Dyah Widiastuti
Research and Development Animal Borne Diseases Control Unit, Banjarnegara

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RT-PCR TEST FOR DETECTION OF DENGUE VIRUS-3 IN INTRATHORACALLY INFECTED Aedes aegypti Tunissea, Asyhar; Widiastuti, Dyah; Wijayanti, Nastiti
Widyariset Vol 15, No 2 (2012): Widyariset
Publisher : LIPI-Press

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Abstract

Dengue viruses, globally the most prevalent arboviruses, are transmitted to humans by persistently infected Aedes aegypty. Detection of Dengue viral RNA in mosquito thorax using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay is an alternatives method for Dengue vector surveillance. The study aimed to test RT-PCR technique to detection Dengue-3 in intrathoracally infected Ae. aegypti. The study design was experimental with descriptive analytic using mosquitoes of Dengue Virus-3 were used as infectious samples and non-infected adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were used as normal ones. The results shows the RT-PCR technique can detect Dengue-3 viral RNA in intrathoracally Ae. aegypti at 5th ,6th and 7th days incubation.
Larvicidal Effect of Mixture of Beauveria bassiana Crude Metabolite and Chitinase Enzyme against Aedes aegypti Larvae Widiastuti, Dyah; Ikawati, Bina; Hadi, Upik Kesumawati
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 12, Issue 4, May 2018
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (749.1 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v12i4.1471

Abstract

Aedes aegypti is a major vector of dengue, a deadly disease causing deaths of millions of people in developing countries, both in urban and rural populations. Aedes aegypti control with chemical insecticide is widely used, and affects on a widespread insecticide resistance. Mosquito biological control was needed to replace the use of chemical insecticide. This study aimed to evaluate larvicidal effect of mixture of Beauveria bassiana crude metabolite and chitinase enzyme against Aedes aegypti larvae. An experimental study using completely Randomized Design was conducted in March-April 2016 at Banjarnegara Research and Development Unit for Zoonosis Control. Biolarvacide formula was made of mixture with 2 : 1 ratio between Beauveria bassiana crude metabolite and chitinase isolated from chitinolytic bacteria, which was propagated by the Agency’s Bacteriology Laboratory. In experimental method, 120 Aedes aegyptilarvae (3rd instar) were exposed with four concentrations of biolarvacide formula (4%, 8%, 16%, and 32%) in 3 replicates. Results showed that exposure of biolarvacide formula caused the third instar larval mortality which started on the first day of exposure. Probit analysis showed LC50 value was obtained at concentration of 53.2 ppm. This shows that larvacide formula of Beauveria bassiana and chitinase enzyme compounds are effective to be used as larvacides against Aedes aegypti larvae.
Identification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Rat and Shrew Populations Using rpoB Gene and Its Spatial Distribution in Boyolali District Widiastuti, Dyah; Sholichah, Zumrotus; Agustiningsih, Agustiningsih; Wijayanti, Nastiti
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 1, August 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (612.124 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i1.798

Abstract

Leptospirosis becomes health problem in Indonesia. Until April 2014, cases of leptospirosis transmitted by rats were reported in Boyolali with case fatality rate (CFR) 83.3%. Leptospira genus consists of various serovars and genetic types living in different environment. Classification of Leptospira species based on rpoB gene could be used as this gene has high level of polymorphism. This study aimed to identify Leptospira serovars in rat population using kinship analysis based on rpoB gene polymorphism and to describe spatial distribution of rats with Leptospira positive in Boyolali District. A cross sectional study was conducted on April 2014 at Sindon Village in Ngemplak Subdistrict and Jeron Village in Nogosari Subdistrict, Boyolali District. Polymerase Chain Reaction test was performed on 104 rat kidney samples from the two locations of study. Spatial analysis was conducted to map distribution of rats with Leptospira positive. There were six positive rpoB gene samples in Rattus tanezumi, Rattus argentiventer and Suncus murinus. Five of six positive samples showed the closest genetic kinship to Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe based on rpoB gene. One isolate did not have a close genetic kinship to any serovar included in the cluster. Spatial analysis based on home range buffer zone showed that rats with Leptospira positive were found in 30 meter and 150 meter from leptospirosis patients.AbstrakLeptospirosis merupakan masalah kesehatan di Indonesia. Hingga April 2014, dilaporkan kasus leptospirosis yang ditularkan oleh tikus di Kabupaten Boyolali dengan angka kematian 83,3%. Genus Leptospira terdiri dari ratusan serovar dan tipe genetik yang hidup di pelbagai jenis habitat. Pengelompokan spesies Leptospira berdasarkan gen rpoB dapat digunakan karena tingkat polimorfisme gen tersebut tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi serovar bakteri Leptospira pada populasi tikus di Kabupaten Boyolali menggunakan analisis hubungan kekerabatan didasarkan pada polimorfisme gen rpoB dan menggambarkan distribusi spasial tikus positif Leptospira di Kabupaten Boyolali. Penelitian potong lintang dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2014 di Desa Sindon Kecamatan Ngemplak dan Desa Jeron Kecamatan Nogosari, Kabupaten Boyolali. Pemeriksaan Polymerase Chain Reaction dilakukan pada 104 sampel ginjal tikus dari dua lokasi penelitian. Analisis spasial sederhana dilakukan untuk memetakan sebaran tikus yang positif Leptospira. Terdapat enam sampel positif gen rpoB Leptospira pada Rattus tanezumi, Rattus argentiventer dan Suncus murinus. Lima dari keenam sampel menunjukkan hubungan kekerabatan yang paling dekat dengan Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe berdasarkan gen rpoB. Satu isolat tidak memiliki hubungan kekerabatan yang dekat dengan serovar manapun yang masuk dalam cluster. Analisis spasial berdasarkan jarak aktivitas harian tikus menunjukkan tikus positif Leptospira ditemukan berada dalam kisaran 30 meter dan 150 meter dari penderita leptospirosis.
Spot survey leptospirosis dan reservoar yang berpotensi menularkan di kecamatan Kuwarasan kabupaten Kebumen tahun 2017 Ningsih, Dewi Puspita; Widiastuti, Dyah; JS., Corry Laura
Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 34, No 5 (2018): Proceedings the 3rd UGM Public Health Symposium
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (872.306 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/bkm.37625

Abstract

Jawa Tengah merupakan provinsi endemis leptospirosis, bahkan pada tahun 2015 menduduki peringkat pertama kasus terbanyak di Indonesia. Sebanyak 20 kota/kabupaten di Jawa Tengah rutin melaporkan adanya kasus leptospirosis. Kabupaten Kebumen merupakan salah satu daerah baru yang melaporkan kasus leptospirosis pada tahun 2017. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor risiko penularan serta keberadaan reservoar yang tertangkap dan berpotensi menularkan leptospirosis. Penelitian ini merupakan studi observasional dengan desain potong lintang. Lokasi penelitian di Kabupaten Kebumen sedangkan penangkapan reservoar dilakukan di Desa Mangli Kecamatan Kuwarasan berdasarkan pada laporan kasus terakhir. Pengumpulan data dilakukan pada bulan Maret 2017 dengan wawancara kasus probable serta penangkapan reservoar menggunakan perangkap hidup (single live trap) sebanyak 150 buah selama 2 malam berturut-turut di lingkungan permukiman dan sekitarnya. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dalam bentuk tabel dan gambar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jumlah kasus leptospirosis yang diwawancara sebanyak 9 orang. Sebagian besar kasus leptospirosis (78%) adalah petani/buruh tani dan terkena di sawah pada saat panen. Selain pekerjaan, faktor risiko utama yang berkontribusi yaitu adanya luka terbuka pada kaki, tidak memakai APD pada saat bekerja dan adanya kontak dengan genangan air dalam waktu yang cukup lama. Reservoar yang tertangkap dalam penelitian ini adalah tikus dan cecurut sebanyak 26 ekor dengan species Bandicota indica, Rattus tanezumi, Mus musculus dan Suncus murinus. Hasil pemeriksaan PCR menunjukkan 1 ekor tikus positif bakteri leptosira patogen dan ditemukan pada jarak < 100 meter dengan titik kasus. Hal ini menunjukkan potensi risiko penularan leptospirosis di lokasi tersebut. Perlunya sosialisasi peningkatan kewaspadaan leptospirosis dan tindakan pengendalian reservoar khususnya tikus dan cecurut baik di dalam rumah, sawah maupun lingkungan sekitarnya.
SPOT SURVEI LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KECAMATAN NGEMPLAK DAN NOGOSARI, KABUPATEN BOYOLALI, PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH Pramestuti, Nova; Ikawati, Bina; Widiastuti, Dyah
Kesmas Indonesia: Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Masyarakat Vol 7 No 1 (2014): Jurnal Kesmas Indonesia
Publisher : Jurusan Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Fakultas Ilmu-Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

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Abstract

ABSTRACTIn 2013 there were three leptospirosis cases reported in Boyolali. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of leptospirosis including cases overview aboutperson, place and time, transmission history, the trap success in catching mice and rats, and species of Leptospira infected rodent in Ngemplak and Nogosari district, Boyolali. This study was a cross sectional study. Rodent traping conducted at three locations with leptospirosis cases in Ngemplak and Nogosari District, Boyolali, in April 2013. A total of 300 traps wereinstalled, 2 traps inside and 2 traps outside for each house during three days. The trapped mice and rats were identified, counted their population density and their kidneys were taken for Leptospira examainationusingPCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) assay. Data were processed and analyzed descriptively, presented in a frequency distribution form. The result showed that transmission of leptospirosis may occured around the case? house, the river and rice fields. The highest rodentsuccess trapwas found in KismoyosoVillage (14 %). Rat species which were found consisted of R.tanezumi, and R. indica Bandicota argentiventer, there was no rat kidney samples infected with Leptospira bacteria according to PCR assay. Leptospirosis transmission in Boyolali should be noteddue to the high rat trap success and the location which was closed to the river . Key words: Survey,leptospirosis, rats Kesmasindo, Volume 7( 1 )Juli 2014, Hal 63-70
Mikroorganisme Patogen pada Feses Tikus Widiastuti, Dyah; Pramestuti, Nova; Setiyani, Endang; Rahayu, Harjianti Fajar
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 8 No. 4 November 2013
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3665.38 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v0i0.396

Abstract

Tikus liar dan domestikasi mempunyai potensi faktor risiko bagi kesehatan masyarakat. Mereka dapat membawa mikroorganisme yang dapat ditransmisi melalui kontak dengan urine maupun feses atau melalui ektoparasit yang ada di tubuh mereka. Pada penelitian ini, diamati prevalensi mikroorganisme zoonotik pada tikus yang tertangkap di Pasar Kota Kabupaten Banjarnegara. Bakteri Salmonella paratyphi B dan Salmonella paratyphi C menunjukkan prevalensi yang paling tinggi (masing-masing 20%). Spesies bakteri lain yang ditemukan antara lain Salmonella typhimurium, Citrotobacter, Citrotobacter frendii, Enterotobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli (E. coli) dan Proteus miriabilis. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa tikus yang berada di pasar dapat berperan sebagai reservoir untuk berbagai bakteri zoonotik seperti Salmonella dan E.coli.Commensal as well as wild rats and mice may present a potential risk to public health. They may harbour microorganisms that can be transmitted either through contact with infected rodent urine or faeces, or through ectoparasites. Prevalence of zoonotic microorganism in house rat (Rattus tanezumi) was studied in City Market of Banjarnegara Regency. Salmonella paratyphi B and Salmonella paratyphi C showed the highest prevalence in faecal material of Rattus tanezumi (20%). The other species of bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium, Citrotobacter, Citrotobacter frendii, Enterotobacter cloacae, Eschericia coli (E. coli) and Proteus miriabilis were also found in this study. These results indicated that house rat may act as reservoir for zoonotic bacteria such as Salmonella and E.coli.        
SPOT SURVEI LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KECAMATAN NGEMPLAK DAN NOGOSARI, KABUPATEN BOYOLALI, PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH Pramestuti, Nova; Ikawati, Bina; Widiastuti, Dyah
Kesmas Indonesia: Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Masyarakat Vol 7 No 1 (2014): Jurnal Kesmas Indonesia
Publisher : Jurusan Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Fakultas Ilmu-Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (199.472 KB)

Abstract

ABSTRACTIn 2013 there were three leptospirosis cases reported in Boyolali. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of leptospirosis including cases overview aboutperson, place and time, transmission history, the trap success in catching mice and rats, and species of Leptospira infected rodent in Ngemplak and Nogosari district, Boyolali. This study was a cross sectional study. Rodent traping conducted at three locations with leptospirosis cases in Ngemplak and Nogosari District, Boyolali, in April 2013. A total of 300 traps wereinstalled, 2 traps inside and 2 traps outside for each house during three days. The trapped mice and rats were identified, counted their population density and their kidneys were taken for Leptospira examainationusingPCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) assay. Data were processed and analyzed descriptively, presented in a frequency distribution form. The result showed that transmission of leptospirosis may occured around the case? house, the river and rice fields. The highest rodentsuccess trapwas found in KismoyosoVillage (14 %). Rat species which were found consisted of R.tanezumi, and R. indica Bandicota argentiventer, there was no rat kidney samples infected with Leptospira bacteria according to PCR assay. Leptospirosis transmission in Boyolali should be noteddue to the high rat trap success and the location which was closed to the river . Key words: Survey,leptospirosis, rats Kesmasindo, Volume 7( 1 )Juli 2014, Hal 63-70
UJI ANTIMIKROBA EKSTRAK JAHE MERAH (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) TERHADAP STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Widiastuti, Dyah; Pramestuti, Nova
Sel Jurnal Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 5 No 2 (2018): SEL Jurnal Penelitian Kesehatan
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Aceh

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (473.57 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/sel.v5i2.1489

Abstract

Infeksi Staphylococcus aureus menjadi masalah yang serius saat ini karena meningkatnya resistensi bakteri terhadap berbagai jenis antibiotik (Multi Drug Resistance/MDR). Meluasnya resistensi bakteri terhadap obat-obatan yang ada, mendorong pentingnya upaya untuk menemukan langkah alternatif dengan pemberian obat-obatan pencegah penyakit infeksi dari bahan alam. Ekstrak jahe merah dikaji aktivitas antimikrobanya terhadap S. aureus. Penelitian ini menggunakan uji coba kontrol yang sepenuhnya randommised dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah mikroba yang diuji dan yang kedua adalah ekstrak rimpang jahe. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak jahe merah (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) pada konsentrasi 100% memberikan penghambatan tertinggi terhadap pertumbuhan S. aureus (12,54 ± 0,76 mm). Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak rimpang jahe dikategorikan lemah dalam menghambat pertumbuhan S. aureus.
EFEK ANTIBAKTERI SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE TERHADAP STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE TO STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Widiastuti, Dyah; Karima, Isya Fikria; Setiyani, Endang
JURNAL ILMIAH KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT : Media Komunikasi Komunitas Kesehatan Masyarakat Vol 11 No 4 (2019): JIKM Volume 11, Edisi 4, November 2019
Publisher : Program Studi Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan, UPN Veteran Jakarta

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Abstract

Latar Belakang: Infeksi Staphylococcus aureus menjadi masalah yang serius saat ini karena meningkatnya resistensi bakteri terhadap berbagai jenis antibiotik (Multi Drug Resistance/MDR). Meluasnya resistensi bakteri terhadap obat-obatan yang ada, mendorong pentingnya upaya untuk melakukan upaya desinfeksi bakteri di lingkungan. Metode: Sodium hypochlorite dikaji aktivitas antimikrobanya terhadap S. aureus. Penelitian ini menggunakan uji coba kontrol yang sepenuhnya acak dengan tiga ulangan. Dalam penelitian ini hanya terdiri dari satu faktor saja, yaitu pemberikan sodium hypochlorite dengan menggunakan konsentrasi: 10 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm dan 1000 ppm. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sodium hypochlorite pada konsentrasi 1000 ppm memberikan penghambatan tertinggi terhadap pertumbuhan S. aureus (0,86 + 0,08 mm). Kesimpulan: Aktivitas antibakteri sodium hypochlorite dikategorikan lemah dalam menghambat pertumbuhan S. aureus. Kata kunci: aktivitas antibakteri,sodium hypochlorite, Staphylococcus aureus Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite to Staphylococcus aureus Abstract Background: Nowadays Staphylococcus aureus infection becomes a serious problem due to increased bacterial resistance to various types of antibiotics (Multi Drug Resistance / MDR). Widespread bacterial resistance to existing drugs, prompting the importance of efforts to desinfect the bacteria in environment. Methods: Sodium hypochlorite was investigated for the antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus. This study only consisted of one factor, namely the exposure of sodium hypochlorite using concentrations: 10 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm. Results: The result showed that sodium hypochlorite at concentration 1000 ppm gave the highest inhibition to the growth of S. aureus (0,86+0,08 mm). Conclusion: The antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite is categorized as weak in inhibiting the growth of&nbsp; S. aureus. Key word: antibacterial activity, sodium hypochlorite, Staphylococcus aureus &nbsp;
TEMEPHOS RESISTANCE IN CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS POPULATION FROM PABEAN SUBDISTRICT PEKALONGAN Widiastuti, Dyah; Sunaryo, Sunaryo; Mars Wijayanti, Siwi Pramatama
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies Vol 11 No 2 (2019): Jurnal Aspirator Volume 11 Nomor 2 2019
Publisher : Loka Litbang Kesehatan Pangandaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (328.301 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/asp.v11i2.1150

Abstract

Abstrak. Pekalongan adalah satu di antara daerah dengan kejadian filariasis limfatik sejak beberapa tahunyang lalu dan Culex quinquefasciatus merupakan vektor utama penyakit ini di Pekalongan. Penelitian inibertujuan untuk mengetahui status kerentanan terhadap temephos dan menggambarkan aktivitas esterasepada populasi Cx. quinquefasciatus di Pekalongan. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan April-Juli 2018. Ujikerentanan insektisida dilakukan pada larva tangkapan liar Cx. quinquefasciatus dari Pekalongan dengandosis temephos yang diskriminatif (0,02 ppm). Aktivitas Esterase larva ini diuji secara biokimia untukmempelajari mekanisme resistensi. Pada semua ulangan, angka kematian akibat temephos bervariasi dari70% sampai 75%, menunjukkan bahwa Cx. quinquefasciatus di tempat penelitian resisten terhadaptemephos. Hasil uji biokimia menunjukkan peningkatan aktivitas alfa dan beta esterase pada populasi Cx.quinquefasciatus. Hasil yang disajikan di sini memberikan laporan dan informasi dasar tentang statusresistensi terhadap temephos pada Cx. quinquefasciatus di Pekalongan. Hal ini seharusnya menjadiperhatian bagi dinas kesehatan dalam manajemen pengendalian vektor.