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KONSEP IJMA’ DALAM USHUL FIQH DAN KLAIM GERAKAN ISLAM 212 Tohari, Chamim
Aqlam: Journal of Islam and Plurality Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : IAIN Manado

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.30984/ajip.v4i2.1009

Abstract

AbstrackThis research discusses about the results of ijtima 'ulama issued some time ago ahead of the 2019?s presidential elections in Indonesia and afterward. This research aims to answer the following problems: (1) Are the decisions of ijtima 'ulama claimed to be the result of ijma' in line with the concept of ijma? in ushul fiqh? (2) How were the decisions of ijtima' they claimed as the result of ijma' viewed according to the concept of fatwa in Islamic law? The research used a descriptive analitical method where the author in this study analyzes the data obtained and then interpreted them based on the perspective of the ijma? theory. The results of this research are: (1) The agreements produced by ijtima' ulama regarding their political choices fail to be categorized as ijma? results because the decisions do not meet to the ijma requirements in ushul fiqh. Namely; not being produced by the mujtahid ulama. Further, the decisions made are not related to Islamic law (such as taklifi laws), and the decisions do not reflect the political views of prominent ulamas (moslem scholars) in Indonesia, especially in the world. (2) The decision of ijtima? ulama is also not worth mentioning as a fatwa which is one form of Islamic law, because there is no a clear legal basis in their ijtihad method, or scientific analysis. Finally, their ijtima?s result does not come out from the competent and qualified people having authority in the field of law. Key Words: Ijma?, Ijtima?, Ijtihad, Politic, 212.AbstrakPenelitian ini membahas tentang hasil keputusan ijtima? ulama yang dikeluarkan beberapa waktu lalu menjelang pelaksanaan pemilu di Indonesia dan sesudahnya. Penelitian ini difokuskan untuk menjawab beberapa permasalahan berikut ini: (1) Apakah keputusan ijtima? ulama yang diklaim sebagai hasil ijma? tersebut sejalan dengan konsep ijma? dalam ilmu ushul fiqh? (2) Bagaimana keputusan ijtima? ulama yang diklaim sebagai hasil ijma? tersebut apabila dilihat menurut konsep fatwa dalam hukum Islam? Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan jawaban dari dua pertanyaan tersebut. Adapun metode penelitian yang penulis gunakan adalah deskriptif kualitatif dimana penulis dalam penelitian ini hendak melakukan analisis data yang diperoleh dan kemudian melakukan penafsiran terhadap objek penelitian berdasarkan perspektif ilmu ushul fiqh. Hasil penelitian ini adalah: (1) Kesepakatan yang dihasilkan oleh ijtima? ulama tentang pilihan politik mereka tidak dapat dikategorikan sebagai hasil ijma? karena keputusan tersebut tidak memenuhi persyaratan-persyaratan ijma? dalam ilmu ushul fiqh, seperti tidak diputuskan oleh para ulama yang telah mencapai derajat sebagai mujtahid, keputusan yang dihasilkan tidak berkaitan dengan hukum Islam (seperti hukum-hukum taklifi), serta keputusan tersebut tidak mencerminkan representasi pandangan politik para ulama terkemuka di Indonesia, lebih-lebih di dunia. (2) Keputusan ijtima? ulama juga tidak layak disebut sebagai fatwa yang mana merupakan salah satu bentuk hukum Islam, karena tidak adanya landasan hukum yang jelas, metode ijtihad, apalagi analisis ilmiah. Selain itu keputusan tersebut juga tidak keluar dari orang yang layak dipandang sebagai orang yang berwenang atau mumpuni untuk memutuskan hukum.Keywords: Ijma?, Ijtima?, Ijtihad, Politic, 212.
FIQH AL-AQALLIYYÂT: FRAMEWORK IJTIHAD HUKUM ISLAM UNTUK MUSLIM MINORITAS Tohari, Chamim
JURNAL ISTINBATH Vol 11, No 2 (2014): Edisi September 2014
Publisher : STAIN Jurai Siwo Metro

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Abstract

Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah untuk menemukan jawaban dari poin-poin rumusan yang menjadi lingkup kajian di antaranya tentang latar belakang munculnya fiqh al-aqalliyyâth,makna etimologis, berikut pendiri dan tokoh-tokohnya, framework ijtihadnya, serta pembuktian atas legalitas fatwa  fiqh al-aqalliyyâth. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah library research atau text studies (studi dokumen/teks) dengan pendekatan analisis metodologis, sosiologis, dan filosofis. Hasil penelitian ini adalah; (1) Fiqh al-aqalliyyâth diartikan sebagai pemahaman dan pengetahuan secara mendalam dan komprehensif terhadap hukum syarî’ah yang dikhususkan untuk umat Islam minoritas berdasarkan pertimbangan konteks sosial, zaman dan tempat. (2) metodologi ijtihad yang digunakan dalam fiqh al-aqalliyyâth adalah qiyâs (deduction), maslahah al-mursalah (public interest not based on text) dan‘urf (custom), sedangkan prinsip-prinsip ijtihad yang digunakan mencakup prinsip maslahah (public interest), dharûrah (necessity), dan taysîr (making fiqh easy). Selain itu, ada dua pola ijtihad yang dikembangkan dalam  fiqh al-aqalliyyâth, yaitu metode intiqâ’î, dan metode insyâ’î. (3) legalitas fiqh al-aqalliyyâth dapat dibuktikan setidaknya melalui sudut pandang metodologis, sosiologis, dan filosofis. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah,  fiqh al-aqalliyyâth merupakan perwujudan dari hukum Islam dengan sifatnya yang elastis sesuai dengan kemaslahatan yang dibutuhkan dalam konteks zaman, tempat, dan kondisinya. Keywords: Fiqh al-Aqalliyyât, Muslim Minoritas, Maqâshid al-Syarî’ah, Maslahah
FIQH KEINDONESIAAN: Transformasi Hukum Islam Dalam Sistem Tata Hukum Di Indonesia Tohari, Chamim
Analisis : Jurnal Studi Keislaman Vol 15, No 2 (2015): Analisis : Jurnal Studi Keislaman
Publisher : IAIN Raden Intan Lampung

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Abstract

INDONESIAN JURISPRUDENCE: ISLAMIC LAW TRANSFORMATION   IN  LAW  SYSTEM  OF  INDONESIA.: This  study  discusses  about  the  idea  of  Islamic  law renewal in Indonesia,  as well as the  figures,  and it  makes  the  term  of Indonesian Jurisprudence   and  its  formalization   into  the  law system  of Indonesia.  The  purpose of this  study  is to  find  the answer  of these  following  points:  Firstly,  the interpretation or definition of Indonesian Jurisprudence concept; secondly, the figures who proposed Indonesian Jurisprudence and the result of their thoughts;  and the third, the formalization  of Jurisprudence concept  with  Indonesian  nuance  in the  law  system Indonesia. This study was a library research with a content analysis method. The results of this study are: (1) Indonesian Jurisprudence could be interpreted  as a Jurisprudence concept that is more Indonesian local-based; (2) Hasbi As-Shiddiqi  and Hazairin are two figures who proposed Indonesian Jurisprudence model, apart from other intellectuals. Hasbi is one of modernists  who offered his ideas comprehensively, started from his “Indonesian Jurisprudence” concept until the law renewal including its principle and method. Meanwhile Hazairin offered the development  of a new heritage system  which  interpreted   and  elaborated  based  on Al-Qur’an scriptural perception and Sunnah which is not a patrilineal system but bilateral family model); and (3) formalization  of Indonesian Jurisprudence   concept   produces   some   ordinance   regulation products  which are important  formally  and materially,  such as Ordinance  of Islamic Marriage Law, and also other  rules under the Ordinance, such as Government  Law, President  Instruction, and Supreme Court Law, as well as Islamic Law Compilation and Sharia Economic Law Compilation
HUKUKI AILE KARARNAMESI: Reformasi dan Konstitusionalisasi Hukum Keluarga Islam di Turki tohari, chamim
Jurnal Penelitian Vol 11, No 2 (2017): JURNAL PENELITIAN
Publisher : P3M STAIN kUDUS

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21043/jupe.v11i2.3484

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This research focused to the study about Hukuki Aile Kararmnamesi (HAK) in the historical aspect which is specialized to answer several main problems about background, characteristic of the fiqh thought, implementation as a legal constitution in Turkey, the methods of codification, and its role and existence between legislation of the family secular law in the early modern state of Turkey. The researcher use a historical analysis approach as method to describe the result of this research. The result of this research were: (1) The background of the codification of Islamic Family Law in Turkey is a condition of the Ottoman empire which had reformation in the law field in the Sultan Abdul Hamid period. Cause of the reformation of law is a pressure to the modernization and secularization by West states to the countries under Ottoman’s authority. Afterwards, the universal, unbounded to the one or more of mazhab thoughts, and realistic maybe can be mentioned as the characteristic of the HAK book; (2) The method of codification is Talfiq method. It is using several opinions from the muslem scholars in the difference sects, then choose one of the most relevan opinion of law which is needed by the citizen; and (3) Untill now the book (HAK) still implementated by the moslem society in the modern state of Turkey together with the legislation of The Civil Code, a secular family law as substitute of this book since the year 1926 ago.
The Difference Opinions Analysis on Conventional Bank Interest Law According to Ushul Fiqh Tohari, Chamim
Jurnal Ilmiah Al-Syir'ah Vol 17, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : IAIN Manado

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.30984/jis.v17i1.795

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This research discussed conventional bank interest law according to the opinion of the Muslim scholars, which then will continue the discussion with the legal analysis based on the ushul fiqh theory to determine the strength of the conventional bank interest law. The most crucial problem examined in this research is how is prevailing bank interest law viewed from the perspective of usual fiqh? This research is library research. The approach used in this study is a conceptual approach considering the purpose to be achieved in this study is to produce one concept of Islamic legal thinking about bank interest law which is not bounded by existing views or opinions, but actually refers to the rules of Islamic law which is agreed upon by the majority of the muslim scholars. The results of this study are: The scholars have a different opinion on bank interest law. Those who forbid argued that bank interest has in common with usury, so it must be banned. As for those who justify bank interest explained that bank interest is not the same as usury, so its law is halal. As for those who consider it as a shubhat thing, because in their view the bank's interest besides having similarities with usury, also has a number of differences, so its law is shubhat. The bank interest law when viewed from the perspective of ushul fiqh, then both those that forbid, which justify, or those that consider syubhat, all of which do not originate from the qath'î, but zhannî propositions because they come from the results of ijtihad using the qiyâs method. Because of the absence of the qath 'argument, the author argues that the new direction to determine the halal-haram law of banking transactions with the interest system should be assessed from the large or small level of benefit (maslahah) and harm (mudharat) arising from the sale.
ANALISIS UNDANG-UNDANG NOMOR 2 TAHUN 2012 TENTANG PEMBERIAN GANTI RUGI ATAS PROYEK PENGADAAN TANAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN UMUM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM ISLAM Tohari, Chamim
Hukum Islam Vol 18, No 1 (2018): HUKUM KELUARGA DAN EKONOMI SYARIAH
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah dan hukum Universitas Islam Negeri Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24014/hi.v18i1.6170

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This research focused to analyze arrangements about implementation of the loss subtitution gift for a land deliverance in the process of the land supplying which is attached in Indonesian‟s Contitution Number 2 Year 2012 in the perspective of Islamic Law. The problem which will answered in the research is about the arrangements is it according to the concept of the loss subtitution gift in Islamic law? The research is a normative law research library research type which is use a comparative analysis method as a method used to supply the answer of the problem in the research. The results of the research there are: First, in the perspective of fiqh problem in the research. The results of the research there are: First, in the perspective of fiqh importance reconstruction has been according to the concept of kafâlah in the conference and the loss substitution gift stage when agreement about the amount of the loss substitution reached . However in the next stage when the owner of land do not agree about amount of the loss substitution gift, the constitution has not been according to the concept ot kafâlah particularly, and the principles of the fiqh muamalah generally. Second, based on the fiqh siyasah perspective, the constitution can be concluded that it has been according to the principles of fiqh siyasah. Because the infra structure development for the general importance has been relevance to the maslahah of the citizen and the nation. Based on this argument, all of the citizen of Indonesia have to obey the constitution for the maslahah realization.
Methodological and Sociological Analysis About The Fatwa Of Majelis Tarjih Muhammadiyah Concerning To The Muslim Marriage With An Ahl Al-Kitab Tohari, Chamim
Jurnal Ilmiah Al-Syirah Vol 16, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : IAIN Manado

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.30984/jis.v16i2.744

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Relation between the different of religion comunity in the multicultural nation as in Indonesia be a natural phenomenon that it cannot be avoided. As to one of the problem that had appeared in this case is about wedding problem betweena moslem with the difference religion womans. Majority of the Indonesia religious scholars as scholar in Majelis Tarjih Muhammadiyah had been prohibiting wedding like that with various reason. while a part little of the contemporary moslem scholars have been permiting the wedding. The points which will discussed in this research is how is opinion of Majelis Tarjih Muhammadiyah about the law of wedding with the woman from Ahl Al-Kitab and its ijtihad methodology. This research should analyze the argumentation of the Majelis Tarjih that make forbidding a muslem married with the difference religion womans. This research using library research approach dan content analysis. The results of this research are: (1) Majelis Tarjih of Muhammadiyah forbidding the wedding with sad al-dzari’ah as its argumentation; (2) Majelis Tarjih’s opinion has been irrelevant because two reason, the mistake of methodology and the change of the Indonesian contemporary society (based on an empiric data). Keywords: Ahlu Kitab; Majelis Tarjih; Different Religion Marriage
PEMBAHARUAN KONSEP MAQĀSID AL-SHARĪ’AH DALAM PEMIKIRAN MUHAMAMAD ṬAHIR IBN ‘ASHUR Tohari, Chamim
Al-Maslahah Vol 13, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah dan Ekonomi Islam (Syari'ah Faculty and Islamic Economic)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24260/almaslahah.v13i1.915

Abstract

Abstract This research discuss about the thought of maqāsid al-sharī’ahby Muhammad Ṭahir Ibn ‘Ashur. To limit this discussion, i just focus to discuss two important matters, it is; First, how is concept of maqāsid al-sharī’ahin the thought of Ibn ‘Ashur? Second, how is construct of thought of the maqāsid al-sharī’ahIbn Ashur? This is a library research with content analysis as its method. The sources of this research is Ibn ‘Ashur’s thoughts in his books. The results of this research is; First, before Ibn ‘Ashur’s period, the thoughts of maqāsid al-sharī’ahhas been finding its formation in the several familier categories which mentioned by al-uṣūl al-khamsah (five of the based principles). Every principle have three level, it isdarūriyāt, al-hajjiyāt, and taḥsināt/al-tazyināt. Second, in the Ibn Ashur’s period, the thoughts of maqāsid al-sharī’ahhas renewed by Ibn ‘Ashur in the new formation as purity (al-fitrah), tolerance (al-samahah), benefit (al-maslahah), equality (al-musāwah), and freedom (al-hurriyah) as parts of the maqāsid al-sharī’ah. From the scope aspect, the validity of the Ibn ‘Ashur’s thought about maqāsid al-sharī’ahappearly have more universal character than thought of maqāsid al-sharī’ahbefore. However, the weekness of the Ibn ‘Ashur’s thought is that maqāsid al-sharī’ahthought by Ibn ‘Ashur have not clarity and explanation about the level of priority and it’s method to applicated in the Islamic Law. Abstrak Penelitian ini mengkaji tentang pemikiran maqāsid al-sharī’ahMuhammad Ṭāhir Ibn ‘Ashūr. Untuk membatasi kajian ini, penulis memfokuskan hanya pada dua masalah pokok, yakni; Pertama, bagaimana konsep maqāsid al-sharī’ahsebelum datangnya Ibn ‘Ashur? Kedua, bagaimana konstruksi pemikiran maqāsid al-sharī’ahyang digagas Ibn ‘Ashur? Penelitian ini adalah penelitian pustaka dengan konten analisis sebagai metode analisisnya. Sumber kajian ini adalah pemikiran maqāshidIbn ‘Ashur yang termuat dalam karyanya. Hasil penelitian iniadalah: Pertama, sebelum masa Ibn ‘Ashur, pemikiran maqāsid al-sharī’ahtelah menemukan bentuknya dalam beberapa kategori yang terkenal dengan istilah al-uṣūl al-khamsah, dimana masing-masing dariprinsip dasar tersebut memiliki tingkatan darūriyāt, al-hajjiyāt, dan taḥsīnāt/al-tazyīnāt. Kedua, pada masa Ibn ‘Ashur, pemikiran maqāsid al-sharī’ahmengalami pembaharuan hingga menghasilkan fitrah (al-fitrah), toleransi (al-samahah), maslahat (al-maslahah), kesetaraan (al-musawah), serta kebebasan (al-hurriyah) sebagai bagian darimaqāsid al-sharī’ah. Dari sisi cakupannya, keberlakuan maqāsid al-sharī’ahdalam pemikiran Ibn ‘Ashurtampak lebih universal dibanding dengan pemikiran maqāsid al-sharī’ahsebelumnya. Namun demikian, pemikiran Ibn ‘Ashur memiliki kelemahan darisisi ketidakjelasan tingkatan prioritasnya serta aplikasi metode penerapannya dalam hukum Islam.
Rekonstruksi Hukum Kewarisan Beda Agama Ditinjau dari Al-Ushūl Al-Khamsah Tohari, Chamim
Mazahib Jurnal Pemikiran Hukum Islam Volume 16, Nomor 1, Juni 2017
Publisher : IAIN Samarinda

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (725.884 KB) | DOI: 10.21093/mj.v16i1.625

Abstract

                                                              Islamic Inheritance Law is believed to be a law containing rules that are in line with public interest. Hence, only few Moslem scholars (ulama?) have conducted ijtihad on the topic in order to reform its rules and bring them pursuant to contemporary situation. Consequently, when there is a gap between the ideal of Islamic inheritance law (i.e. maslaha) and its application in the Islamic society, a rational ruling over the problem of inheritance division faced by Moslems becomes unavailable. Given this, it is necessary to re-interprete the textual sources of Islamic Inheritance Law, in order to come up new rules pursuant to the objective of syari?ah. One of the pressing problems need to be resolved is about the status of Muslim heirs whose inherits from their non-Moslem family. This article thus discusses two main issues: first, what the opinions of Moslems scholars are about a Moslem who inherits from his/her non-Moslem family; and second, which opinion is the most relevant to the al-u?h?l al-khamsah. This article is doctrinal legal research which employs comparative and deductive analysis. It reveals that: (1) the Moslem scholars are devided into two groups of thought, the first group forbid a Moslem to inherit from his/her non-Moslem family, and the second group allow it; (2) the most relevant opinion to the objective of syari`ah is the second opinion. This is so because the admissibility of a Moslem to inherit from his/her non-Moslem fulfils the criteria of public interest of essential and complimentary level. Keywords: Islamic Inheritance law, interfaith inheritance law, isti?l?hi, al-u??l al-khamsah.