APRIL HARI WARDHANA
Research Institute for Veterinary Science,

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Aktivitas Larvasida Biji Bengkuang sebagai Insektisida Nabati terhadap Larva Lalat Crysomya bezziana Mustika, Aulia Andi; Hadi, Upik Kesumawati; Wardhana, April Hari; Rahminiwati, Min; Wientarsih, Ietje
Acta VETERINARIA Indonesiana Vol. 4 No. 2 (2016): Juli 2016
Publisher : IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (42.789 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/avi.4.2.68-73

Abstract

Bengkuang merupakan salah satu tanaman obat yang berpotensi sebagai bioinsektisida. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efektivitas biji bengkuang sebagai insektisida nabati terhadap larva lalat Crysomya bezziana (C. bezziana) agen penyebab miasis secara in vitro. Penelitian ini terbagi menjadi 5 kelompok perlakuan. Masing-masing sebanyak 20 Larva instar 1 (L1), Larva instar 2 (L2), dan Larva instar 3 (L3) C.bezziana digunakan untuk pengujian in vitro menggunakan pot plastik yang berisi media larva dan ekstrak ethanol biji bengkuang dengan konsentrasi bertingkat 0,06, 0,12, dan 0,25%. Coumaphos 0,06% dan akuades steril digunakan sebagai kontrol positif dan negatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada konsentrasi 0,25% mampu menyebabkan 100% kematian larva dan 100% pupa tidak menetas. Pengujian L3 menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak ethanol biji bengkuang mampu menyebabkan penurunan daya tetas pada semua konsentrasi. Pengujiaan L1 dan L2 untuk mengindikasikan efektifi tas ekstrak sebagai racun perut, sedangkan pengujian pada L3 sebagai indikasi racun kontak. Biji bengkuang memiliki daya larvasida terhadap beberapa jenis larva serangga C. bezziana.
Surra: Trypanosomiasis in Livestock is Potential as Zoonotic Disease Wardhana, April Hari; Savitri, Dyah H
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 28, No 3 (2018): September 2018
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (331.108 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v28i3.1835

Abstract

Trypanosoma evansi is one of blood protozoans having the most wide distribution region compared to other Trypanosome species. The parasite causes trypanosomiasis known as Surra. The disease may cause mortality to the infected animals. In general T evansi only attack animal and cannot infect humans due to apolipoprotein 1 (Apo L-1) in human serum. The protein possess trypanolitic activity feature against T. evansi and effectively eliminates the protozoa. However, the knowledge of Surra infecting animals changed because there were atypical human trypanosomiasis cases reported in some countries due to T. evansi. The human Surra case occurred in Vietnam demonstrated that person with Apo L-1 could be infected by T. evansi. There was resistant strain of T. evansi found which able to disrupt human immune system. This paper will discuss Surra cases in both humans and animals, including mechanism of Apo L-1 on eliminating the parasite. Surra cases in human and animal should be seriously concerned because Surra could be pontential zoonosis threating human health.
Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as an Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed Wardhana, April Hari
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 26, No 2 (2016): JUNE 2016
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (305.454 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1327

Abstract

Increasing demand of protein source for animal feed, particularly fish meal and soybean meal has led to a problem in the future. It is a need to look for an alternative protein source, in order to meet amino acid requirements maintaining livestock production level. Insects possesing high quality, efficient dan rich protein content at all life stages such as Black Soldier Fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) could be used as one of the alternatives. The flies grow and reproduce easily, have high feed efficiency and can be reared on bio-waste streams. These are neither pests nor vectors of diseases. Insect meal generally possesses levels of chemical contaminants which are below recommended maximum concentrations. The larvae have antibacterial (Escherichia coli O15:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis) and antiviral (enterovirus and adenovirus ) properties. Larvae of BSF could be scaled up easily and possess 40-50% protein content, including some essential amino acids that can be used to replace both fish meal and soybean meal in feed.
Deteksi Parasit Darah pada Sapi Perah Berdasarkan Analisis Pcr Duplex Akbari, Rizal Arifin; Tiuria, Risa; Wardhana, April Hari; Savitri, Dyah Haryuningtyas
Acta VETERINARIA Indonesiana Vol. 6 No. 2 (2018): Juli 2018
Publisher : IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (639.708 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/avi.6.2.48-55

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi parasit darah pada sapi (Babesia spp., Theileria spp., dan Trypanosoma spp.) secara molekular berdasarkan analisis duplex PCR. Seratus sampel darah sapi perah Friesian Holstein diambil secara acak untuk deteksi parasit darah dengan pemeriksaan ulas darah. Sebanyak tiga puluh dari seratus sampel diseleksi untuk analisis PCR single berdasarkan jenis parasit dan tingkat parasitemia yang terdiri dari 5 sampel positif Babesia spp, 15 sampel positif Theileria spp., dan 10 sampel negatif parasit darah untuk dilanjutkan pada tahap PCR single. Optimasi PCR single dilakukan menggunakan tiga primer spesifik untuk B. bovis (Bover2A), T. annulata (Cytob 1) dan T. evansi (ITS 1). Hasil optimasi PCR single menunjukan bahwa suhu anneling 56 °C merupakan suhu optimal untuk deteksi Babesia bovis dan T. evansi sedangkan T. annulata tidak menunjukan hasil positif pada kondisi tersebut. Hasil analisis PCR single menunjukan 28 sampel positif B. bovis, 1 sampel positif T. evansi, 1 sampel negatif semua parasit darah dan 0 sampel positif T. annulata sehingga hanya B. bovis dan T. evansi yang dilanjutkan ke tahap analisis duplex PCR duplex. Teknik duplex PCR berhasil dioptimasi dengan dilakukannya modifikasi penambahan MgCl2 (25 μM) sebanyak 0.5 L/tube sehingga dapat diaplikasikan untuk mendeteksi parasit darah B. bovis dan T. evansi pada sampel di lapang
Giardia intestinalis assemblage E as an Emerging Zoonosis in Livestock Wardhana, April Hari
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 27, No 4 (2017): December 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (333.017 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v27i4.1787

Abstract

Giardia intestinalis is a gastrointestinal parasite causing giardiasis that infects animals and humans. Giardiasis generates diarrhea, malabsorption, decreased body weight and milk production, dehydration, and mortality especially in young animals. This paper describes G. intestinalis assemblage E in humans and livestock, including molecular identification and disease distribution. The incidence of giardiasis in humans and livestock has been reported in some countries, particularly in young host living under poor sanitation and hygiene. Based on genotype, the parasite is divided into eight assemblages (A-H) and some infect specific hosts. At the moment, assemblage E is known as genotype that infects animal. This statement is controversial since assemblage E was also detected in humans who contacted with animals. This condition assumes that assemblage E is an emerging zoonosis that needs special attention.
Daun Binahong (Andredera cordifolia Steenis) Sebagai Alternatif Insektisida Terhadap Miasis yang Disebabkan Lalat Chrysomya bezziana (ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA STEENIS (BINAHONG) LEAF AS AN ALTERNATIVE INSECTICIDE AGAINST CHRYSOMYA BEZZIANA CAUSED MYIASIS) Wientarsih, Ietje; Mustika, Aulia Andi; Wardhana, April Hari; Darmakusumah, Dodi; Sutardi, Lina Noviyanti
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 18 No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (103.219 KB) | DOI: 10.19087/jveteriner.2017.18.1.121

Abstract

Larvae Chrysomya bezziana caused myiasis in most livestock in Indonesia. Drugs of choice for treating myasis are synthetic insecticides. Unfortunately the insecticides has negative effect on animal product, killed insect non target and insect resistenst. The research was conducted on the activity of ethanol extract of binahong leaves against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2, and L3). Five treatments group tested were: group without any treatment (negative control), groups treated with ethanol extracts of binahong leaves 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively, positive control were given coumaphos. The treatments were applied with five replications. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. The results demonstrated that 0.5% of the extract effective consentration which was able to kill the larvae (L1 and L2). Finally 2% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill larvae (L3) and decrease the pupae weight. Ethanol extract of binahong leaves was significantly able to reduce the growth of C. bezziana larvae due to contact and digestive effect of the active compounds contained in Anredera cordifolia leaf. ABSTRAK Miasis merupakan infestasi larva lalat yang terdapat pada jaringan hidup. Penyakit ini umum menyerang hewan maupun manusia. Obat yang digunakan sebagai pengendalian kasus miasis di lapangan sampai saat ini sangat terbatas dan menggunakan insektisida sintetik. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat aktivitas ekstrak etanol daun binahong terhadap larva lalat Chrysomya bezziana pada stadium L1, L2, dan L3. Penelitian dibagi menjadi lima kelompok perlakuan dengan lima ulangan. Kelompok perlakuan terdiri dari kontrol negatif (tanpa pemberian obat), kelompok perlakuan yang diberikan ekstrak binahong dengan konsentrasi berturut-turut 0,5%, 1%, 2%, dan kelompok yang diberikan coumaphos (kontrol positif). Peubah yang diamati adalah jumlah larva yang hidup dan berkembang menjadi pupa, bobot pupa, dan daya tetas pupa menjadi imago. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol daun binahong pada konsentrasi 0,5% mempunyai efikasi sebagai larvasidal terhadap L1 dan L2 serta pada konsentrasi 2% merupakan konsentrasi terbaik sebagai larvasidal L3 larva C. bezziana. Ekstrak etanol daun binahong memiliki kemampuan menghambat larva lalat C. bezziana akibat dari efek cerna dan efek kontak bahan aktif yang terkandung di dalam daun binahong.
Potensi Salep Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah Terhadap Profil Eritrogram Sebagai Terapi pada Luka Miasis (THE EFFECT OF RED BETEL LEAF EXTRACT OINTMENT IN ERYTHROGRAM PROFILES AS THERAPY IN MYASIS WOUND) Widhyari, Sus Derthi; Wientarsih, Ietje; Mustika, Aulia Andi; Wardhana, April Hari; Darmakusuma, Dodi; Sutardi, Lina Noviyanti; Bintang, Muhammad
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 19 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (84.272 KB) | DOI: 10.19087/jveteriner.2018.19.1.30

Abstract

The objectives of this research was to examine the efficacy of red betel extract ointment to eritrogram profiles in infected sheep myiasis. Fifteen female sheeps were divided into five treatments, which were sheep without wound, treated with asuntol 2%, without any treatment,with red betel leaf extract ointment 2% and 4 %. Three incision wounds were made on the sheep’s back, 50 larvae given to every wounds to four treatment, except the healthy sheep (K). Blood was taken on the 0, 3th and 7th to determine erythrocytes counts, hematocrit values (PCV) and hemoglobin levels (Hb). The result showed that oitment of red betel leaf extract do not change the erythrogram profiles. The administration of red betel leaf extract ointment 4% has better eritrogram profiles than 2% Oitment of red betel leaf extract can be used as myasis therapy.
Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as an Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed Wardhana, April Hari
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 26, No 2 (2016): JUNE 2016
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (33.263 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1218

Abstract

Increasing demand of protein source for animal feed, particularly fish meal and soybean meal has led to a problem in the future. It is a need to look for an alternative protein source, in order to meet amino acid requirements maintaining livestock production level. Insects possesing high quality, efficient dan rich protein content at all life stages such as Black Soldier Fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) could be used as one of the alternatives. The flies grow and reproduce easily, have high feed efficiency and can be reared on bio-waste streams. These are neither pests nor vectors of diseases. Insect meal generally possesses levels of chemical contaminants which are below recommended maximum concentrations. The larvae have antibacterial (Escherichia coli O15:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis) and antiviral (enterovirus and adenovirus ) properties. Larvae of BSF could be scaled up easily and possess 40-50% protein content, including some essential amino acids that can be used to replace both fish meal and soybean meal in feed. 
Anticoccidial activity of Artemisinin and Extract of Artemesia annua leaves in chicken infected by Eimeria tenella Wiedosari, Ening; Wardhana, April Hari
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 22, No 4 (2017): DECEMBER 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (370.668 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v22i4.1622

Abstract

The continuous use of anticoccidial drug in chicken often continuously generates drug resistance and tissue residue; so thatconsequently, a safe alternative anticoccidial drug based on herb is fundamentally required. The aim of thise study was to examine anticcocidial activity of artemisinin and extract of Artemesia annua leaves in chicken infected by Eimeria tenella. A total of 35 chickens of Cobb strain was divided into seven groups with five replicates birds per group, i.e. uninfected chicken group (P I), infected but untreated chicken group (P II), infected and treated chicken group with 8.5 ppm, 17 ppm, 34 ppm, for P III, P IV and P V respectively, infected and treated chicken with 17 ppm of A. annua extract (P VI) and infected and treated chicken with Sulfa (P VII). All chicken, except the uninfected group, whereas infected with 2000 infective oocyst of E. tenella except the uninfected group. Treatment was delivered by oral, once per day for eight days. The criteria observed were clinical manifestation of chickens, number of oocyst in feces, body weight, cecal lesion score, haematocrit (packed cell volume) and haemoglobin value. The results showed that extract of A. annua leaves (P VI) was the most effective treatment to reduce the number of oocyst in feces (74.18%), followed by 34 ppm of artemisinin group (P VII). In addition, application of A. annua extract and artemisinin was significantly able to decreased the cecal lesion score (P<0.05). Even though body weight and Hb value were not indifferent significantly different (p>0.05), however A. annua extract and artemisinin treatments were significantly able to hold PCV value on normal level compared to P II and P IV (P<0.05). It concluded that extract A. annua leaves and artemisinin could be used an alternative anticoccidial in chickens.
Karakter Biologi Isolat Trypanosoma evansi Asal Wabah di Sumba dan Implikasinya Setelah Dipasase Berulang pada Mencit Sawitri, Dyah Haryuningtyas; Wardhana, April Hari
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 20 No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (239.604 KB) | DOI: 10.19087/jveteriner.2019.20.2.148

Abstract

Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of Surra, is a widely distributed blood protozoan infecting various species of livestock, pets and wild animals. So far, the biological character differences of T. evansi isolate from outbreak areas after re-passaging have not been reported. The aims of this study was to investigate characteristics of T. evansi collected from an outbreak area in 2012 in Sumba Island after re-passaging in mice based on pathogenicity.The study was divided into two steps of biological assays. Step 1 was addressed to observe the pathogenicity level of isolate compared to both high and low virulence controls. A total of 27 mice was divided into 9 groups (3 mice /group) e.g. negative control (KN); Positive control of high virulence (KBang87); Positive control of low virulence (KPml287); PI (Smb370); PII (Smb371); PIII (Smb372); PIV (Smb373); PV (Smb374) and PVI (Smb375). Step 2 was to look at the concistentcy of parasitemia level of isolates selected from step 1. A total of 21 mice was divided into 6 groups reinfected by Smb 372 (P VII, PVIII, PIX); Smb 375 (PX, PXI, PXII) and negative control. The results demonstrated that the parasitemia pattern of mice groups infected by Smb372 (PIII) and Smb375 (P VI) was similar to KBang87 (high virulence) and KPml287 (low virulence) group, respectively (Step 1). The step 2 results revealed that repassaging of the Smb372 isolate (PIII) in three different groups of mice (PVII, PVIII, PIX) showed similar parasitemia pattern with the origin isolates. However, the Smb375 had various parasitemia patterns among PX, PXI and PXII groups. They were moderate virulence (mixed high and low virulences) indicating that Smb375 was a mixed infection of T. evansi varians. Animals infected with either low or moderate virulence isolates need serious attention because they might act as potential reservoirs to infect other animals.