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PRODUKSI KIT IMMUNORADIOMETRICASSA Y (IRMA) CA-125 UNTUK DETEKSI DINI KANKER OV ARIUM Widayati, Puji; Ariyanto, Agus; Lestari, Wening
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 14, No 1 (2011): Jurnal PRR 2011
Publisher : Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka

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Abstract

ABSTRAKPRODUKSI KIT IMMUNORADIOMETRICASSAY (IRMA) CA-125 UNTUK DETEKSI DINIKANKER OV ARIUM.Kanker ovarium merupakan kanker terbanyak sesudah kanker leher rahim, namuntingkat kematiannya lebih besar dari pada kanker leher rahim. Penderita yang datang ke dokter (75%) pada umumnya telah mengidap kanker pada stadium lanjut (III-IV) sehingga pasien tidak dapat lagi tertolong. Kanker akan lebih mudah disembuhkan bila diketahui pada tahap awal pertumbuhan (terdeteksi dini). Carbohydrate Antigen-125 (CA-125) adalah glikoprotein antigenik yang dilepaskan ke darah penderita kanker ovarium, dengan kadar sangat rendah pada awalnya dan meningkat sesuai dengan keganasan kanker, sehingga deteksi kanker ovarium dapat dilakukan dengan mengukur kadar rendah senyawa CA-125 di dalam darah. Metode yang sesuai adalah immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). Pusat Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka(PRR) telah mengembangkan metode ini sejak 2003, diawali dengan pembuatan komponen kit IRMA CA125, meliputi perunut CA-125 bertanda 1251,larutan standar CA-125, dan tabung bersalut antibodi monoklonal (coated tube), kemudianoptimasi assay kit IRMA CA-125 yang menghasilkan nilai Bff = 19,05% dan NSB = 0,53%, dengan daerah kerja 0-200 mIU/mL. Selanjutnya validasi metode menggunakansampel kadar tinggi (QCH) dan kadar rendah (QCL), menunjukkan nilai %CV intra assay (n=15) sebesar 9.9 % (QCL) dan 2.97 % (QCH) serta %CV inter assay (n=7) berturut-turut 13.1% (QCL) dan 4.9% (QCH), yang memenuhi syarat, memenuhi syarat Protocol IAEA Kata kunci: Kanker ovarium, Immunoradiometricassay(IRMA), CA-125, optimasi, validasiABSTRACTPRODUCTION OF IMMUNORADIOMETRICASSAY (IRMA) CA-125 FOR EARLYDETECTION OF OVARIAN CANCER. Ovarian cancer is the second highest incidence after cervix cancer, but has higher fatality level than cervix cancer. Generally, patient is known suffering ovarian cancer in very late stadium, III or IV, which almost incurable. Cancer would be easier cured if detected early. Carbohydrate Antigen-125 (CA-125) is an antigenic glycoprotein presence in blood of ovarian cancer patient, in a very low concentration initially and will increase proportionally with the level of malignancy,therefore, early detection of ovarian cancer can be carried out by measurement of low level CA-125 in the blood. The most suitable method is immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). Our laboratory has developed CA-125 IRMA kit since 2003, started from preparation of CA-125 IRMA kit components, consists of 125I_CA_125 tracer, CA-125 standard, and monoclonal antibody-coated tubes, followed by assay optimization of IRMA CA-125 kit, which produced BIT value of 19,05%, NSB value of 0,53% and working area of 0 to 200 mIU/mL. Furthermore, method validation of IRMA CA-125 kit using high and low concentration quality control (QCH and QCd, showed an intra assay (n= 15) CV value of 9.9% for QCL and 2.97% for QCH, while inter assay (n=7) CV value of 13.1% and 4.9% for QCL and QCH respectively. The results comply with theIAEA protocol requirement.Keyword :
PRODUCTION OF IMMUNORADIOMETRICASSA Y (IRMA) CA 15.3 KIT COMPONENT FOR DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER Widayati, Puji; Ariyanto, Agus; Sutari, Sutari; Mondrida, Gina; Darwati, Siti
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 11 (2008): Jurnal PRR 2008
Publisher : Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka

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Abstract

PRODUCTION OF IMMUNORADIOMETRICASSA Y (IRMA) CA 15.3 KITCOMPONENT FOR DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER. YKI has ranked that breast cancer as a second deseas in causing death of Indonesian women (, 2007). This phenomenon has been caused by the low level of public awareness in early detection of cancers. As a consequences this kind of cancer has generally been diagnosed in advanced stadium which is difficult to be treated  In spite of this, the disease actually can be detected early by measuring level of CA 15.3, a tumor marker for breast cancer. One of such in vitro method is immunoradiometricassay (IRMA) for CA 15.3. The CA 15.3 itself is a glycoprotein of heterogen compound capable of reacting with monoclonal antibody CA 15.3. Production of the IRMA CA 15.3 kit has been performed in the Center for Radioisotope and Radiopharmac.eutical, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia. Optimization of the kit component has been carried out using several parameter including type ofmonoclonal antibody for tracer and buffer coating type. The results showed that monoclonal anti CA M37901M type is better than M37552M type for tracer production. The M3790lM gave yield about 79.51%, with specific activity 29.12 ~Ci/~g, radiochemical purity 94.21% and %B/T about11.94%. Several buffers have been evaluated and 0.05 M pH 9.6 carbonate bicarbonate buffer showed the highest specific binding when it was used as coating buffer. Preparation of IRMA CA 15.3 standard solution gave a linier relation between CA 15.3 concentration and the maximumbinding (%B/T) Y=0.227X+0.5177 and correlation coefficient R 0.9840Keywords: Radioimmunoassay, Immunoradiometricassay, tumor marker, CA-15.3
OPTIMASI RANCANGAN ASSAY KIT IRMA CA-125 Widayati, Puji; Ariyanto, Agus; Abidin, Zaenal; Yunita, F.; Sutari, Sutari
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 9 (2006): jurnal PRR 2006
Publisher : Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka

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Abstract

OPTIMASI RANCANGAN ASSAY KIT IRMA CA-125. Carbohydrate Antigen-125 (CA-125) adalah antibodi yang bereaksi spesifik dengan monoklonal CA-125. Antigen CA-125 dapat digunakan sebagai tumor marker dan penentuan kadarnya dapat dilakukan dengan teknik Immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). Pusat Pengembangan Radiosotop dan Radiofarmaka (P2RR-BATAN) telah membuat kit IRMA CA-125 untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dalam negeri. Telah dillakukan optimasi rancangan assay kit IRMA CA-125 buatan PRR tersebut, meliputi penetapan jumlah cacahan perunut, volume perunut, volume standar, waktu inkubasi dan suhu inkubasi yang terbaik sehingga diperoleh nilai %B/T dan % NSB yang optimum dan dapat digunakan sebagai acuan setiap kali assay. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah cacahan perunut terbaik adalah ± 100000 cpm, volume perunut terbaik adalah 50µL, volume standar terbaik adalah 50µL, waktu inkubasi terbaik adalah 16 jam dan suhu inkubasi terbaik adalah 25°C (suhu kamar). Penelitian optimasi assay kit IRMA CA-125 menyimpulkan bahwa dengan menggunakan komposisi pereaksi dan kondisi reaksi optimum dihasilkan nilai %B/T = 19,05% dan NSB = 0,53%. Kata kunci: Radioimmunoassay, Immunoradiometricassay, tumor marker, CA-125 ASSAY DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF CA-125 IRMA KIT. Monoclonal Antibody CA-125 is an antibody against the Carbohydrate Antigen (CA-125). The CA-125 antigen can be used as a tumour marker, and its concentration can be determined by the Immunoradiometricassay (IRMA) method. The center for Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals (BATAN) has prepared the CA-125 IRMA kit for domestic use. This reportdiscuse the assay design optimization of the a bove mentioned CA-125 IRMA kit, covering determenation of total count oftracer, tracer volume, standart volume, optimum incubation time and temperature, that will be used in daily assay. Investigation showed that the optimum total countof tracer was approx ±100.000 cpm, optimation tracer volume was 50 µL, optimum standard volume was 50 µL, and the optimum incubation time and temperature were 16 hours and 25 °C respectively. It can be concluded that the optimum reagents compositation and reaction conditions can produce %B/T value of 19.05% and NSB value of 0.53%. Key words:Radioimmunoassay, Immunoradiometricassay, tumor marker, CA-125
Immunoradiometricassay (IRMA) CA 15.3 untuk Deteksi Kanker Payudara Widayati, Puji; Lestari, Wening; Susilo, Veronika Yulianti
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 17, No 1 (2014): Jurnal PTRR 2014
Publisher : Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka

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Abstract

Kanker payudara merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan karena angka morbiditas dan mortalitas yang cukup tinggi. Tingginya angka mortalitas dikarenakan terapi yang ada sekarang ini belum memberikan hasil yang memuaskan. Tingginya tingkat stadium pasien kanker payudara di Indonesia disebabkan tingkat kesadaran masyarakat yang rendah, pada hal kanker payudara adalah salah satu jenis kanker yang dapat dideteksi dini, salah satu caranya dengan menggunakan kit IRMA CA 15.3. Carbohydrate Antigen 15.3 (CA 15.3) adalah sejenis gabungan glikoprotein heterogene yang dapat bereaksi dengan monoklonal antibodi anti CA 15.3. Senyawa CA 15.3 digunakan sebagai tumor marker dan penentuan kadarnya dapat dilakukan dengan teknik Immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). Pusat Radiosotop dan Radiofarmaka (PRR)-BATAN telah mengembangkan kit IRMA CA 15.3 dan sebelum digunakan secara klinis kit tersebut harus divalidasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan validasi kit IRMA CA-125 produksi PRR yang meliputi penentuan batas deteksi, kepekaan (sensitivitas), ketelitian (presisi) dan parameter assay (Non Spesific Binding, NSB dan Maximum Binding, MB) sehingga dapat digunakan untuk menentukan kadar CA 15.3 pada pasien kanker payudara di rumah sakit. Telah dilakukan validasi kit IRMA CA 15.3 yang menghasilkan batas deteksi 0,84 mIU/mL dengan ketelitian intra assay memberikan koefisien variasi (%CV) untuk QCL (8,94%) dan QC H (7,99%) sedangkan ketelitian inter assay untuk QC L (11,94%) dan QC H(12,38%). Kit IRMA CA 15,3 ini mempunyai karakter yang baik sesuai dengan %NSB dan B/T yang ditunjukkannya (1,05 untuk %NSB dan 16,30% untuk B/T).ABSTRACTCANCER DETECTION. Breast cancer is one health problem because the rate of morbidity and mortalityare quite high. The high mortality rate due to the existing therapy to breast cancer patients did not givesatisfactory results. The high stage breast cancer patients in Indonesia due to the low level of public awareness, whereas breast cancer is one type of cancer that can be early detected, using CA 153 IRMA kit. The Carbohydrate antigen 15.3 (CA-153) is a kind of combination of heterogene glycoprotein which canreact with the monoclonal anti CA 153 antibody. The CA 153 compound can be used as tumor marker and the concentration can be detennined using IRMA technique. The Center for Radiosotope and Radiohannaceuticals (CRR)-BA TAN has developed a CA 153 IRMA kit to fullfil domestic demand. The aim of the study is to validate the CA-125 IRMA kit produced by CRR including detennination of sensitivity, accuracy, precision and the assay parameters (Non-specific binding, NSB and Maximum Binding, MB) of the kit in order to be used to detennine concentration ofCA 153 of patients in the hospital. IRMA kit validation has been carried out resulting detection limit for CA 15.3 at 0.8130 IV I mL withprecision CY for intra-assay QC L (8,94%CY) and QC H(7.99%CY) while the inter-assay precision for QC L (l1,94%CY) and QC H. (l2,38%CY). This CA 153 IRMA kit also has a good character showing 1,05% NSB and 16,30%BIT.Keywords: Radiometricassay, tumour marker, CA 1531
Optimasi dan Validasi KIT Immunoradiometric Assay Carbohydrate Antigen -125 untuk Pemantauan Kanker Ovarium Widayati, Puji; Darwati, Siti; Ariyanto, Agus
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Vol 3, No 2 (2009): Apr - Jun 2009
Publisher : "Dharmais" Cancer Center Hospital

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Abstract

Carbohydrate Antigen-125 (CA-125) adalah glikoprotein antigenik yang dilepaskan ke darah penderita kanker ovarium, dengan kadar yang sangat rendah pada awalnya dan meningkat sesuai dengan keganasan kanker. Dengan demikian, pemantauan kanker ovarium dapat dilakukan dengan mengukur kadar rendahnya senyawa CA-125 di dalam darah. Metode yang sesuai adalah immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). PRR telah mengembangkan metode ini sejak beberapa tahun lalu, diawali dengan tahap pembuatan komponen kit IRMA CA-125, meliputi perunut CA-125 bertanda 125I dengan rendemen penandaan sebesar 96,5%. Hasil uji imunologi menunjukkan aktivitas imunologi sebesar 21,39% (%B/T) untuk standar 500 mIU/mL dan ikatan tidak spesifiknya 0,21 (%NSB) untuk standar 0 mIU/mL. Hasil uji kemurnian radiokimia 94,2%. Larutan standar CA-125 menunjukkan bahwa sensitivitas larutan standar yang digunakan adalah baik dengan daerah kerja assay yang luas, yaitu dari 0 mIU/mL sampai 200 mIU/mL. Persamaan garis regresi Y = 0,0705X + 0,7103 dan koefisien korelasi R = 0,9930. Tabung bersalut antibodi monoklonal (coated tube) dengan monoklonal jenis M86924M sebagai penyalut menunjukkan aktivitas imunologi untuk standar 0 mIU/mL sebesar 0,1% dan untuk larutan standar 500 mIU/mL sebesar 21,39%. Optimasi assay kit IRMA CA-125 meliputi radioaktivitas optimum perunut 100000 cpm, volume perunut optimum 50 ?L, volume standar optimum 50 ?L, waktu inkubasi optimum 16 jam, dan suhu inkubasi optimum sebesar 25oC sehingga menghasilkan nilai B/T = 19,05% dan NSB = 0,53%, dengan daerah kerja 0-200 mIU/mL. Validasi metode menggunakan sampel kadar tinggi (QCH) dan kadar rendah (QCL) menunjukkan nilai %CV intra assay (n=15) sebesar 9,9% (QCL) dan 2,97% (QCH) serta %CV inter assay (n=7) berturut-turut 13,1% (QCL) dan 4,9% (QCH) memenuhi syarat Protocol IAEA. Kit IRMA CA-125 ini juga menunjukkan karakter yang baik, yaitu dengan nilai %NSB dan nilai %B/T sebesar 0,1% dan 12,6%; daerah kerja kit yang luas, yaitu 0 mIU/mL sampai 200 mIU/mL); serta kestabilan kit selama 8 (delapan) minggu.Kata kunci: kanker ovarium, immunoradiometricassay(IRMA), CA-125, optimasi, validasi
Optimization of Thyroglobulin Coated Tube for Thyroglobulin IRMA Kit Sutari, Sutari; Triningsih, Triningsih; Setiyowati, Sri; Susilo, V.Y.; Ariyanto, Agus; Widayati, Puji; Lestari, Wening
JKPK (Jurnal Kimia dan Pendidikan Kimia) Vol 3, No 2 (2018): JKPK (Jurnal Kimia dan Pendidikan Kimia)
Publisher : Program Studi Pendidikan Kimia FKIP Universitas Sebelas Maret

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Abstract

Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) is a method of analysis based on immunological reactions of antigens-antibodies binding. This highly specific and sensitive method was used for in vitro diagnosis in small quantity of sample. Center for Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical Technology, BATAN has developed Thyroglobulin IRMA Kit using coated tube method that can determine thyroglobulin levels in microgram quantities. Coated tube was made with immobilisation of anti thyroglobulin into polistyrene tube. Development of IRMA kit performed through several steps including: optimization component of kit, optimization assay and kit validation. Optimization of coated tube involved selection and volume of solvent, using blocking and non-blocking agent, and volume of blocking agent. The optimum condition for coated tubes was found to be using 0.1M phosphate buffer pH 7.4 with coating volume of 500 μL, 3% BSA in 500 μL blocking agent 0.1M phosphate buffer pH 7.4, with maximum binding and non-specific binding (NSB) of 60.58 and 1.40%, respectively. The optimized coated tube was found to be stable up to 4 weeks.
Validation of the TSH IRMA Kit for Determination of the TSH Levels in Human Blood Serum Mondrida, Gina; Sutari, Sutari; Triningsih, Triningsih; Setyowati, Sri; Yulianti S, V.; Lestari, Wening; Ariyanto, Agus; Widayati, Puji
JKPK (Jurnal Kimia dan Pendidikan Kimia) Vol 3, No 3 (2018): JKPK( Jurnal Kimia dan Pendidikan Kimia)
Publisher : Program Studi Pendidikan Kimia FKIP Universitas Sebelas Maret

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (626.612 KB) | DOI: 10.20961/jkpk.v3i3.22334

Abstract

TSH IRMA kit is a kit used for the determination of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) levels in human blood serum. Thyroid hormone is a hormone that our bodies need for growth of the brain, bone and other tissues and regulate the metabolism in the body. TSH normal range for adult is in the range of 0.4-4.5 mIU/L, whereas for baby is about 3.0-18.0 mIU/L. Thyroid would affect the quality of optimal growth of children if disturbed. Therefore, TSH assay in the blood needs to be determined to know whether the function of the thyroid gland works normally or not. Detection of TSH in blood can be performed by Immunoradiometricassay (IRMA) method. IRMA method is one of the immunoassay techniques based on immunological reactions (antigen-antibody binding) using radionuclide 125I as a tracer, that sample in small quantity can be detected.  IRMA method was developed locally by replacing TSH IRMA kit which is costly since imported from commercial companies. Center for Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical Technology (PTRR) BATAN has successfully developed the TSH IRMA kit that can be used to determine the levels of TSH in human blood. TSH IRMA kit must be validated to know the limit of detection, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and the assay parameters, such as Non-Specific Binding (NSB) and Maximum Binding (MB). Validation of TSH IRMA kit had been carried out resulting in the limit of detection of 0.115 ng/mL, accuracy with a recovery of 93.6-108.0 %, intra-assay precision (% CV) QC L = 1.9848, QC M = 3.6360 % and QC H = 2.2085 % while the inter-assay precision (% CV) QC L = 11.0055, QC M = 5.6768 %  and  QC H = 5.4181 %.  It was concluded that this TSH IRMA kit showed good performance based on the % NSB and % B/T of 0.68 and 34.64 %, respectively.
Dependence of Technetium-99m Radioactivity on the Stability of Tc-99m Tetrofosmin as Injectable Radiopharmaceuticals Widjaksana, Widyastuti; Widayati, Puji; Alwi, Yunilda; N, Lindawati
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 7, No 2 (2018): Edition May-August 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

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Abstract

Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled tetrofosmin kit has been widely used in hospitals including in Indonesia. Usually, tetrofosmin kits and Tc-99m pertechnetate are supplied separately, but recently there has been a new trend where Tc-99m tetrofosmin is supplied in the form of the ready-to-inject product. To prepare such a product it has to be proven that tetrofosmin can be labeled with high activity of Tc-99m and the resulted Tc-99m tetrofosmin, remains stable within shipping time until being used in hospitals. In this investigation, locally produced tetrofosmin kits were labeled with various radioactivity of Tc-99m ranging from 150 mCi to 400 mCi, their radiolabeling yields or radiochemical purity was analyzed using SepPak C18 column, and the radiochemical stability was assessed within 30 hours. The worst storage condition was also studied by analyzing its radiochemical purity after being stored at extreme temperatures for several hours. The results showed that tetrofosmin kit can be highly labeled with up to 415 mCi of Tc-99m, and stable up to 30 hours in room temperature, and there is a tendency that higher radioactivity leads to more decreasing in radiochemical purity. Stability study in extreme temperatures showed that the product can withstand its stability within 6 hours in 40°C, but it decreased rapidly to less than 70% within 1 hour when stored in 50°C. It concludes that the quality of Tc-99m tetrofosmin as an injectable radiopharmaceutical can be maintained during transportation by storing it at cool temperature.
VALIDASI KIT RADIOIMMUNOASSAY AFLATOKSIN 81 Widayati, Puji; Ariyanto, Agus; Triningsih, Triningsih; Susilo, Veronika Yulianti; Lestari, Wening
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 18, No 1 (2015): JURNAL PTRR 2015
Publisher : Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka

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Abstract

Aflatoksin merupakan senyawa mikotoksin yang bersifat sangat toksik sehingga dapat menjadi penyebab terjadinya kanker pada manusia. Aflatoksin berpotensi karsinogenik, mutagenik, teratogenik, dan bersifat imunosupresif oleh karena itu kandungan aflatoksin B1 dalam bahan dan prod uk pangan harus dibatasi. Salah satu teknik penentuan kadar aflatoksin B1 adalah radioimmunoassay (RIA) yang didasarkan pada reaksi immunologi antara antigen dan antibodi yang spesifik hanya untuk antigen tertentu saja, serta menggunakan antigen yang ditandai zat radioaktif sebagai peru nut. Pusat Teknologi Radioisotop danRadiofarmaka BATAN telah berhasil mengembangkan kit RIA Aflatoksin B1 yang dapat digunakan untuk penentuan kandungan Aflatoksin B1dalam bahan dan produk pangan. Sebelum digunakan di lapangan kit aflatoksin B1 harus divalidasi meliputi penentuan batas deteksi, kepekaan (sensitivitas), ketelitian (presisi) dan parameter assay (Non Spesific Binding, NSB dan Maximum Binding, MB) sehingga dapat digunakan untuk menentukan kadar aflatoksin B1• Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan batas deteksi, ketelitian intra assay dan inter assay serta parameter assay. Telah dilakukan validasi kit RIA aflatoksin yang menghasilkan batas deteksi 0,35 ng/mL dengan ketelitian intra assay memberikan koefisien variasi (%CV) QC 9,80% sedangkan ketelitian inter assay untuk QC 12,39%. Kit RIA aflatoksin B1 ini disimpulkan memberikan unjuk kerja yang baik karena menghasilkan %NSB sebesar 6,6 dan B/T sebesar 47,18. Aflatoxins are mycotoxins compounds that are highly toxic and carcinogenic. Aflatoxins are potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive so that the content of aflatoxin B1 in food products should be limited. One technique of determining the level of aflatoxin B1 is a radioimmunoassay (RIA) which is based on immunological reactions between antigens and antibodies, and using radioactive substances as a tracer. Center for Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Technology (PTRR) has successfully developed Aflatoxin B1 RIA kit that can be used to determine the aflatoxin B1 in food products. Aflatoxin B1 RIA kit must be validated, which includes determining the limits of detection, sensitivity, accuracy (precision) and assay parameters (Non Specific Binding, NSB and Maximum Binding, MB) that can be used to determine the level of aflatoxin B1. This study aims to determine the limit of detection, accuracy intra-assay and inter-assay and assay parameters. The Aflatoxin B1 RIA kit validation results in the detection limit of 0.35 ng / mL with coefficient of variation (% CV) QC 9.80%, while the inter-assay precision for QC 12.39%. RIA Kit Aflatoxin B1 is inferred provide good performance because it produces 6.6% for NSBand 47.18 for B/T.  
Uji Banding Kit Irma CA-125 Produksi PPR-BATAN dengan Produk Immutech Widayati, Puji; Hartini, Sri; Ariyanto, Agus
Jurnal Forum Nuklir JFN Vol 6 No 1 Mei 2012
Publisher : BATAN

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Abstract

Dalam uji coba