Articles

Found 36 Documents
Search

LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION Wibawa, Tri
Tropical Medicine Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2012): Tropical Medicine Journal
Publisher : Pusat Kedokteran Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (659.191 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tmj.17126

Abstract

ABSTRACTDengue virus (DENV) infection was reported by more than 100 countries in the world. DENV was estimated infects 2.5 billion people living at tropical and subtropical countries annually.  Laboratory diagnosis of DENV infection is important for the best clinical management of the patients. There are many tools and methods have been developed and dedicated to serve accurate diagnostic of DENV infection. In hitherto, laboratory diagnosis of DENV infection may be done by several methods, i.e. serology, viral culture, and viral genome-based detection. However, there is no convincing diagnosis procedures that easy to be performed and user friendly. This review will address the principle and characteristic of the laboratory diagnostic procedures that is available at this moment.
ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX AND HOME ENVIRONMENT CONTRIBUTION­ ­TO DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN MATARAM CITY, INDONESIA Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul; Pascawati, Nur Alvira; Wibawa, Tri; Frutos, Roger; Maguin, Sylvie; Mulyawan, I Kadek; Wardana, Ali
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol 15, No 1 (2020): Volume 15, Issue 1, February 2020
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v15i1.3294

Abstract

Indonesia is a member of Southeast Asia Regional Office (SEARO) ranked the first in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) problem based on incidence rate (IR) and case fatality rate (CFR). Several provinces in Indonesia experience an outbreak, one of which is the Mataram City in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Mataram City is an endemic area of DHF because the DHF cases are always found in three consecutive years with the number of cases that fluctuate and tend to increase. This study aimed to obtain factors that could be used to improve early warning systems in controlling DHF. This study used a case control design with a ratio of 1:1 to 180 house holds. The results showed that home environmental factors, such as no ceiling, indoor and outdoor temperature that had the potential for breeding places for mosquitoes, no wire net in ventilation, low lighting and high humidity, related to DHF transmission. Vector distibution with entomology index showed that the existence of larvae, eggs and mosquitoes played a role in dengue transmission. The dominant factors affecting the transmission of dengue in Mataram City are the condition of the ceiling and the existence of mosquito eggs in the house.
Candida albicans biofilm: formation and antifungal agents resistance Wibawa, Tri
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2738.431 KB)

Abstract

Candida sp are the most common fungal pathogens causing fatal health care associated infections.Among the genus of Candida, Candida albicans is the most frequent species isolated frompatients. The notorious C. albicans infection is the ability of this dimorphic fungus to formbiofilm. Biofilm has been pointed as a dynamic phenotypic switching in bacteria and fungi,which may result in higher morbidity and mortality in human beings. This review addresses thebasic explanation of biofilm formation which is characterized by the antifungal agents resistance.The factors that influence C. albicans biofim formation and antifungal agents resistance arediscussed.Key words: Candida sp – antifungal – resistance – biofilm - pathogenecity
Genotyping of Rotavirus by Using RT-PCR Methods Nirwati, Hera; Wibawa, Tri; Aman, Abu Tholib; Soenarto, Yati
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 18, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (167.791 KB)

Abstract

There is a great diversity of rotavirus genotypes circulating worldwide, with dominant genotypes changing from year to year. Rotavirus genotyping was performed by using reverse transcription PCR with type-specifi c-primers. Since rotavirus is a RNA virus that has high mutation rate, there was a possibility of technical diffi culty in genotyping due to mutation in the primer binding sites. During Indonesian rotavirus surveillance study 2006-2009, it was reported that 17% of samples subjected for G type and 21% of samplessubjected for P type were untypeable. The objective of this study was to identify genotypes of the samples that were untypeable previously using RT-PCR based on the method described by Das et al. (1994) and Gentsch et al. (1992). There were 30 samples subjected to G type and 61 samples subjected to P type to be re-typed using method described by Gouvea et al. (1990) and Simmond et al. (2008) for G and P typing, respectively. By using another set of primer, the genotype of all samples was identifi ed. This study highlights the importance of a constant reconsideration of primer sequences employed for the molecular typing of rotaviruses.Key words: rotavirus, G typing, P typing
Apoptosis and Phagocytosis Activity of Macrophages Infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistant and Sensitive Isoniazid Clinical Isolates Rachmawaty, Farida J.; Wibawa, Tri; Soesatyo, Marsetyawan H.N.E.
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 11, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is the main causative pathogen that cause the pulmonary tuberculosis.Intracellular M.tb was reported able to induce macrophages apoptosis, which may have crucial role in the regulationof immun response against M.tb infection. As an intracellular bacteria, M.tb able to live and replicate withinmacrophages. Phagocytosis is the first step to achieved this condition. The induction of macrophages apoptosis byINH resistant and sensitive M.tb clinical isolates, and H37Rv was studied. The macrophages apoptosis level weremeasured using an Ag-capture ELISA for histone and fragmented DNA (Cell Death Detection ELISAplus, RocheDiagnostic GmBH). Phagocytosis activity also analyzed, after staining using fluorescence dye (AcriFluorTM, ScientificDevice Lab.). The results showed that there was no significantly different between INH resistant and sensitive M.tbclinical isolates in respect their ability to induce apoptosis. The phagocytosis activity among the clinical isolates wasshown to be strain dependent, and undistinguishable between the Mtb clinical isolates. There was no associationbetween macrophages apoptosis level and the phagocytosis activity. These data suggested that among the virulentMtb clinical isolates, the ability to induce macrophages apoptosis and phagocytosis were consistently in comparablelevelKeywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, apoptosis, phagocytosis, macrophages, isoniazid
Early Detection and Serotyping of Dengue Viruses Clinical Isolates Using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) 2 Primers Siregar, Abdul Rahman; Wibawa, Tri; Wijayanti, Nastiti
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 16, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (620.448 KB)

Abstract

Recently several methods for confirming Dengue Virus have been developed involve virus isolation, detection of virus antigen, and nucleic acid using PCR. It has been reported that rapid detection method for confirming DHF by Multiplex RT-PCR had been successfully developed. It was more effective than the other methods with a high sensitivity and specivicity were 100% at the early phase (day 1-3). This study was designed to develop rapid detection and serotyping methods for Dengue Virus using RT-PCR 2 primers (Dcon and preM) with annealing temperature was 57oC. The whole blood samples were collected from suspected dengue fever patients that had been confirmed with NS1 kit from R.S. Persahabatan DKI Jakarta and R.S. Prof. Dr. Sardjito DI Yogyakarta during Februari-August 2009. The PCR products showed that in 12 samples, 100 % were postitive with different pattern among the serotypes especially for DEN1 and DEN2, but not for DEN3 and Den4.  This method was also able to confirm the double infection DEN2-DEN3, but not for the other ones because of the unspecific pattern. From the results, it indicated that the 2 primers can be a promising early detection and serotyping method of Dengue Virus which infected the DHF patients. Key words: Dengue Virus, DHF, early detection, serotyping, RT-PCR 2 primers.
Effect of Oxidative Stress on AhpC Activity and Virulence in katG Ser315 Thr Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mutant Rintiswati, Ning; Wibawa, Tri; Asmara, Widya; Soebono, Hardyanto
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 16, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (43.035 KB)

Abstract

AbstractMycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistance to INH is mainly caused by the alteration in several genesencoding the molecular targets. Mutation of katG at codon 315 especially Ser315Thr are responsible forINH resistance in a large proportion of TB cases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of stressoxidative on AhpC activity of katG Ser315Thr of M.tuberculosis, and to find out the relation of AhpC and thevirulence of this mutant. The study design was laboratoric experimental, subjects of study were M.tuberculosisINH resistance strains, and the treatment were serial dose of H2O2. Eighty five M.tuberculosis INH resistantclinical strain were screened for mutation of katGSer315Thr by PCR/RFLP and characterized on the basis ofphenotypic properties (catalase activity and AhpC activity). AhpC activity of katG Ser315Thr M.tuberculosisstrains in response to oxidative stress condition was evaluated by culturing the strains on liquid culturemedium containing 1mM H2O2. To ascertain role of AhpC in the virulence of katGSer315Thr mutant strains, themutants were infected into human macrophages culture, and several indicator of virulence were observed (i.e:replication competence, and apoptosis induction on human macrophages). The results showed that katG Ser315Thr were identified in 23 (27,05%) of 85 INH resistance strains, all mutant strains had decrease of catalaseactivity. AhpC activity of katG Ser315Thr of M.tuberculosis increased significantly with increase of hydrogenperoxide dose. In addition , it has been shown that increased AhpC activity related to replication ability ofmutant, and reduction of apoptosis macrophages induction significantly. We conclude that the productionof AhpC of katG Ser315Thr M.tuberculosis induced by oxidative stress. There was a role of AhpC in virulenceof the M.tuberculosis katG Ser315Thr strains by replication capability and macrophages apoptosis.Keywords : katG Ser315Thr Mycobacterium tuberculosis- oxidative stress - AhpC - virulence
Apoptosis and Phagocytosis Activity of Macrophages Infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistant and Sensitive Isoniazid Clinical Isolates Rachmawaty, Farida J.; Wibawa, Tri; Soesatyo, Marsetyawan H.N.E.
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 11, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (43.035 KB)

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is the main causative pathogen that cause the pulmonary tuberculosis.Intracellular M.tb was reported able to induce macrophages apoptosis, which may have crucial role in the regulationof immun response against M.tb infection. As an intracellular bacteria, M.tb able to live and replicate withinmacrophages. Phagocytosis is the first step to achieved this condition. The induction of macrophages apoptosis byINH resistant and sensitive M.tb clinical isolates, and H37Rv was studied. The macrophages apoptosis level weremeasured using an Ag-capture ELISA for histone and fragmented DNA (Cell Death Detection ELISAplus, RocheDiagnostic GmBH). Phagocytosis activity also analyzed, after staining using fluorescence dye (AcriFluorTM, ScientificDevice Lab.). The results showed that there was no significantly different between INH resistant and sensitive M.tbclinical isolates in respect their ability to induce apoptosis. The phagocytosis activity among the clinical isolates wasshown to be strain dependent, and undistinguishable between the Mtb clinical isolates. There was no associationbetween macrophages apoptosis level and the phagocytosis activity. These data suggested that among the virulentMtb clinical isolates, the ability to induce macrophages apoptosis and phagocytosis were consistently in comparablelevelKeywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, apoptosis, phagocytosis, macrophages, isoniazid
Rapid Detection and Molecular Typing of Dengue Virus by Using Multiplex-Nested-RT-PCR Wijayanti, Nastiti; Wibawa, Tri; Nirwati, Hera; Haryanto, Aris; S, Sutaryo1
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 11, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (140.369 KB)

Abstract

world. We have evaluated the combination of one-step RT-PCR and multiplex nested PCR assays for detectingdengue viruses from clinical samples. Twelve patients were screened for the dengue virus, using a pair of primersthat conserve for several Flavivirus. The results showed that in 12 suspect patients, 100% were positive for Flavivirusand there are some genotypic variation among them, that indicated by several RT-PCR products higher than 511 bp,the expected product for RT-PCR. Further assay was performed to clarify the presence and serotypes of dengue virususing multiplex nested PCR. Serotyping results indicated that 83,3% of samples can be confirmed for dengue virus.Among the dengue virus positive 16,7 % are dengue-2, 16.7 % are dengue-3, and the most common 50% are dengue-4,whereas dengue-1 were not found among the patients. The combination of RT-PCR and multiplex nested PCR assaycan be used for rapid analysis dengue samples in early phase which is potentially useful for clinical, epidemiologyand also evolutionary studies.Key words: Flavivirus, dengue virus, serotype, RT-PCR, multiplex nested PCR
Genotyping of Rotavirus by Using RT-PCR Methods Nirwati, Hera; Wibawa, Tri; Aman, Abu Tholib; Soenarto, Yati
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 18, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (167.791 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijbiotech.7863

Abstract

There is a great diversity of rotavirus genotypes circulating worldwide, with dominant genotypes changing from year to year. Rotavirus genotyping was performed by using reverse transcription PCR with type-specifi c-primers. Since rotavirus is a RNA virus that has high mutation rate, there was a possibility of technical diffi culty in genotyping due to mutation in the primer binding sites. During Indonesian rotavirus surveillance study 2006-2009, it was reported that 17% of samples subjected for G type and 21% of samplessubjected for P type were untypeable. The objective of this study was to identify genotypes of the samples that were untypeable previously using RT-PCR based on the method described by Das et al. (1994) and Gentsch et al. (1992). There were 30 samples subjected to G type and 61 samples subjected to P type to be re-typed using method described by Gouvea et al. (1990) and Simmond et al. (2008) for G and P typing, respectively. By using another set of primer, the genotype of all samples was identifi ed. This study highlights the importance of a constant reconsideration of primer sequences employed for the molecular typing of rotaviruses. Key words: rotavirus, G typing, P typing