Toto Toharmat
Department of Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Agatis, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680, Indonesia

Published : 12 Documents
Articles

Found 12 Documents
Search

Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment Wina, Elizabeth; Toharmat, Toto; Astuti, Widia
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 3 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (156.111 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i3.237

Abstract

Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide) and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1) the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2) the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4%) by soaking method, 3) determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively). In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.   Key words: Bark, acacia mangium, urea, sodium hydroxide, digestibility
Total Digestible Nutrient of Diet Containing PUFA- Concentrate Supplemented with Yeast and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb for Dairy Goat Sulistyowati, Endang; Sudarman, Asep; Wiryawan, Komang G.; Toharmat, Toto
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia Vol 9, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Bengkulu

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (233.002 KB)

Abstract

ABSTRACTThis research was designed to evaluate nutrient digestibility, mentioned as Total Digestible Nutrient of diet containing PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) - concentrate supplemented with yeast and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb for dairy goat. Twenty Ettawah crossbred goat in late lactation were allocated into 6 treatments in randomized block design. The treatments were PD0: PUFA-diet with no supplement, PDA: with Asifit, PDY: with 0.5% yeast, PDC: with 1.5% curcuma, and PDM: with 0.5% yeast + 1.5% curcuma. The PUFA-diet contained of 80% PUFA- concentrate as basic diet and 20% Pennisetum purpureum. While the PUFA sources were roasted ground corn and roasted soybean meal, and corn oil. Results showed that intakes of DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, ADF, and GE were not affected significantly by dietary treatments. However, EE and NDF among treatments were different significantly (P<0.05), whereas Ca and P were different very significantly (P<0.01). High nutrient contents (DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NDF, and GE) were found in feces of the goat with curcuma diet (PDC), consequently showed the opposite effects by giving the lowest digestibility (P<0.05 or P<0.01) of these nutrients. Total digestible nutrient (TDN) of PDY and PDM were markedly higher (79.89% and 79.37%, respectively) than that in other diets, such as being the lowest was in PDC (69.94%). This suggested that the yeast concentration of 1.8 108cfu/d, given singly or in combination with 1.5% Curcuma could be considered as the right level for improving nutrient digestibility in the late lactation goat in our study.Keywords: curcuma, dairy goat, PUFA-diet, TDN, yeast
Responses of milk quality to roasted soybeans, calcium soap and organic mineral supplementation in dairy cattle diets ., Adawiah; Sutardi, Toha; Toharmat, Toto; Manalu, Wasmen; ., Nahrowi
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 11, No 4 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (125.959 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v11i4.538

Abstract

Milk quality is affected by feed nutrient either macronutrient or micronutrient.  Roasted soayabeans and calcium soap were to increase supply by pas protein and fat to dairy cattle. Thus, organic mineral was to increase bioavailability of feed mineral to animal.  The objective of this study was to evaluate roasted soybean, mineral soap and organic mineral supplementation on milk quality of dairy cattle.  Twenty lactating Frisian Holstein cows (initial weight 361.4 ± 40.39 kg) were assigned into a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments and 4 blocks. The treatments were A: basal diet, B: A + roasted soybean, C: B + calcium soap of corn oil, D: C + calcium soap of corn oil, E: C + calcium soap of fish oil. The experimental diets were offered for 9 and 2 weeks preliminary. The results of the experiment showed that milk protein and lactose were not affected by diets.  Milk dry matter  of cows fed A, B, and D diets were higher (P<0.05) than those of fed C and E diets.  Milk fat of cows fed A,  B and D diets were higher (P<0.05) than those of  fed C and E diets. Milk density of cows fed B and E diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of fed A, C and D diets. Milk TPC of cows fed B diet were higher (0.05) than those of fed A, C, D, and E diets. It is concluded that milk quality especially milk protein and lactose concentration are not affected by roasted soyabeans, Ca-soap, and organic mineral. Calcium soap of fish oil and organic mineral decrease population of milk bacteria. Key Words: Calcium Soap, Organic Mineral, Roasted Soyabeans, Dairy Cattle, Quality Milk
Total Digestible Nutrient of Diet Containing PUFA- Concentrate Supplemented with Yeast and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb for Dairy Goat Sulistyowati, Endang; Sudarman, Asep; Wiryawan, Komang G.; Toharmat, Toto
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia Vol 9, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Bengkulu

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

 ABSTRAKPenelitian ini didisain untuk mengevaluasi kecernaan nutrisi, dinyatakan dalam TDN, dari ransum yang mengandung PUFA konsentrat yang disuplementasi yeast dan Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb pada kambing perah.  Dua puluh ekor kambing Peranakan Ettawah (PE) pada fase laktasi akhir dialokasikan kedalam 6 perlakuan dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok.  Perlakuan tersebut adalah: PD0: PUFA-diet tanpa suplemen, PDA: dengan Asifit, PDY: dengan 0,5% yeast, PDC: dengan 2% curcuma, dan PDM: dengan 0,5% yeast + 2% curcuma.  Ransum- PUFA terdiri atas 80% PUFA- konsentrat sebagai ransum dasar dan 20% rumput gajah.   Sumber PUFA terdiri atas jagung giling sangrai, tepung kedelai sangrai, dan minyak jagung.  Hasil menunjukkan bahwa  konsumsi  DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, ADF, dan GE tidak terpengaruh oleh perlakuan.  Namun, EE dan NDF  antarperlakuan berbeda  signifikan (P<0.05), sedang Ca dan P  berbeda sangat signifikan (P<0.01).  Kandungan nutrisi yang tinggi (DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NDF, and GE)  ditemukan di feces pada kambing dengan perlakuan Curcuma (PDC), konsekuensinya adalah kecernaan nutrisinya secara signifikan (P<0.05) atau sangat signifikan (P<0.01) terendah.  Total digestible nutrient (TDN) dari  PDY dan PDM secara signifikan tinggi (79,89% dan 79,37%) disbanding ransum lainnya, terendah pada PDC (69,94%).  Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa yeast atau ragi dengan konsentrasi 1,8 108cfu/d baik disuplementasikan tunggal atau dikombinasi dengan 2% Curcuma dapat dikatakan sebagai kandungan yang tepat untuk memperbaiki kecernaan nutrisi pada kambing perah dengan laktasi akhir pada penelitian ini.Kata kunci: curcuma, kambing perah,  PUFA-diet, TDN, yeast
Responses of milk quality to roasted soybeans, calcium soap and organic mineral supplementation in dairy cattle diets ., Adawiah; Sutardi, Toha; Toharmat, Toto; Manalu, Wasmen; ., Nahrowi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 11, No 4 (2006): DECEMBER 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (125.959 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v11i4.538

Abstract

Milk quality is affected by feed nutrient either macronutrient or micronutrient.  Roasted soayabeans and calcium soap were to increase supply by pas protein and fat to dairy cattle. Thus, organic mineral was to increase bioavailability of feed mineral to animal.  The objective of this study was to evaluate roasted soybean, mineral soap and organic mineral supplementation on milk quality of dairy cattle.  Twenty lactating Frisian Holstein cows (initial weight 361.4 ± 40.39 kg) were assigned into a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments and 4 blocks. The treatments were A: basal diet, B: A + roasted soybean, C: B + calcium soap of corn oil, D: C + calcium soap of corn oil, E: C + calcium soap of fish oil. The experimental diets were offered for 9 and 2 weeks preliminary. The results of the experiment showed that milk protein and lactose were not affected by diets.  Milk dry matter  of cows fed A, B, and D diets were higher (P<0.05) than those of fed C and E diets.  Milk fat of cows fed A,  B and D diets were higher (P<0.05) than those of  fed C and E diets. Milk density of cows fed B and E diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of fed A, C and D diets. Milk TPC of cows fed B diet were higher (0.05) than those of fed A, C, D, and E diets. It is concluded that milk quality especially milk protein and lactose concentration are not affected by roasted soyabeans, Ca-soap, and organic mineral. Calcium soap of fish oil and organic mineral decrease population of milk bacteria. Key Words: Calcium Soap, Organic Mineral, Roasted Soyabeans, Dairy Cattle, Quality Milk
Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment Wina, Elizabeth; Toharmat, Toto; Astuti, Widia
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 6, No 3 (2001): SEPTEMBER 2001
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (156.111 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i3.237

Abstract

Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide) and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1) the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2) the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4%) by soaking method, 3) determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively). In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.   Key words: Bark, acacia mangium, urea, sodium hydroxide, digestibility
PENGARUH SUPLEMENTASI TEPUNG KULIT MANGGIS DAN VITAMIN E DI DALAM RANSUM AYAM RAS PETELUR STRAIN LOHMANN TERHADAP KUALITAS FISIK TELUR YANG DISIMPAN PADA WAKTU DAN SUHU YANG BERBEDA Mutia, Rita; Rusli, Ridho Kurniawan; Wiryawan, Komang Gede; Toharmat, Toto; Jakaria, Jakaria
Buletin Peternakan Vol 41, No 1 (2017): BULETIN PETERNAKAN VOL. 41 (1) FEBRUARI 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (919.388 KB) | DOI: 10.21059/buletinpeternak.v41i1.22453

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh suplementasi tepung kulit manggis (TKM) dan Vitamin E (VE) di dalam ransum ayam ras petelur terhadap kualitas fisik telur selama penyimpanan pada waktu dan suhu yang berbeda. Ayam petelur diberi perlakuan pakan yaitu : R0 (ransum kontrol), R1 (R0 +1 g TKM/Kg ransum), R2 (R0 + 2 g TKM/Kg ransum) dan R3 (R0 + 200 mg VE/Kg ransum). Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial 4 x 3 x 2 dengan 4 ulangan. Faktor pertama yaitu ransum, faktor kedua yaitu: waktu penyimpanan (1, 2 dan 3 minggu) dan faktor ketiga yaitu suhu penyimpanan pada refrigerator (4,13oC dan 22,50%) dan suhu ruang (27, 47oC dan 76,17%). Variabel yang diamati adalah: berat telur, persentase kerabang telur, persentase kuning telur, persentase putih telur, tebal kerabang, warna kuning telur dan Haught unit (HU). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi antara ransum, waktu dan suhu selama penyimpanan sangat nyata (P<0,01) menurunkan warna kuning telur. Waktu dan suhu penyimpanan sangat nyata (P<0,01) menurunkan HU dan meningkatkan persentase kuning telur. Interaksi waktu dan suhu penyimpanan nyata (P<0,05) menurunkan persentase putih telur. Tebal kerabang nyata (P<0,05) meningkat dipengaruhi oleh ransum dan sangat nyata (P<0,01) meningkat dipengaruhi oleh waktu penyimpanan. Berat telur dan persentase kerabang telur tidak dipengaruhi oleh ransum, waktu dan suhu penyimpanan. Kesimpulan penelitian adalah suplementasi tepung kulit manggis dan Vitamin E di dalam ransum ayam ras petelur strain Lohmann secara umum tidak mempengaruhi kualitas fisik telur (kecuali warna kuning telur dan tebal kerabang) yang disimpan pada waktu dan suhu yang berbeda. Kualitas fisik telur lebih utama dipengaruhi oleh waktu dan suhu penyimpanan yang berbeda. Suhu dan kelembaban terbaik untuk penyimpanan telur adalah 4,13oC dan 22,50% pada refrigerator, pada kondisi ini telur dapat disimpan selama 21 hari. 
KONDISI FISIOLOGIS, PROFIL DARAH DAN STATUS MINERAL PADA INDUK DAN ANAK KAMBING PERANAKAN ETAWAH (PE) (Physiological Conditions, Blood Profile and Mineral Statues of Kid and Doe Etawah Crossbred) Rosita, Ella; Permana, Idat Galih; Toharmat, Toto; Despal, Despal
Buletin Ilmu Makanan Ternak Vol 13, No 1 (2015): BULETIN MAKANAN TERNAK
Publisher : Buletin Ilmu Makanan Ternak

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Peranakan Etawah goat (PE) is one of dairy goats type which are developed in Indonesia for them well adapted to Indonesian climate. The pregnant doe and kid goat require higher nutrients making it more susceptible to health problems. This study aimed to learn the health statues of pregnant doe and kid goat Etawah Crossbred that rise in farm through the physiological condition, blood profile, and the minerals calcium and phosphorus statues. This study used 12 pregnant does and 11 kid goat. The results showed that calcium (143.03 and 0.11 ppm) and phosphorus (161.45 and 0.24 ppm) contents in pregnant doe blood was lower than the kid. Physiological condition in pregnant doe was normal range, but the blood profile of kid goat was higher than the parent. It is concluded that kid goat’s health statues was not better than the parent when viewed from the physiological condition and blood profile, but the mineral content of the kid was better than its parent.Keywords: growth of livestock, minerals elements Ca and P, physiological condition.
MINERAL PLASMA DAN RESPONS ANTIBODI PASCA CEKAMAN TRANSPORTASI PADA DOMBA DENGAN RANSUM YANG DISUPLEMENTASI SENG DAN MINYAK IKAN Hernaman, Iman; Toharmat, Toto; Tarigan, Simson
Bionatura Vol 5, No 3 (2003): Bionatura Nopember 2003
Publisher : Direktorat Sumber Daya Akademik dan Perpustakaan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Seng sangat penting di dalam sistem kekebalan tubuh. Akan tetapi,kandungannya di dalam bahan pakan di Indonesia secara umum rendah. Ternakbanyak mengeluarkan seng melalui urine bila mengalami cekaman transportasi,oleh karena itu kebutuhan seng mungkin meningkat. Penelitian ini bertujuanuntuk melihat mineral plasma dan respons antibodi setelah mengalami cekamantransportasi. Enam belas domba ekor tipis jantan dialokasikan ke dalamRancangan Acak Lengkap dengan menggunakan ransum basal yang memilikikandungan Zn sebesar 22.8 ppm. Perlakuan terdiri atas; ransum basal (R1), R1 +36 ppm Zn (R2), R1 + minyak ikan 1.5% (R3) dan R1 + 36 ppm Zn + minyak ikan1.5% 1.5% (R4). Ternak domba diberi makan dua kali pada jam 08.00 dan 16.00.Masing masing domba divaksinasi dengan Clostridium perfringens pada 41 dan 3hari sebelum transportasi. Ketika ternak mengalami cekaman transportasidiperoleh kondisi fisiologis sebagai berikut : (1) Seng plasma menurun untuksemua perlakuan (2) Kalium dan Mg plasma menurun dan kembali normal padajam ke-88 setelah transportasi (3) Natrium plasma meningkat pada perlakuan Zn+ minyak ikan pada jam ke-40 (4) Suplementasi Zn meningkatkan responsantibodi. Hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa suplementasi Znmeningkatkan kekebalan tubuh dan kadar seng mungkin perlu ditingkatkan lagidalam ransum setelah ternak mengalami cekaman transportasi.
THE ADDITION MANGOSTEEN PERICARP MEAL AND VITAMIN E IN THE DIET ON DIGESTIVE ORGANS, ACCESSORY ORGANS, REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS, AND CARCASS OF LAYING HENS Mutia, Rita; Rusli, Ridho Kurniawan; Wiryawan, Komang Gede; Toharmat, Toto; Jakaria, Jakaria
Buletin Peternakan Vol 41, No 3 (2017): BULETIN PETERNAKAN VOL. 41 (3) AGUSTUS 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (673.369 KB) | DOI: 10.21059/buletinpeternak.v41i3.17311

Abstract

This research aimed to study long-term addition natural herbal: mangosteen pericarp meal and non-herbal: vitamin E in the diet on digestive organs, accessory organs, reproductive organs, and carcass of laying hens. A total of 160 laying hens of Lohman strains (24-wk-old) the observation was conducted for 11 weeks. Designs used are a completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications (10 birds each). The treatments consisted of R0 (control diet), R1 (R0 + 1 g MPM/kg ration), R2 (R0 + 2 g MPM/kg ration) and R3 (R0 + 200 mg VE/kg ration). The variabel observation were digestive organs (percentage of crop, heart, gizzard, spleen, kidney, small intestine), accesory organs (percentage of liver and bile), reproductive organs, body weight and carcass of laying hens. The results showed that all of treatments (RO, R1, R2, and R3)  did not affect (P>0.05) internal organs (percentage of crop, heart, gizzard, spleen, kidney, small intestine), accesory organs (percentage of liver and bile), reproductive organs, body weight and carcass of laying hens. In conclusion, long-term addition of mangosteen pericarp meal 1-2 g/kg ration and vitamin E 200 mg/kg in the diet no adversed effect on digestive organs, accesory organs, reproductive organs, body weight and carcass of laying hens.