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ANTAGONISME TRICHODERMA SPP. TERHADAP JAMUR RIGIDOPORUS LIGNOSUS (KLOTZSCH) IMAZEKI DAN PENEKANAN PENYAKIT JAMUR AKAR PUTIH PADA TANAMAN KARET Yulia, Endah Yulia; Istifadah, Noor; Widiantini, Fitri; Utami, Hilda Sandra
Agrikultura Vol 28, No 1 (2017): April, 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24198/agrikultura.v28i1.13226

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ABSTRACTAntagonisms of Trichoderma spp. against Rigidoporus lignosus (Klotzsch) Imazeki and Supression of White Root Disease on Rubber PlantWhite root disease caused by the infection of fungal pathogen Rigidoporus lignosus is an important disease on rubber plants. The pathogen infects the rubber roots but then might cause leaf drop or even kill the plants. Common control method used in controlling the disease is the application of synthetic fungicides besides increasing application of biological control agents (BCA) as an alternative control method. Trichoderma spp. is frequently used as BCA to control diseases in many plants. The aims of this study were to test the antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against R. lignosus and to assess the effectiveness of Trichoderma spp. corn starter in white root disease suppression on rubber seedlings. Trichoderma spp. The antagonism test was conducted using dual culture method in in vitro test. A randomized block design (RBD) experimental design was used in the glass house trial consisted of five treatments and five replications. Application of the Trichoderma spp. corn starter was combined with the application of compost in the treatments of 25 g BCA + 100 g of compost, 50 g BCA + 200 g of compost, 75 g BCA + 300 g of compost, 100 g of BCA + 400 g of compost, and a control treatment without BCA. The BCA Trichoderma spp. was applied in the same time with the inoculation of 20 g of corn mass culture of R. lignosus. The result of antagonism test showed that Trichoderma spp. isolate was effectively suppressed micelial growth of R. lignosus with the supperession percentage reached 90.82%. Meanwhile, the Trichoderma spp. BCA in corn starter was also suppressed the disease development on rubber seedlings with the highest disease suppression of 100% at the dose of 100 g BCA/seedling.Keywords: Trichoderma spp., biocontrol agents, white root disease, rubberABSTRAKPenyakit jamur akar putih (JAP) merupakan penyakit penting pada tanaman karet. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh infeksi patogen Rigidoporus lignosus pada akar tanaman karet yang dapat mengakibatkan daun gugur atau bahkan matinya tanaman. Pengendalian yang umum dilakukan adalah pengendalian kimia dengan menggunakan pestisida sintetik tetapi penggunaan agens biokontrol (ABK) juga telah mulai banyak dilakukan. Penggunaan Trichoderma spp. sebagai ABK telah banyak dilakukan untuk mengendalikan penyakit pada beberapa tanaman dengan hasil yang memuaskan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji antagonisme Trichoderma spp. terhadap jamur R. lignosus dan penekanan penyakit JAP pada bibit tanaman karet yang diberi perlakuan starter jagung pecah Trichoderma spp. Pengujian antagonisme dilakukan secara in vitro melalui metode dual culture. Percobaan rumah kaca dilakukan dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) yang terdiri atas lima perlakuan dan lima ulangan. Aplikasi starter Trichoderma spp. dilakukan dengan tambahan kompos pada perlakuan 25 g ABK + 100 g kompos, 50 g ABK + 200 g kompos, 75 g ABK + 300 g kompos, 100 g ABK + 400 g kompos, dan perlakuan kontrol atau tanpa aplikasi ABK Trichoderma spp. Aplikasi ABK dilakukan bersamaan dengan inokulasi biakan massal jagung pecah jamur R. lignosus sebanyak 20 g/bibit. Hasil uji antagonisme menunjukkan isolatTrichoderma spp. efektif menekan pertumbuhan R. lignosus dengan penekanan mencapai 90,82%. Demikian juga dengan aplikasi starter jagung pecah Trichoderma spp. menunjukkan penekanan penyakit JAP pada bibit tanaman karet dengan penekanan penyakit mencapai 100% pada dosis 100 g ABK/bibit tanaman karet.Kata Kunci: Trichoderma spp., agens biokontrol, jamur akar putih, karet
THE EFFECT OF METALAXYL, FENAMIDONE, AND DIMETOMORF FUNGICIDE TOWARDS CONIDIA PERONOSCLEROSPORA SPP. ISOLATED FROM KLATEN Anugrah, Fajri Maulana; Widiantini, Fitri
Jurnal Penelitian Saintek Vol 23, No 1 (2018): April 2018
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Services, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21831/jps.v23i1.19224

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This study was aimed at determining the effect of three types of fungicide namely methaxyl, dimethomorph, and fenamidone to control downy mildew against conidia Peronosclerospora spp. in Klaten (Central Java). The study was carried out by conidia germination method and damage observation caused by the addition of fungicide to conidia. The results show that the fungicide treatment of methomorphic at a concentration of 10,000 ppm was still effective in inhibiting the development of downy mildew. It was shown by its ability to suppress the total germination of conidia Peronosclerospora spp. and causes 37.9% conidial damage. The use of fenamidone at a concentration of 8,000 ppm is able to inhibit conidia germination (0.34%), the lowest level of conidian damage detected is 8.54%. Meanwhile, metallaxill still has a good suppressive effect as indicated by the low conidia germination of 0.70% and conidial damage reaches up to 19.91%PENGARUH FUNGISIDA BERBAHAN AKTIF METALAKSIL, FENAMIDONE, DAN DIMETOMORF TERHADAP KONIDIA Peronosclerospora spp. ISOLAT KLATENPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh tiga jenis bahan aktif fungisida yang umum digunakan yaitu metalaksil, dimetomorf, dan fenamidon untuk mengendalikan penyakit bulai terhadap konidia Peronosclerospora spp. di Klaten (Jawa Tengah). Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode perkecambahan konidia dan mengamati kerusakan yang diakibatkan oleh penambahan fungisida terhadap konidia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan fungisida dimetomorf pada konsentrasi 10.000 ppm masih efektif menghambat perkembangan penyakit bulai yang ditunjukkan dengan kemampuannya menekan secara total perkecambahan konidia Peronosclerospora spp. dan menyebabkan kerusakan konidia sebesar 37,9%. Pengguunaan fenamidon pada konsentrasi 8.000 ppm dapat menghambat perkecambahan konidia (0,34%), tingkat kerusakan konidianya terdeteksi paling rendah yaitu sebesar 8,54%. Metalaksil masih memberikan efek penekanan yang baik yang ditunjukkan dengan rendahnya perkecambahan konidia yaitu sebesar 0,70% dan kerusakan konidia yang mencapai 19,91%.
UJI KEEFEKTIFAN ANTIJAMUR EKSTRAK AIR RIMPANG LENGKUAS (ALPINIA GALANGA [L] WILLD.) SEBAGAI PERLAKUAN PRATANAM UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN COLLETOTRICHUM SPP. PADA KEDELAI (GLYCINE MAX L.) Yulia, Endah; Suganda, Tarkus; Widiantini, Fitri; Prasetyo, Rangga Irawan
Agrikultura Vol 26, No 2 (2015): Agustus, 2015
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24198/agrikultura.v26i2.8468

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ABSTRACTAntifungal Effect of Aqueous Extract of Galangal (Alpinia galanga [L] Willd.) Rhizomeas Seed Treatment to Control Colletotrichum spp. of Soybean (Glycine max L.)Colletotrichum is one of the most important seed-borne pathogens of soybean which is usuallycontrolled with synthetic fungicide seed treatment. However, it is believed that the use ofsynthetic fungicide can cause a variety of negative impacts to the environment and humanhealth. Galangal rhizome extract has been widely reported to have antifungal and antibacterialproperties. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of galangal rhizomeaqueous extract as antifungal for pre-planting seed treatment to control Colletotrichum spp. insoybean. Laboratory and glasshouse experiments were carried out at the Department of PlantPests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. The method used was anexperimental method to test the effectiveness of galangal rhizome aqueous extract against theemergence and spore germination suppression of Colletotrichum spp., and to test the seedviability and plant growth of soybean. Galangal rhizome extract with concentrations of 10%,30%, 50%, 70%, 90% and 100% as well as a metalaxyl fungicide (0.5 g/l) were applied as aseed treatment. The results showed galangal rhizome aqueous extract at concentration of100% reduced the presence of Colletotrichum spp. in seeds up to 100% after the treatment andsuppressed the spore germination by 76.20% as well as increased the seed viability and thegrowth of soybean plants.Keywords: Alpinia galanga, aqueous extract, seed treatment, soybean, Colletotrichum spp.ABSTRAKUmumnya pengendalian penyakit tular benih pada kedelai dilakukan melalui perlakuan benihdengan menggunakan fungisida sintetik yang diakui dapat menimbulkan berbagai dampak negatifpada lingkungan maupun kesehatan manusia. Penggunaan ekstrak air rimpang lengkuas untukperlakuan benih dapat diterapkan sebagai alternatif pengendalian penyakit tular benih padakedelai. Lengkuas telah banyak dilaporkan memiliki sifat antijamur dan antibakteri. Penelitian inidilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui keefektifan ekstrak air rimpang lengkuas sebagaiantijamur untuk perlakuan benih dalam mengendalikan penyakit tular benih pada kedelai.Percobaan dilaksanakan di Laboraturium Fitopatologi dan rumah kaca Departemen Hama danPenyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Padjadjaran. Metode penelitian yangdigunakan adalah metode eksperimen dengan pengujian keefektifan air persaan rimpang lengkuasterhadap kemunculan, penekanan perkecambahan konidia, uji pertumbuhan benih, dan viabilitasbenih jamur Colletotrichum spp. pada kedelai. Ekstrak air rimpang lengkuas dengan konsentrasi10%; 30%; 50%; 70%; 90%; dan 100% serta fungsida berbahan aktif metalaksil (0,5 g/l)diaplikasikan sebagai perlakuan benih kedelai. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan ekstrak air rimpanglengkuas konsentrasi 100% dapat menekan sampai 100% kemunculan Colletotrichum spp. setelah perlakuan benih, menekan perkecambahan konidia sebesar 76,20% serta meningkatkanpertumbuhan dan viabilitas benih kedelai.Kata kunci: engkuas, ekstrak air, perlakuan benih, kedelai, Colletotrichum spp.
KEEFEKTIFAN OLIGOCHITOSAN DALAM MENEKAN PERTUMBUHAN JAMUR PATOGEN RIGIDOPORUS LIGNOSUS [(KLOTZSCH) IMAZEKI] PENYEBAB PENYAKIT JAMUR AKAR PUTIH PADA TANAMAN CENGKEH SECARA IN VITRO Widiantini, Fitri; Purnama, Andang; Yulia, Endah; Formanda, Dwindry
Agrikultura Vol 27, No 1 (2016): April, 2016
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24198/agrikultura.v27i1.8477

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ABSTRACTThe effectiveness of Oligochitosan in Suppressing the Growth of Fungal PathogenRigidoporus lignosus [(Klotzsch) Imazeki] the Causal Agent of White Root Rot Disease of Clovesin VitroWhite root rot disease caused by fungi Rigidoporus lignosus (Klotzch) Imazeki is an important disease of cloves that can cause the death of clove plants. Negative effect on the use of intensive fungicides leads to the search of an alternative method which is more environmentally friendly. Oligochitosan is a natural compound that has antifungal activity and can be used as natural pesticide. This study aimed to determine the concentration of oligochitosan that was able to effectively inhibit R. lignosus mycelial growth and to determine the effect of oligochitosan to R. lignosus mycelial growth. The study used a Completely Randomized Design with 5 oligochitosan concentration treatments (2 g/l, 4 g/l, 6 g/l, 8 g/l and 10 g/l) and control (no treatment). Oligochitosan was diluted with water and mixed with PDA to meet the required concentration. Same concentration was also used to dip wooden toothpick for 1 min and incubated on PDA containing R. lignosus. The result showed that 6 g/l oligochitosan concentration was able to inhibit the mycelial growth of R. lignosus up to 71.6%. Highets inhibition of 100% was demonstrated by oligochitosan at concentration of 8 g/l and 10 g/l. The thinning of mycelial growth on the toothpick and microscopic observation demonstrated that the mycelial of R. lignosus were became lysis.Keywords: Antifungal, Food poisonous, Mycelial growth, LysisAbstrakPenyakit Jamur Akar Putih (JAP) yang disebabkan oleh jamur Rigidoporus lignosus (Klotzch) Imazeki merupakan penyakit penting yang menyerang tanaman cengkeh dan bahkan dapat mengakibatkan kematian tanaman. Pengaruh negatif dari penggunaan fungisida mendorong dilakukan pencarian alternatif pengendalian baru yang lebih ramah lingkungan. Oligochitosan merupakan senyawa alami yang mempunyai aktivitas anti jamur dan dapat digunakan sebagai pestisida nabati. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi oligochitosan yang dapat secara efektif menghambat pertumbuhan jamur R. lignosus dan mengetahui pengaruh oligochitosan terhadap miselia jamur R. lignosus. Percobaan dilakukan dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan terdiri dari 5 konsentrasi oligochitosan (2 g/l, 4 g/l, 6 g/l, 8 g/l dan 10 g/l) dan kontrol (tanpa oligochitosan). Oligochitosan dilarutan dalam air dan dicampur dengan PDA sehingga diperoleh konsentrasi yang diuji. Konsentrasi yang sama juga digunakan untuk merendam tusuk gigi selama 1 menit dan diinkubasikan dalam cawan petri yang sebelumnya sudah ditumbuhi oleh R. lignosus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa oligochitosan pada konsentrasi 6 g/l menghambat pertumbuhan jamur R. lignosus sebesar 71,6%. Sementara penghambatan tertinggi sebesar 100% diperoleh pada perlakuan oligochitosan dengan konsentrasi8 g/l dan 10 g/l. Penipisan koloni jamur R. lignosus pada tusuk gigi dan pengamatan di bawahmikroskop menunjukkan bahwa oligochitosan menyebabkan lisis pada miselia jamur R. lignosus.Kata kunci: Anti jamur, Umpan beracun, Pertumbuhan koloni, Lisis
KEEFEKTIFAN EKSTRAK AIR DAUN BINAHONG (ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA (TEN.) STEENIS) DALAM MENEKAN PERTUMBUHAN KOLONI DAN PERKECAMBAHAN KONIDIA JAMUR COLLETOTRICHUM CAPSICI PENYEBAB PENYAKIT ANTRAKNOS PADA CABAI Yulia, Endah; Widiantini, Fitri; Purnama, Andang; Nurhelawati, Ida
Agrikultura Vol 27, No 1 (2016): April, 2016
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24198/agrikultura.v27i1.8472

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ABSTRACTEffectiveness of Aqueous Extract of Binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) Leaves in Suppressing Colony Growth and Conidia Germination of Colletotrichum capsici the Causal Agents of Anthracnose Disease on ChiliAnthracnose disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum spp. is a major disease in chili. Several studies have reported the effectiveness of some plant extracts in suppressing the growth of this pathogen and in controlling the disease. Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) plant has been widely studied and used in traditional medicine in the field of human health as well as antimicrobial on plant pathogens. This study was aimed to test the effectiveness of the aqueous extract of binahong leaves to suppress the colony growth and conidia germination of the fungus C. capsici. The concentration of binahong aqueous extract tested were 6.25%, 8.84%, 12.5%, 17.7% and 25%. Results showed binahong aqueous extract at low concentration of 6.25% was able to suppress the growth of fungal mycelium of C. capsici up to 66.88% compared to the lower effectiveness of higher tested concentrations. The aqueous extract of binahong leaves at this low concentration also tended to suppress the germination of conidia of the fungus C. capsici in in higher tested concentrations.Keywords: Colletotrichum capsici, Aqueous extract, Anredera cordifoliaABSTRAKPenyakit Antraknos yang disebabkan oleh jamur Colletotrichum spp. merupakan penyakit utama pada tanaman cabai. Beberapa penelitian melaporkan keefektifan beberapa ekstrak tanaman dalam menekan pertumbuhan patogen Colletotrichum spp. dan dalam mengendalikan penyakit Antraknos ini. Tanaman binahong sudah banyak diteliti dan digunakan dalam pengobatan tradisional di bidang kesehatan manusia maupun sebagai antimikroba patogen tanaman. Penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimen Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan pengujian keefektifan ekstrak air daun binahong terhadap pertumbuhan koloni dan perkecambahan konidia jamur C. capsici. Konsentrasi ekstrak air binahong yang diuji adalah 6,25%, 8,84%, 12,5%, 17,7% dan 25%. Hasil menunjukkan ekstrak air binahong pada konsentrasi rendah 6,25% mampu menekan pertumbuhan miselium jamur C. capsici sampai 66,88% dibandingkan keefektifan yang lebih rendah pada konsentrasi yang lebih tinggi. Ekstrak air binahong pada konsentrasi rendah tersebut juga cenderung menekan perkecambahan konidia jamur C. capsici.Kata Kunci: Colletotrichum capsici, Ekstrak air, Anredera cordifolia
UJI ANTAGONISME BAKTERI ENDOFIT DENGAN CERCOSPORA ORYZAE MIYAKE DAN BIPOLARIS ORYZAE (BREDA DE HAAN) SHOEMAKER Fiko, Dinda Sekar Ayu; Widiantini, Fitri
Agrikultura Vol 29, No 3 (2018): Desember, 2018
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24198/agrikultura.v29i3.22719

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ABSTRACTAntagonism test between Endophytic Bacteria and Cercospora oryzae Miyake and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) ShoemakerCercospora oryzae Miyake dan Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker are the causal agent of major disease for rice, which called Cercospora leaf spot and rice brown spot. Cercospora leaf spot and rice brown spot control using a bio-control agent in a form of endophytic bacteria is one of the eco-friendly alternative method. This research aimed to test the potential of the endophytic bacteria isolates which have the antagonism ability and able to reduce the growth of the diseases. The research was carried out in the Laboratory of Biotechnology Plant Protection of the Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. The experiments were carried out using dual culture method. The experiments were performed using a completely randomized design (CDR)which consisted of 10 treatments with 4 replications. The antagonism experiments used 9 endophytic bacteria isolates from some parts of the rice plant. The result of antagonism of endophytic bacteria test showed that all of the isolates had antagonistic activity towards C. oryzae dan B. oryzae. Os6 isolate demonstrated the best result to inhibit C. oryzae growth with the radius of its colony reached only 85 mm and the inhibition growth percentage reached 85.83%. Os3 isolate showed the best result to inhibit B. oryzae growth with the radius of its colony reached only 147.5 mm and the inhibition growth percentage reached 75.41%.Keywords: Inhibition growth, Cercospora leaf spot, Rice brown spotABSTRAKCercospora oryzae Miyake dan Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker merupakan penyebab penyakit utama Padi, yaitu bercak daun Cercospora dan bercak coklat. Pengendalian C. oryzae Miyake dan B. oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker dengan menggunakan agens hayati berupa bakteri endofit merupakan salah satu alternatif pengendalian yang ramah bagi lingkungan sekitar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi isolat bakteri endofit yang mempunyai kemampuan antagonis dan mampu menekan pertumbuhan penyakit. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Bioteknologi Proteksi Tanaman Departemen Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Padjadjaran. Prosedur yang dilakukan adalah dual culture method. Percobaan dilakukandengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) yang terdiri dari 10 perlakuan dengan masing-masing perlakuan diulang sebanyak 4 kali. Uji Antagonisme pada penelitian ini menggunakan 9 isolat bakteri endofit yang berasal dari beberapa bagian tanaman padi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 9 isolat bakteri endofit yang diujikan, semuanya bersifat antagonis terhadap C. oryzae Miyake dan B. oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker. Isolat Os6 paling baik menghambat C. oryzae Miyake dengan jari-jari koloni sebesar 85 mm dan persentase penghambatan mencapai 85,83%. Isolat Os3 paling baik menghambat B. oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker dengan jari-jari koloni sebesar 147,5 mm dan persentase penghambatan mencapai 75,41%.Kata kunci: Penghambatan pertumbuhan, Bercak daun cercospora, Bercak coklat.
METODE PENYIMPANAN BAKTERI XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE PENYEBAB PENYAKIT HAWAR DAUN BAKTERI PADA TANAMAN PADI MENGGUNAKAN GLYCEROL Sariasih, Santi; Widiantini, Fitri; Widiawati, Wiwin
Jurnal Pengelolaan Laboratorium Pendidikan Vol. 2, No. 1, Januari 2020
Publisher : Laboratorium Bio Teknologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jplp.2.1.1-7

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The existence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacteria which causes Bacterial Leaf Blight of rice, is really necessary for the laboratory to support the research activities of the phytopathology experts. Long-term preservation by using glycerol under -20°C can be conducted to preserve the culture?s availability to stay viable in the laboratory. This research aimed to determine the glycerol concentration that is able to preserve the viability and pathogenicity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae bacteria after being preserved for 3 and 6 months. This experiments were performed using Completely Randomized Design which comprised of six treatments and four replications, they were: glycerol 50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 10%, and control (without glycerol). The results of this study showed that viability of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae that was preserved within 20% glycerol solution for 6 months was different compared to control group. The number of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae bacteria on 20% glycerol was 4,49 x 109 CFU/ml, while on control group was 1,76 x 109 CFU/ml. 20% glycerol concentration had significant effect on the Bacterial Leaf Blight symptoms? length after 6-months preservation that observed on the 7th day after incubation. The Bacterial Leaf Blight symptoms? length on 20% glycerol treatment group was 46,2 mm and 22,7 mm on control group. Meanwhile for the 3 months preservation, the administration of glycerol did not show any significant effect on the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae?s viability and the Bacterial Leaf Blight symptoms? length.   
INTENSITAS PENYAKIT BLAS (PYRICULARIA ORYZAE CAV.) PADA PADI VARIETAS CIHERANG DI LOKASI ENDEMIK DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP KEHILANGAN HASIL Suganda, Tarkus; Yulia, Endah; Widiantini, Fitri; Hersanti, Hersanti
Agrikultura Vol 27, No 3 (2016): Desember, 2016
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24198/agrikultura.v27i3.10878

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ABSTRACTDisease intensity of blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) of Ciherang rice variety at the endemic location and its effect on yield lossBlast is one of the most important diseases of rice worldwide. Many countries have developed data on the intensity and yield loss due to blast disease, whereas Indonesia has no such data resulted from trial specifically designed to estimate blast intensity at the endemic location and its potential yield loss. Such data are needed for various purposes, such as for disease management policy and research background. A trial has been carried out at Desa Bojong, Kecamatan Cikembar, Kabupaten Sukabumi, a location where blast was endemic for years, using var. Ciherang that is known as susceptible and widely grown by farmers. Eight concentrations of fungicide of single as well as mix active ingredients were used to see the effects in suppressing blast diseases compared with of control. Trial used a Randomized Block Design with 5 replicates. The parameters observed were the intensity of leaf blast, neck blast and yield. The results showed that the disease intensity of var. Ciherang at the endemic location was 55.60% of leaf blast and 37.75% of neck blast. The potency of yield loss calculated was 3.65 ton/ha or equal with 61% of the average yield of var. Ciherang as described in its variety description. This number justifies the important of control measures of rice blast diseases.Keywords: Blast disease intensity, var. Ciherang, Potency of yield lossABSTRAKPenyakit blas merupakan salah satu penyakit utama pada tanaman padi di seluruh dunia. Berbagai negara sudah memiliki data tentang intensitas dan kehilangan hasil padi oleh penyakit blas, sementara di Indonesia belum ada hasil pengujian yang khusus dirancang untuk melihat tingkat intensitas penyakit blas di daerah endemik dan potensi kehilangan hasil yang diakibatkannya. Data sejenis ini penting untuk berbagai keperluan antara lain untuk kebijakan pengendalian dan dasar pentingnya penelitian. Suatu percobaan telah dilakukan di Desa Bojong, Kecamatan Cikembar, Kabupaten Sukabumi yang merupakan daerah endemik penyakit blas selama bertahun-tahun, menggunakan var Ciherang yang merupakan varietas rentan namun populer ditanam petani. Delapan bahan aktif fungisida berbahan aktif tunggal dan majemuk digunakan untuk melihat pengaruh penekanannya dibandingkan kontrol. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan lima ulangan. Parameter yang diamati adalah intensitas penyakit blas daun dan blas leher malai serta hasil padi. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa intensitas penyakit blas pada tanaman padi var. Ciherang di daerah endemik adalah 55,60% untuk blas daun, dan 37,75% untuk blas leher malai. Potensi kehilangan hasil oleh gabungan penyakit blas pada var. Ciherang adalah 3,65 ton/ha atau setara dengan 61% kehilangan hasil jika dibandingkan terhadap rata-rata produksi var. Ciherang menurut spesifikasi varietas. Data ini menjustifikasi perlunya pengambilan tindakan pengendalian penyakit blas pada tanaman padi.Kata Kunci: Intensitas penyakit blas, var. Ciherang, Potensi kehilangan hasil
EKSTRAK TANAMAN BINAHONG SEBAGAI PENGENDALI PENYAKIT HAWAR PELEPAH DAUN PADI Yulia, Endah; Widiantini, Fitri
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 14 No 4 (2018)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1281.382 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.14.4.138

Abstract

Binahong Extract for Controlling Sheath Blight Disease of Rice PaddySheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is an important disease that can affect rice production. The disease is commonly controlled using synthetic fungicides. This study was aimed to test the potential of binahong plant (Anredera cordifolia) as botanical fungicide to inhibit the growth of R. solani and the development of blight disease on rice seedlings. The research was conducted in 2 stages, i.e. in vitro and rice seedling testing. In vitro test was carried out on PDA medium containing different concentrations of binahong leaf extract (0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%). Rice seedling testing was completed by soaking rice seeds in five concentrations of binahong leaf extract followed by inoculation of R. solani.  The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design. The variables observed consist of inhibitory ability of binahong leaf extract, colony morphology of R. solani, and disease incidence. Binahong leaf extract inhibited 35.2% growth of R. solani colonies. Treatment of binahong leaf extract had some effects on mycelium of R. solani; macroscopically the mycelium was shorter, thinner and congregated, whereas microscopically it was smaller, elongated and tended to be colourless compared to control. The treatment of 2% binahong leaf extract on rice seeds decreased the incidence of seedling blight disease with the effectiveness reached 100%. Thus, binahong leaf extract has the potential to suppress sheath blight disease caused by R. solani.
PERLAKUAN BENIH EKSTRAK ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA MENEKAN KEJADIAN PENYAKIT ANTRAKNOSA BENIH CABAI TERINFEKSI COLLETOTRICHUM ACUTATUM Yulia, Endah; Muhadam, Hadi Syahir; Widiantini, Fitri; Kurniawan, Wawan
Agrikultura Vol 30, No 2 (2019): Agustus, 2019
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24198/agrikultura.v30i2.24022

Abstract

Keberadaan patogen pada benih telah menimbulkan kerugian yang tinggi. Perlakuan benih sudah umum dilakukan untuk menjamin benih bebas hama maupun patogen serta untuk menyediakan pengendalian penyakit selama masa perkecambahan maupun pada awal pertumbuhan tanaman. Penyakit antraknosa pada tanaman cabai yang disebabkan oleh Colletotrichum spp. dapat mengakibatkan kehilangan hasil panen mencapai 100%. Infeksi patogen penyebab penyakit antraknosa pada benih dapat mengakibatkan penyakit hawar bibit atau pre emergence atau post emergence damping-off. Penggunaan bahan alami untuk perlakuan benih diharapkan dapat menjadi upaya pengendalian penyakit yang ramah lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji keefektifan ekstrak daun binahong (Anredera cordifolia) dalam menekan kejadian penyakit hawar bibit yang disebabkan oleh jamur Colletotrcihum acutatum terbawa benih cabai. Percobaan dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Bioteknologi Proteksi Tanaman, Departemen Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Padjadjaran. Percobaan terdiri atas tujuh perlakuan yaitu empat perlakuan benih dengan ekstrak binahong konsentrasi 0,25%, 0,50%, 1%, dan 2%, serta dua perlakuan kontrol positif dan negatif, dan perlakuan pembanding fungisida propineb 0,30% yang masing-masing diulang empat kali. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan perlakuan benih cabai dengan ekstrak metanol daun binahong mampu menekan kejadian penyakit hawar bibit pada benih terinfeksi C. acutatum dengan penekanan penyakit tertinggi sebesar 81,65% yang diperoleh pada perlakuan konsentrasi 2%. Namun demikian, perlakuan benih cabai dengan ekstrak metanol daun binahong memengaruhi viabilitas benih cabai dengan panjang kecambah benih cabai yang lebih pendek daripada pada perlakuan kontrol.Kata Kunci: Binahong, Pestisida nabati, Perlakuan benih