers that flow in the city of Padang, and is the main source of water for residents of Padang City to meet the raw water which is then processed into clean water and the needs of Mt. Nago irrigation water. The increase in population causes the population to move to a higher area (green zone). Batang Kuranji watershed has experienced a reduction in the area of forest land due to changes in land use activities by the population movement. As a result, land that was not watertight at first became watertight, the mainstay discharge or expected discharge is always available, always increasing during the rainy season and decreasing during the dry season. This study was conducted to determine the extent of land use change in the Batang Kuranji watershed, also to determine the main discharge that occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2017 using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The analysis consists of four processes, namely watershed delineation, formation of a Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU), formation of climatological data, and finally the simulation process. HRU analysis results obtained by Batang Kuranji watershed into 9 sub-watersheds, the dominant HRU is protection forest by 62%, soil type with depth (solum) level A and B, runoff coefficient of 0.3 and NS value obtained by 0.6. This shows that the SWAT model can predict the hydrological process in the upstream Batang Kuranji watershed. The most influential land use on surface runoff is land use for settlement.
The purpose of the study is to look at changes in land use and hydrograph models of Danau Limau Manis Sub-watershed using data 2011 until 2015.The results shows the change of land use of Batang Kuranji Watershed, Sub DAS Danau Limau Manis can decreased 3.03% from 2011 to 2015. It due to the opening of new land. While shrub rose rose 0360%, because was due of changes of forests that have not done processing. For an others using of the land the number increase 3.40%. It due to changes of forests and shrubs into failure land.. As the runoff coefficient (C) does not occur any significant change that is from 0.405 into 0.408. Peak discharge calculated by the Nakayasu method 128.02 m3 / dt, was greater by Rational method of 127,52 m3 / dt is caused no difference in the approach used.
Heavy rains on Monday, 21/3/2016, which flushed the city of Padang, West Sumatra, causing floods and submerged thousands of homes at local residents. This time called the flooding the worst experienced by the region in recent years. Head of Logistics Emergency and Disaster Management Agency said flooding in Padang city West Sumatra at this time was the worst, because it contributes to soak the areas that usually never flooded. The purpose of the study is to look at changes in land use and hydrograph models of Batang Air Dingin watershed using field data.The results shows the change of land use of Batang Air Dingin Watershed can decreased 1.57% from 2011 to 2015. It due to the opening of new land. While shrub rose rose 0.70%, because was due of changes of forests that have not done processing. For an others using of the land the number increase 1.75%. It due to changes of forests and shrubs into failure land.. As the runoff coefficient (C) does not occur any significant change that is from 0.443 into 0.445. Peak discharge calculated by the Nakayasu method 179.274 m3 / dt, was greater by Snyder method of 177.150 m3 / dt is caused no difference in the approach used.
With the position on the west coast region of Sumatra, Padang beach facing directly to Indian Ocean that have potentially threat by the ocean waves that relatively give effect to changes in the coastline. This study was conducted to evaluating the performance of existing coastal protection structure to restrain the rate of erosion as a result of the influence of hydrodynamics process. Condition that reviewed was in form of distance shoreline as simulation results to initial reference line before. One Line Model was conducted to get shoreline change in each time step calculation. Model consists of two conditions, with the absence of coastal structures and with structure respectively. The simulation result show that potential erosion occurs at Batang Arau river mouth with no protection structure. Large erosion predicted around 59.04 meters from the shoreline position early. With coastal protection, model result obtained sedimentation of 7.33 meters coastline from its initial position. This occurs at a distance of 475 meters from the boundary domain. Modeling results also showed erosion is 18.39 meters at a distance of 250 m from the boundary domain. This is likely due to the limited modeling conditions that without reviewing of littoral transport direction that occurred in perpendicular to the coast. Result study show that the presence of a groyne in Padang coasts looks already quite effective in defense of the shoreline of the littoral transport direction, however the installation of groins seemingly did not give significant meaning in the addition of the coastline
Current water use practice in Tampo Irrigation District is thought as inefficient, since water from main canal is drained to neighboring stream without further use by downstream farms. The remaining paddy farm receives less water from the same source canal. As the result the farms could only harvest once per year. A new irrigation scheme is proposed by diverting water back to the main canal to be used by farms downstream the canal. The proposed method is by using DEM and GIS information, coupled with computation of current water use of the existing farms.The study is begun by identifying the existing farms in topography, irrigation networks, and water use. We use 30 m DEM by ASTER GDEM, coupled with Google Earth to identify stream networks and to delineate basin. The results are confirmed with field measurement in which elevation of structures such as weir, gates, hubs are recorded using GPS. Pertinent points in the field are also recorded by GPS. The existing farms are delineated and marked. Water flow rate are measured in the field using traditional method.We found that the existing water use is insufficient to irrigate the irrigation district. Instead of improving efficiency of the irrigation scheme, water needs additional supply by various means.Otherwise crops cannot be increased more than once a year. We identified another potential water source near the irrigation network that can be directly connected to the existing network. This could irrigate another 100 hectares land.
In the last ten years, the area west coast of Sumatra island has several times experienced the earthquake with strong intensity. Starting from the earthquake in Aceh December 26, 2004 until 30 September 2009 earthquake Pariaman ago. The last earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale has killed more than 1,000 people and damaged buildings 279 432, with 50 percent of them were severely damaged. Another alternative that is better than doing demolition is to retrofit. In general, the retrofit can be described as the addition of new technology or new technology on a merger between the old system (which already exists). In other words, the retrofit is the process of retrofitting old buildings with the aim of making these buildings resistant to earthquakes. From the calculation and analysis conducted on the carbon material, the material Sika Wrap Hex 230C can be used to retrofit House Office Building Customs Bayur Gulf of Padang. The method of implementation should be properly cared for, so that the strength of the building is expected back as they are resistant to earthquakes. It should be noted once in choosing the method of retrofitting that we will use.
In a feasibility study of the structure after the fire ( Case Study Building of Pasar Koppas in Padang ) . To obtain preliminary data, building data includes tracking information about the building construction has been done. Then visual inspection includes examination of the structural system of the building and non-structural components, as well as the configuration of the geometry component of the structure. Measurement of the building is intended to determine the configuration of the building . It can also serve as a confirmation of the existing building geometric conditions . Later examination of the damage structure and non- structural components by visual observation . Field trials conducted to obtain the data quality of the material structure of the building, with a non destruxctive and destructive . This activity is a test of the quality of the concrete surface with a hammer concrete test, concrete homogeneity measurement, measurement of the diameter and spacing of reinforcement, concrete cored drill with the core drill tools, observations reinforcement fatigue . While in the laboratory to test the compressive strength of the concrete core and reinforcement tensile test. Taking photographs of the condition of the buildings, structural components and non-structural components for further examination to determine the location of the damage, as well as a guide to determine damage level of the building, in addition to the photographs can serve as documentation . Then the data evaluation and analysis of the structure of the building . From the results of the evaluation and analysis of the feasibility of building structures from Pasar Koppas could be concluded, that the structure and function of the building is still viable . For the convenience of occupancy necessary to repair or retrofitting the proper manner and method by the Government of Padang City.