Efi Toding Tondok
Departemen Proteksi Tanaman, Institut Pertanian Bogor

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KAJIAN PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH ORGANIK CAIR UNTUK PEMBIAKAN MASAL AGENS ANTAGONIS PSEUDOMONAS FLOURESCENS SERTA UJI POTENSINYA SEBAGAI BIO-PESTISIDA Giyanto, .; Tondok, Efi Toding
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 14 No. 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1989.032 KB)

Abstract

Pseudomonas fluorescens has been well known as biological control agent for plant diseases control. The ;:>roblem to apply the agents widely in the field or in the level of farmer is limited technology of mass production Nith low cost, due to the simple technology of propagation has not been yet available. The objective of this research is to study the potency of liquid organic wastes as media for mass production of P. f/uorescens and to formulate them as bio-pesticide. The results showed that modification of coconut water to pH of 7.0 could be used as media for growing P. flourescens. The P. fluorescens also could grow well in livestock liquid waste by adding 10% meat extract. On the other hand, the liquid tofu waste and liquid compost waste became good media for growing of P. fluorescens by addition of 10°/o meat extract and 1.2S0/o sugar. Tetes tebu will be very good media for P. f/uorescens at S% final concentration and by adding of 10°/o meat extract and 2.S0/o of sugar. The P. fluorescens showed high antagonistic effect to Ralstonia solanacearum and Sclerotium rolfsii in all of modified liquid organic wastes media. Survival and antagonisctic activity of P. fluorescens in modified organic liquid wastes stored at S°C or room temperature were 12 weeks. In vivo antagonistic and plant growth promoting activity showed that P. fluorescens grown in liquid organic waste suppressed the incidence of stem rot diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii and increased the vigor of plant growth on watermelon. Formulation of the P. Fluorescens grown in modified coconut water gave the best performance of P. fluorescens in supppressing of plant diseases and inducing plant growth. The product of BeMOR(e) (beneficial microorganism) from the result of this research will be proposed to be patented.
PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH DAN METODE EKSTRAKSINYA DALAM MENGHAMBAT PENYAKIT ANTRAKNOSA PADA CABAI PASCAPANEN Trisnawati, Desi; Nugroho, Lilik Pujantoro Eko; Tondok, Efi Toding
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 15 No 6 (2019)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (363.307 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.15.6.213-227

Abstract

Extract of Piper betle as An Inhibitor of Anthracnose Postharvest Disease on Chili Pepper Chili is a horticultural commodity that mostly needed by consumers in the fresh condition. However, there is an interval of time needed to deliver it from producers (farmers) to consumers. During the supply chain, deterioration of the quality of chilli fruit can occur by the presence of anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum spp. The use of syntetic fungicides to control anthracnose disease is not recommended because it will leave residues that are harmful to consumers. The alternative that can be done is to use botanical pesticides as fungicides. The aim of this research is to study the potential of Piper betle leaves extract (PLE) in inhibiting the development of the antracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on the chili during storage. The sequences of this research were strarted with production of PLE by boiling method which was preceded by blanching, chopping, and without treatment of betel leaves, then bioassay of betel extract by measuring the diameter of fungus growth on PDA+ PLE. The third test was application of PLE on fresh chili fruits by spraying and soaking, continued by observed the antracnoseinsidence on chili during storage time (21 days). The results showed that the chopping method was the best betel leaf extraction method among other treatments, the use of 10% PLE concentration was the most effective concentration in inhibiting the growth of C. acutatum in vitro, spraying treatment using 10% EDS was the most effective in inhibited the insidence of anthracnose disease. 
ISOLATION AND CAPABILITY OF DARK SEPTATE ENDOPHYTE AGAINST MANCOZEB FUNGICIDE Manalu, Jean Nihana; Soekarno, Bonny Poernomo Wahyu; Tondok, Efi Toding; Surono, Surono
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 25 No. 2 (2020): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18343/jipi.25.2.193

Abstract

Mancozeb is a group member of dithiocarbamat fungicides that most widely applied in the field. The use of mancozeb causes residues that have negative effects on agricultural production system and on agricultural environment. This research aimed to obtain dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungal isolates that are tolerant to mancozeb fungicide. The study was consisted of three steps, i.e., the isolation of DSE fungi from chili roots, the effect of DSE fungal isolates on chili seeds, and the growth ability of DSE isolates on medium supplemented with mancozeb. Thirteen DSE fungal isolates were isolated from chilli pepper roots and grown in the field assumed to be contaminated by pesticides. The isolates of DSE fungi caused the growth of chili seeds were normal and abnormal. Seven DSE isolates were able to grow well at PDA medium suplemented with mancozeb at concentrations of 100, 200, 400, and 800 ppm with different levels of relative growth inhibition. Mancozeb on PDA medium influenced the mycelial growth and colony color of DSE fungal isolates. The biomass of DSE fungal isolates were reduced when they were grown at malt extract broth (MEB) medium suplemented various levels of mancozeb. Keywords: dithiocarbamat, relative growth inhibition, tolerant
CENDAWAN ENDOFIT NONPATOGEN ASAL TANAMAN CABAI DAN POTENSINYA SEBAGAI AGENS PEMACU PERTUMBUHAN Ramdan, Evan P.; Widodo, Widodo; Tondok, Efi Toding; Wiyono, Suryo; Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 9 No 5 (2013)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (339.983 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.9.5.139

Abstract

Endophytic fungi have been reported to have mutual symbiosis with their host. This research aimed to obtain nonpathogenic isolates of endophytic fungi from roots, stems, and branches of chili pepper. Endophytic fungi were isolated on 10% malt extract agar (MEA) after serial surface sterilization of plant parts. The effect of endophytic fungi on the development of chili pepper seeds were tested by growing seeds on media containing endophytic fungi isolate. As many as 138 isolates of endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from chili pepper plants from Garut and Bogor. Based on colony morphology the isolates can be differentiated into 9 morphotypes. Among the total isolates, 13.04% are nonpathogenic. Some of them (7,25%) do not effect seedling significantly compared to control and some isolates (5.79%) caused better seedling growth than control. Endophytic fungi having the potential to promote plant growth was identified as Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., sterile hyphae 1, 2, and 3.
PENYEBAB PENYAKIT LAYU PADA TANAMAN SEMANGKA DI KARAWANG, JAWA BARAT Budiastuti, Kartini; Tondok, Efi Toding; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 8 No 4 (2012)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1725.658 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.8.4.89

Abstract

Wilt disease of watermelon is an important disease in Indonesia, but determination of the causal agent has not been reported yet. Postulat Koch based approach was conducted to determine the pathogen causing wilt of watermelon from Karawang, West Java. Fungi associated with wilt symptoms were isolated from stem and root, then the fungal colonies were identified based on their morphological characters. Pathogenicity tests were performed using soil media and wet paper. Host range study involved other Cucurbitaceae plants, i.e. cucumber, melon and paria. Three species of Fusarium were successfully isolated from plants showing wilt symptom, i.e. F. oxysporum, F. solani, and F. semitectum. The fungus F. oxysporum consistently caused the most severe wilt symptom on watermelon, but developed no symptom on other tested cucurbits. The two fungi, F. solani and F. semitectum, caused necrotic on roots and stem of watermelon followed by wilting of the plant. The symptom was different than those of the initial symptoms from the field. Therefore it concluded that wilt symptom of watermelon is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum. Key words: Cucurbitaceae, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum, species identification, wilt
RISIKO INTRODUKSI GANDUM KE TIMOR TENGAH UTARA: PENYAKIT HAWAR DAUN DAN BUSUK BATANG Rusae, Aloysius; Tondok, Efi Toding; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 11 No 5 (2015)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1344.316 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.11.5.166

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Wheat has a great potency to be cultivated in Timor Tengah Utara (TTU). However, disease is one of the risks for  introduction of wheat. The existence of wheat disease in TTU is unknown because wheat has never been grown  in this area. This study aims to determine the potential risks of major diseases that will infect wheat plants when introduced to the TTU. The methods used in this study consisted of  wheat cultivation in the field, followed by observation and identification of the main diseases on wheat. Wheat varieties grown in field were Dewata, Selayar and Nias. Koch?s postulate were performed to identify the suspected microbes as pathogens. Morphological-based identification was applied on the isolated pathogens. The main diseases on wheat cultivated in TTU were leaf blight and stem rot. The results of Koch?s postulate showed that Helminthosporium gramineum was the causal of leaf blight and Rhizoctonia sp. was the causal of stem rot. Disease incidence reached 82?93% and 11?22% for leaf bligh and stem rot disease, respectively. Disease severity of leaf blight and stem rot disease on var. Dewata  was the lowest compared to var. Selayar and var. Nias.
EKSPLORASI CENDAWAN ENDOFIT ASAL PADI SAWAH SEBAGAI AGENS PENGENDALI PENYAKIT BLAS PADA PADI SAWAH Sucipto, Irwanto; Munif, Abdul; Suryadi, Yadi; Tondok, Efi Toding
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 11 No 6 (2015)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (395.254 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.11.6.211

Abstract

Blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) in Indonesia is initially known to cause problem on upland rice, but since 2000?s blast disease was also reported occurred on lowland rice. Application of endophytic fungi is very potential to be used as disease control method. This study was conducted to isolates endophytic fungi from lowland rice, and determine its capability to reduce  blast disease severity. Isolation of endophytic fungi was done from root, tiller, and the leaves of lowland rice.  Kencana Bali variety was used for in vivo inhibition test due to its most susceptible response against P. oryzae. Forty seven endophytic fungi isolates were obtained from Bogor, Sukabumi and Blitar. Based on colony morphology, endophytic fungi can be differentiated into 9 morphotype. Four out of fourteen endophytic fungi showed antibiosis activity in in vitro inhibition test against P. oryzae. Inhibition test conducted on Kencana Bali variety in the green house showed that four isolates was able to suppress blast disease development by 30-70%.
KEEFEKTIFAN ASAP CAIR DAN ELEKTROTERAPI UNTUK MENGELIMINASI INFEKSI XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE PADA BENIH PADI Purnama, Rizky G S; Mutaqin, Kikin Hamzah; Tondok, Efi Toding
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 14 No 2 (2018)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (380.313 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.14.2.54

Abstract

The Effectiveness of Liquid Smoke and Electrotherapy to Eliminate Infection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Rice SeedBacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a seed-borne disease that can reduce the productivity of rice. Alternative treatments that have not been widely developed is application of liquid smoke and electrotherapy. The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of liquid smoke and electrotherapy and their combinations to eliminate X. oryzae pv. oryzae without damaging seed quality. The study consisted of three experimental stages: (1) Liquid smoke treatment on the viability of the bacteria and rice seeds; (2) Electrotherapy treatment on the viability of bacteria and rice seeds; (3) Combination of liquid smoke and electrotherapy treatment in bacteria-infected rice seed. The results showed that liquid smoke concentration (5% for 30 minutes) was able to reduce 83.33% population of X. oryzae pv.oryzae on rice seeds with 94.33% seed vigor, 98.00% germination, and time required to achieve 50% of total seed emergence (T50) of 3.13 days. Electrotherapy treatment (400 mA for 20 minutes) was not only eliminated X. oryzae pv. oryzae on rice seeds up to 100% but also maintained seed vigor 81.67%, germination 89.33%, and T50 3.47 days. Electrotherapy treatment (400 mA for 20 minutes) followed by immersion of infected rice seeds in liquid smoke concentration (1% for 30 minutes) could reduce 94.59% bacteria population while maintaining 86.00% seed germination. Treatment of electrotherapy (400 mA for 20 minutes) followed by immersion seeds into liquid smoke concentration (5% for 30 minutes) could reduce bacterial population up to 100%, but caused phytotoxicity effect to the seedling.
Metode Deteksi Cendawan Penyebab Infeksi Laten pada Buah Jeruk Impor Nurholis, Nurholis; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Tondok, Efi Toding
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 25, No 4 (2015): Desember 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jhort.v25n4.2015.p357-366

Abstract

Infeksi laten adalah hubungan parasitik patogen yang bersifat dorman dalam tanaman inang, yang dapat berubah menjadi patogen yang aktif. Patogen infeksi laten pada buah jeruk impor berpotensi tinggi sebagai sumber inokulum yang dapat menyebabkan epidemik penyakit tumbuhan di Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menetapkan metode yang akurat, cepat, dan dapat diaplikasikan untuk mendeteksi keberadaan cendawan penyebab infeksi laten pada buah jeruk impor. Penelitian dilaksanakan berdasarkan studi kasus buah jeruk impor asal Argentina melalui pintu pemasukan Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak, Surabaya. Perlakuan deteksi cendawan telah dilakukan pada bagian kalik, kulit, biji, dan karpel dari buah jeruk menggunakan metode konvensional dan molekuler. Deteksi secara konvensional terdiri atas direct agar plating technique (DAPT), kombinasi senescence stimulating technique (SST) dan DAPT, serta overnight freezing incubation technique (ONFIT). Deteksi secara molekuler menggunakan pasangan primer universal ITS1F dan ITS4. Tiap perlakuan menggunakan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa cendawan penyebab infeksi laten pada buah jeruk berhasil  dideteksi menggunakan metode konvensional dan molekuler. Metode DAPT berhasil mendeteksi Alternaria citri, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, dan Fusarium incarnatum pada hari ketiga setelah inkubasi. Cendawan yang sama juga ditemukan melalui metode kombinasi SST dan DAPT pada hari kedua setelah inkubasi. Menggunakan metode ONFIT berhasil menemukan A. citri, C. gloeosporioides, F. incarnatum, C. boninense, dan Guignardia mangiferae pada hari ketiga setelah inkubasi. Temuan kelima spesies cendawan tersebut adalah hasil identifikasi secara konvensional melalui karakter morfologi yang diperkuat oleh teknik identifikasi secara molekuler. Keberadaan DNA cendawan penyebab infeksi laten pada buah jeruk juga berhasil dideteksi secara langsung melalui metode molekuler. Hasil sikuen mengidentifikasi cendawan tersebut adalah Alternaria sp. dan Fusarium sp. ONFIT adalah metode yang relatif cepat, akurat, dan dapat diaplikasikan untuk mendeteksi organisme pengganggu tumbuhankarantina (OPTK) pada buah jeruk impor sehingga direkomendasikan sebagai metode alternatif dalam tindakan pemeriksaan karantina pada buah jeruk di tiap-tiap pintu pemasukan.
TRICHODERMA DAN GLIOCLADIUM UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN PENYAKIT BUSUK AKAR FUSARIUM PADA BIBIT KELAPA SAWIT Juariyah, Siti; Tondok, Efi Toding; Sinaga, Meity Suradji
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 14 No 6 (2018)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (959.644 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.14.6.196

Abstract

Trichoderma and Gliocladium for Controling Fusarium Root Rot Disease of Oil Palm SeedlingsFusarium spp. have been reported as the causal agent of common spear rot and crown rot diseases on oil palm.  An effective strategy to control these diseases is not available yet. This research was aimed to find biocontrol agents for effective control of crown rot disease on oil palm seedlings caused by Fusarium spp. The experiment consisted of 3 parts i.e. pathogenicity test of 3 isolates of Fusarium, identification and in vitro test of biocontrol agents, and in planta test of biocontrol agents against Fusarium spp. In vitro test was done through dual culture test and test for volatile compound produced by the biocontrol agents. In planta test was conducted through inoculation of Fusarium spp. into oil palm seedlings growing on medium containing  selected biocontrol agents i.e. Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens, T. inhamatum, and Gliocladium fimbriatum. In vitro test showed that Gliocladium fimbriatum 1 and 2 were inhibited effectively the growth of Fusarium spp. on the dual culture test, whereas T. harzianum Gadingrejo 2 was inhibited effectively the growth of Fusarium spp. on volatile compound test. The application of biocontrol agents was effective to protect oil palm seedlings from Fusarium spp. infection.