HAPPY WIDIASTUTI
Indonesian Biotechnology Research Institute for Estate Crops, Bogor

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Eksplorasi dan karakterisasi bakteri aerob ligninolitik serta aplikasinya untuk pengomposan tandan kosong kelapa sawit Exploration and characterization of ligninolytic aerobic bacteria and its application in composting oil palm empty fruit bunch PRAKOSO, Haryo Tejo; WIDIASTUTI, Happy; SUHARYANTO, .; SISWANTO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 82, No 1: Juni 2014
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v82i1.27

Abstract

AbstractLignin is a complex compounds that makes up the cell walls of plants and is quite difficult to degrade at normal ambient condition.  One of the organic materials with high  lignin content is empty fruit bunches (EFB) of oil palm. So far, the well-studied microorganism to degrade lignin is of a class of fungi. Utilization of bacteria to degrade lignin in EFB has rarely been reported although application of the bacteria is very important if it is associated with aerobic composting which requires regular turning process and supporting clean development mechanism (CDM). The objective of this study was to explore and characterize the bacteria having capability to degrade lignin in EFB. The result showed that from 14 types of sample, 12 and 11 isolates were obtained through non enrichment and enrichment methods respectively. Qualitative test was performed using a lignin derivative dye (methylene blue/MB) suspended in Luria Bertani (LB) solid media and the formation of the clear zone was observed, while quantitative assay was performed with enzyme activity assays of laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (Mn-P), and lignin peroxidase (Li-P). The best isolate (FS isolate) was obtained from enrichment method that able to make 0.6 cm clear zone of LB media + MB and actively produced laccase, manganese peroxidase with and without addition of Mn with an activity of 2.68, 20.02, and 0.36 U/mL, respectively. While the best isolate from non enrichment method was CRK 1, that was able to make   0.3 cm clear zone and produced Mn-peroxidase with and without addition of Mn as much as 2.09 and 0.23 U/mL, respectively. Application of the decomposer formula could speed upthe declining rate of C/N ratio and suppressing Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.in EFB compost produced. Abstrak Lignin merupakan senyawa kompleks yang menyusun dinding sel tanaman dan cukup sulit didegradasi secara alami. Salah satu bahan organik yang mempunyai kadar lignin tinggi adalah tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS). Sejauh ini, mikroorganisme yang banyak dipelajari dalam mendegradasi lignin adalah dari golongan jamur. Peng-gunaan bakteri dalam mendegradasi lignin pada TKKS belum banyak dilaporkan walaupun peran bakteri lignino-litik aerob sangat penting jika dikaitkan dengan proses pengomposan secara aerob yang membutuhkan pembalikan secara berkala danprogram clean development mechanism (CDM). Penelitian ini bertujuan mengeksplorasi dan meng-karakterisasi  bakteri  yang  berpotensi  mendegradasi lignin  dalam pengomposan TKKS. Dari 14 jenis sampel diperoleh sebanyak 12 dan 11 isolat melalui metode tanpa dan dengan pengkayaan. Uji kualitatif dilakukan dengan mengukur terbentuknya zona bening pada media Luria Bertani (LB) padat yang mengandung senyawa warna turunan lignin (biru metilen/MB).Uji kuantitatif dilakukan dengan mengukur aktivitaslakase, Mn-peroksidase, dan lignin peroksidase. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat FS  merupakan isolat terbaik dari metode pengkayaan yang mampu membentuk zona bening pada medium LB + MB  0,6 cm, sedangkan isolat terbaik dari metode tanpa pengkayaan adalah CRK 1 dengan zona bening 0,3 cm pada medium yang sama setelah inkubasisemalam. Isolat FS memiliki aktivitas lakase, Mn-peroksidase dengan dan tanpa Mn berturut-turut adalah sebesar 2,68; 20,02; dan0,36 U/mL, sedangkan isolat CRK 1 memiliki aktivitas Mn-peroksidase dengan dan tanpa Mnberturut-turut adalah 2,09 dan 0,23 U/mL. Aplikasi formula dekomposer pada pengompos-an 200 ton TKKS mampu mempercepat laju penurunan nisbah C/N dan menekan populasi Escherichia coli dan Salmonella sp.
Arsitektur akar bibit kelapa sawit yang diinokulasi beberapa cendawan mikoriza arbuskula Root architecture of oil palm seedling inoculated with selected arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi WIDIASTUTI, Happy; GUHARDJA, Edi; SUKARNO, Nampiah; KOSIM DARUSMAN, Latifah; GOENADI, Didiek Hadjar; SMITH, Sally
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 71, No 1: Juni 2003
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v71i1.182

Abstract

Summary Oil palm is mostly cultivated in acid soil. The growth constraint of plant in acid soil is the limited availability of phosphorus (P) nutrient. Improvement of root system morphology and architecture have an important aspect since P is immobilized nutrient. Colonization of oil palm by rrbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase the P uptake of plant. However, there is no information related to the effect of AM fungal colonization on oil palm root morphology and architecture.        A research has been conducted to asses the effect of colonization of two species of AM fungi on root system morphology and architecture of oil palm seedling. The research was conducted using Cikopomayak acid soil as medium in simple glass chamber. The plant material was from Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute, Medan while AM fungal inoculum was produced using pot culture. Six treatments assesed are combination of three levels of  AM fungi inoculation (without inoculation with, Acaulospora tuberculata and Gigaspora margarita) and two levels of  fertilization (without, and with fertilizer). The result showed that colonization of AM fungi could change the root system morphology, and root architecture. The root fresh weight, root dry weight, length, and volume were significantly higher with the AM fungi colonization especially A. tuberculata inoculation. However, specific root weight was not significantly different between inoculated and uninoculated. The enhancement was significantly observed 26 weeks after inoculation. Biside that, proportion of secondary root of oil palm inoculated with AM fungi was higher compared to primary root. Fertilization tend to reduced root growth. Fertilization reduced significantly root shoot ratio of inoculated as well as uninoculated seedlings. The rooting volume was higher in inoculated seedling compared to uninoculated. The highest enhancement of N, P, and K uptake was observed 26 weeks after inoculation. The better root morphology and architecture might be one mechanisms of AM fungi colonized oil palm seedlings in increasing P uptake. Ringkasan Umumnya tanaman kelapa sawit ditanam pada tanah masam. Hambatan pertumbuhan tanaman pada tanah masam adalah terbatasnya ketersediaan nutrisi P (fosforus). Oleh sebab itu perbaikan sistem morfologi dan arsitektur akar memiliki aspek yang penting disebabkan P merupakan nutrisi yang tidak mudah bergerak. Kolonisasi tanaman kelapa sawit dengan cendawan  mikoriza arbuskula (CMA) akan meningkatkan penyerapan P oleh tanaman.  Namun, hubungan antara simbiosis  CMA dengan arsitektur perakaran kelapa sawit belum diketahui. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mempelajari pengaruh kolonisasi dua spesies CMA pada sistem morfologi dan arsitektur akar bibit tanaman kelapa sawit. Percobaan  dilakukan menggunakan tanah masam Cikopomayak yang mengandung Al tinggi sebagai medium dalam kultur pot kaca yang sederhana. Kecambah kelapa sawit berasal dari Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit (PPKS), Medan,  sedangkan inokulum CMA diproduksi menggunakan kultur pot. Enam perlakuan yang diuji merupakan kombinasi tiga jenis inokulasi CMA ( tanpa inokulasi, inokulasi dengan Acaulospora tuberculata dan Gigaspora margarita) serta dua tingkat pemupukan (tanpa, dan dengan pemupukan). Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa inokulasi CMA merubah sistem morfologi dan arsitektur perakaran. Bobot basah, bobot kering, panjang dan volume akar nyata lebih tinggi pada tanaman yang dikolonisasi CMA khususnya A. tuberculata. Namun berat akar spesifik tidak beda nyata antara yang diinokulasi dan tanpa inokulasi. Peningkatan berat akar sangat nyata setelah 26 hari diinokulasi. Di samping itu proporsi akar sekunder lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan akar primer pada  tanaman kelapa sawit yang diinokulasi CMA. Pemupukan pada umumnya menurunkan pertumbuhan akar dan secara nyata menurunkan nisbah akar pucuk. Volume perakaran lebih besar pada bibit kelapa sawit yang diinokulasi dibandingkan dengan yang tidak diinokulasi.  Peningkatan serapan  N, P,  dan  K tertinggi teramati 26 minggu setelah inokulasi. Morfologi perakaran yang lebih baik demikian pula arsitektur perakaran mungkin merupakan mekanisme bibit kelapa sawit bermikoriza dalam meningkatkan serapan P.
Optimasi pertumbuhan dan aktivitas enzim ligninolitik Omphalina sp. dan Pleurotus ostreatus pada fermentasi padat Optimization of growth and ligninolytic enzymes activity of Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus using solid state fermentation WIDIASTUTI, Happy; SISWANTO, .; SUHARYANTO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 75, No 2: Desember 2007
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v75i2.146

Abstract

SummarySolid wastes of bagasse and empty fruitbunch (EFB) respectively from sugarcane andpalm oil mill in Indonesia are abundant. Nowdays, up to now these solid wastes have not yetbeen optimally utilized so that the added valueis still very low and even cause an environ-mental problem. Research on bioconversion ofbagasse and EFB with two culture of white-rotfungi (WRF) i.e., Omphalina sp. and Pleurotusostreatus to produce ligninolytic enzymes wasconducted to provide added value to thislignocellulosic waste. Production of extracellular enzymes from WRF was not onlydetermined by the type of isolate but also theculture condition. This research was aimed todetermine the optimum culture condition ofsolid state fermentation in producing lignino-lytic enzymes at laboratory scale. In thisresearch, WRF was examined for ligninolyticproducing enzymes (laccase, lignin peroxidase/ LiP and Mn-peroxidase / MnP), using mediaconsisting of bagasse and EFB separately asmain substrate with supplementation of ricebran, Cu 2+ with or without rice bran. Theobservation was based on their growth andligninolytic enzyme activities. Characteristicsof optimum pH of LiP, MnP and laccaseactivity were also determined. The resultsshowed that addition of supplement was notable to increase the Cu 2+ growth of myceliaespecially in the first and second months but inthe third month the addition of supplementenhanced the mycelia growth. The growth ofmycelia on the addition of Cu 2+ with or withoutrice bran significantly lower compared to thecontrols both of Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatusin bagasse and EFB. The optimum pH oflaccase, MnP, and LiP activities was five bothfor Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus at EFBand bagasse. Omphalina sp. was better thanP. ostreatus in producing laccase on bagasseand EFB without any supplementations. Thehighest laccase activity showed by P. ostreatuswith bagasse and EFB media treated with Cuand Cu + rice bran. Supplementation withCu 2+ was more effective in increasing laccaseactivity than rice bran. Activities of Li-P onbagasse and EFB for the two WRF cultureswere significantly influenced by supple-mentation of both of rice bran and Cu 2+ . Li-Pactivity on EFB was slightly higher than thaton bagasse. Mn-P activity was not influencedby rice bran, Cu 2+ or the combination of both.However, these enzymes activities on EFBwere higher compared to bagasse especiallyfor P. ostreatus. Suplementation of Cu wasenhance the activity of laccase and LiP both ofP. ostreatus and Omphalina sp in baggasse andEFB though inhibited the growth of those fungiespecially in the initial growth.RingkasanLimbah padat bagas tebu dan tandankosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) masing-masingdari proses pengolahan gula tebu dan minyaksawit di Indonesia jumlahnya melimpah dansampai saat ini belum mendapat penangananyang efektif sehingga nilai tambahnya masihsangat rendah dan bahkan mengganggulingkungan. Penelitian biokonversi limbahpadat bagas tebu dan TKKS menggunakan duaisolat fungi pelapuk putih (FPP) yaituOmphalina sp. dan Pleurotus ostreatus untukproduksi enzim ligninolitik dilakukan untukmeningkatkan nilai tambah limbah ligno-selulosa tersebut. Penelitian ini, mengujiaktivitas enzim ekstraseluler dari FPP antaralain lakase, lignin peroksidase (LiP), dan Mn-peroksidase (MnP) dari dua spesies FPP yaituOmphalina sp. dan P. ostreatus. Penelitianbertujuan menetapkan kondisi optimum mediafermentasi untuk produksi enzim ligninolitikdari bagas tebu dan TKKS sebagai substrat dankarakterisasi pH optimum enzim ligninolitikdari dua FPP yaitu Omphalina sp. danP. ostreatus. Pengamatan dilakukan berdasar-kan laju pertumbuhan dan aktivitas enzimligninolitik. Enzim lakase, MnP, dan LiPdiekstraksi dan dikarakterisasi pH optimumaktivitasnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa pemberian suplemen menghambatpertumbuhan miselia pada satu dan dua bulanpertama inkubasi, namun laju pertumbuhanmiselium khususnya pada perlakuan pemberianCu 2+ dan Cu 2+ + dedak meningkat tajam padabulan ketiga setelah inkubasi. Pertumbuhanmiselium Omphalina sp dan P. ostreatus padamedium yang ditambah Cu 2+ dan Cu 2+ +dedaklebih rendah dibandingkan dengan kontrol.Pada inkubasi tiga bulan, aktivitas optimumlakase, MnP dan LiP diperoleh pada pH 5, baikuntuk Omphalina sp. maupun P. ostreatusyang diekstrak dari bahan lignoselulosa bagastebu dan TKKS. Aktivitas lakase dariOmphalina sp. lebih tinggi daripadaP. ostreatus pada substrat TKKS dan bagastebu tanpa suplementasi. Pemberian suplemenberupa Cu 2+ dan dedak atau kombinasinyameningkatkan aktivitas lakase baik pada bagastebu maupun pada TKKS. Aktivitas lakasetertinggi ditunjukkan oleh isolat P. ostreatuspada medium bagas tebu dan TKKS padaperlakuan pemberian Cu 2+ dengan atau tanpadedak. Aktivitas lakase nampaknya lebihdipengaruhi oleh penambahan Cu 2+ dibanding-kan dengan pemberian dedak. Aktivitas LiPbaik pada bagas tebu maupun TKKS untukkedua FPP yang diuji pada perlakuanpenambahan dedak dan Cu nyata lebih tinggidibandingkan dengan aktivitas LiP yangdiekstrak dari medium tanpa penambahansuplemen. Aktivitas LiP pada TKKS lebihtinggi dibandingkan dengan pada bagas tebukhususnya untuk P. ostreatus. Sedangkanaktivitas MnP tidak dipengaruhi penambahandedak dan Cu 2+ demikian pula kombinasikeduanya. Aktivitas MnP yang diekstrak dariTKKS lebih tinggi dibandingkan denganaktivitas MnP yang diekstrak dari bagas tebukhususnya untuk P. ostreatus. PenambahanCu 2+ meningkatkan aktivitas lakase dan LiPP. ostreatus dan Omphalina sp yang ditum-buhkan pada bagas dan TKKS walaupun ionlogam ini menghambat pertumbuhan keduaJPP ini khususnya pada awal pertumbuhan.
Optimasi simbiosis cendawan mikoriza arbuskula Acaulospora tuberculata dan Gigaspora margarita pada bibit kelapa sawit di tanah masam Optimizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis Acaulospora tuberculata and Gigaspora margarita with oil palm seedling in acid soil) WIDIASTUTI, Happy; GUHARDJA, Edi; SOEKARNO, Nampiah; DARUSMAN, L K; GOENADI, Didiek Hadjar; SMITH, Sally
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 70, No 2: Desember 2002
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v70i2.128

Abstract

SummaryAM fungal symbiosis increase the uptake of P in oil palm seedlings. However the optimum condition of symbiosis has to be determined to get higher benefit of AM fungal symbiosis. Optimization of the symbiosis Acaulospora tuberculata and Gigaspora margarita with oil palm seedling in acid soil was determined. An experiment was conducted in polybag sized 40 x 60 cm contained sterilized Cikopomayak soil. Three factors studied were AM fungal species (A. tuberculata, G. margarita), inoculant dose (0.0; 12.5; 25.0; and 37.5% w/w), and fertilizer rate (0; 25; 50; and 100% recommended dose) and each treatment replicated three times. The result showed that optimum growth reached on the inoculant addition of 36% (w/w) in the form of infected roots, hypha, and spores and fertilizer dose of 25% for A. tuberculata, while for G. margarita was 40% (w/w) inoculant and 26% fertilizer. Efectivity of fertilizer and P uptake of oil palm seedling were significantly increased with AM fungi inoculation. P uptake of oil palm seedling inoculated with A. tuberculata increase. RingkasanSimbiosis cendawan mikoriza arbuskula (CMA) dapat meningkatkan serapan P pada pembibitan kelapa sawit. Namun, untuk mendapatkan keuntungan simbiosis yang tinggi perlu diketahui kondisi optimum simbiosis. Simbiosis CMA dengan tanaman sangat dipengaruhi tingkat hara dan dosis inokulum. Percobaan dilakukan dalam polibag berukuran 40 x 60 cm berisi tanah Cikopomayak steril. Tiga faktor yang diuji ialah spesies CMA (A. tuberculata, G. margarita), dosis inokulum campuran (0,0; 12,5; 25,0; dan 37,5% b/b), dosis pupuk (0; 25; 50; dan 100% dosis rekomendasi) dan masing masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan optimum dicapai pada pemberian inokulum berupa akar terinfeksi, hifa, dan spora 36% (b/b) dan pupuk 25% untuk A. tuberculata, sedangkan untuk G. margarita ialah 40% (b/b) inokulum dan pupuk 26%. Keefektifan pupuk dan serapan P meningkat secara nyata dengan inokulasi CMA
Aktivitas fosfatase dan produksi asam organik di rhizosfer dan hifosfer bibit kelapa sawit bermikoriza *) Phosphatase activity and organic acid production in rhizosphere and hyphosphere of mycorrhizal oil palm seedling WIDIASTUTI, Happy; SUKARNO, Nampiah; DARUSMAN, Latifah Kosim; GOENADI, Didiek Hadjar; SMITH, Sally; GUHARDJA, Edi
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 71, No 2: Desember 2003
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v71i2.164

Abstract

SummaryStudies on the mechanism of the higher Puptake of oil palm seedling colonized witharbuscular mycorrhizal fungi throughsolubilizing of fixed P by organic acid orhydrolysis of organic P by phosphatase activityhave not been reported yet. This experiment wasaimed to examine the phosphatase activity andproduction of organic acids in rhizosphere andhyphosphere, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizaloil palm seedling. Oil palm seedling were grownfor 26 weeks in sterilized Cikopomayak acid soilin 20.5 cm diameter pots with three compart-ments, a central one for root growth(rhizosphere) and two adjacent on both side nextto the root compartment for hyphal growth(hyphosphere). Compartmentation was accom-plished by a 0.25 mm stainless steel filter. Allcompartment received a uniform concentration ofphosphorus (300 P mg kg -1 soil) either in organic(Na-phytate) or inorganic NH 4 HPO 4 form.Acaulospora tuberculata inoculum was establish-ed in pot culture using Pueraria phaseoloides as ahost, while Gigaspora margarita was propagatedusing maize as a host. AM fungal inoculumapplied as mixed propagules in optimum dosage.The experiment was conducted to asses ninetreatments combination between AM inoculation(without, A. tuberculata, and G. margarita) andsources of P (without P, inorganic P NH 4 HPO 4 ,and organic P Na phytate). Factorial in completerandomized design with two factors and threereplications was used in this research. In thehyphal compartment acid phosphatase activitywas much higher than alkaline phosphataseactivity, while in the rhizosphere alkalinephosphatase activity was higher compared toacid phosphatase activity. Acid phosphataseactivity in rhizosphere of oil palm seedlingsinoculated with A. tuberculata was significantlyhigher compared to uninoculated seedlings.However, both acid phosphatase activity andalkaline phosphatase activity were slightlyenhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. In contrast,organic acid production between inoculatedseedling and uninoculated seedling was notsignificantly different. It seems that AM fungalsymbiosis with oil palm enhance mineralizationof organic P in spite of solubilization ofinorganic P.RingkasanMekanisme peningkatan pertumbuhankelapa sawit bermikoriza khususnya yangdisebabkan aktivitas pelarutan P anorganik yangterfiksasi melalui pelarutan oleh asam organikatau hidrolisis P organik oleh aktivitas fosfataseelum dilaporkan. Percobaan ini bertujuanmenetapkan aktivitas fosfatase dan produksi asamorganik di rhizosfer dan hifosfer, bibit kelapasawit bermikoriza dan tidak bermikoriza. Kelapasawit ditumbuhkan selama 26 minggu pada tanahmasam Cikopomnayak steril pada pot ber-diameter 20,5 cm yang terbagi atas tiga daerah,ruang tengah untuk pertumbuhan akar (rhizosfer)dan dua daerah di sebelahnya untuk pertumbuhanhifa (hifosfer). Penyekatan pot menggunakanfilter stainless steel berukuran lubang 0,25 mm.Semua daerah dipupuk P pada konsentrasi300 P mg kg -1 tanah baik dalam bentuk organik(Na-phytate) maupun anorganik (NH 4 HPO 4 )Inokulum CMA merupakan hasil perbanyakandengan sistem kultur pot menggunakan inangPueraria phaseoloides untuk Acaulosporatuberculata sedangkan untuk Gigasporamargarita menggunakan inang jagung. InokulumCMA berupa propagul campuran pada dosisoptimum. Percobaan dilakukan untuk mengujisembilan perlakuan yang merupakan kombinasiantara inokulasi CMA (tanpa, A. tuberculata,dan G. margarita) dan sumber P (tanpa P,anorganik P NH 4 HPO 4 , dan organik P Naphytate). Rancangan percobaan ialah rancanganacak lengkap faktorial dengan tiga ulangan untukmasing-masing perlakuan. Di hifosfer aktivitasfosfatase asam lebih tinggi daripada fosfatasealkalin, sedangkan di rhizosfer aktivitas fosfatasealkalin lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan aktivitasfosfatase asam. Aktivitas fosfatase asam dirhizosfer bibit kelapa sawit yang diinokulasi A.tuberculata nyata lebih tinggi dibandingkandengan bibit yang tidak diinokulasi. Aktivitasfosfatase asam dan fosfatase alkalin sedikit lebihtinggi dengan inokulasi CMA. Sebaliknya,produksi asam organik antara bibit yangdiinokulasi dan bibit yang tidak diinokulasi tidakberbeda nyata. Tampak bahwa simbiosis CMAdengan kelapa sawit lebih meningkatkanmineralisasi P organik dan kurang meningkatkanpelarutan P anorganik.
Respons awal pemberian biostimulan Orgamin pada kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) di Kebun Marjandi PTPN IV Early response of Orgamin biostimulan application in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) at PTPN IV Marjandi plantation PUTRA, Soekarno Mismana; SANTOSO, Djoko; WIDIASTUTI, Happy; SARAGIH, A. H. SARAGIH; GHONI, M. A. GHONI; MARAHIMIN, B. MARAHIMIN; PANJAITAN, K. PANJAITAN
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 81, No 1: Juni 2013
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v81i1.51

Abstract

AbstractEffort to increase the production of oil palm can beconducted through application of plant growth regulator(PGR). Orgamin biostimulan is a natural PGR formulathat has been tested to improve the vegetative growths ofcorn and oil palm in the glass house. Assessment ofOrgamin and Orgamin plus (Orgamin + micro nutrient)applications at commercial scale was carried out inMarjandi oil palm plantation of PTPN IV usingrandomized block design with three treatments, i.e. K =100% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer(control), O= Orgamin (1.5 kg/tree) + 50% dose ofinorganic fertilizer, OP = Orgamin plus (1.5 kg/tree)without inorganic fertilizer. The parameters ofobservation at 2.5 months after the treatments were soiland leaf nutrient contents (N, P, K, Mg), percentage offemale flower, mesocarp oil content, and harvested freshfruit bunches (FFB). The observation showed that therewas an increased in oil yield, weight of FFB and leafnutrient content, while the percentage of female flowerand nutrient content of soil were not significantlydifferent compared to the control.AbstrakUpaya untuk meningkatkan produksi kelapa sawitdapat dilakukan antara lain melalui pemberian zatpengatur tumbuh (ZPT). Biostimulan Orgamin merupa-kan formula ZPT alami yang telah diuji di rumah kacapada tanaman jagung dan bibit kelapa sawit. Uji cobaaplikasi Orgamin dan Orgamin plus (Orgamin yangdiperkaya hara mikro) pada skala lapang dilakukan dikebun kelapa sawit Marjandi PTPN IV denganmenggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) untukmenguji tiga perlakuan, yaitu 1) K (kontrol) = 100%dosis anjuran pupuk kimia (APK = kontrol), 2) O = 50%dosis APK + Orgamin (1,5 kg/pohon), 3) OP = Orgaminplus (1,5 kg/pohon) tanpa pupuk kimia. Peubah yangdiamati pada 2,5 bulan setelah perlakuan adalah kan-dungan hara tanah dan daun (N, P, K, Mg), persentasebunga betina, rendemen minyak mesokarp, dan produksitandan buah segar (TBS). Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan terdapat peningkatan rendemen minyak, bobotTBS dan kandungan hara daun, sedangkan persentasebunga betina dan kandungan hara tanah tidak menunjuk-kan perbedaan yang nyata antara perlakuan dan kontrol.
UJI AKTIVITAS LAKASE DAN SELULASE PADA LIGNOSELULOSA GAMBUT DENGAN BERBAGAI KADAR AIR Mulyawan, Ronny; Indriyati, Lilik Tri; Widiastuti, Happy; Sabiham, Supiandi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 24 No. 1 (2019): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (493.74 KB) | DOI: 10.18343/jipi.24.1.20

Abstract

The degradation of lignocellulose as the main constituents of peat is catalyzed by enzymes such as laccase or cellulase. The purpose of this research was to study the pattern of laccase and cellulase activities on sterile and non-sterile peat materials at three different water contents (125-175, 225-275, and 325-375%). The peat soil used was collected from oil palm rhizosphere in Riau Province. This research used the descriptive method by comparing the mean values between treatments. The results showed that enzymes activities on sterile and non-sterile peat added with laccase or cellulase were higher compared to those without enzyme addition. The highest laccase activity was at the first day of incubation, while that for selulase was at the 10th days of incubation. The activity of enzyme then decreased with the increase in the respected incubation time. The difference in decreasing of lignin and cellulose content at 125-175% water content was higher than at the other water contents. The decreases in lignin and cellulose contents were higher by addition of respected enzymes both in sterile and non-sterile peat. It could be concluded that at higher water content, laccase and cellulase activities were depressed both on sterile and non sterile peat, especially after the addition of enzyme.
Pola aktivitas enzim ligninolitik Pleurotus ostreatus pada limbah sludge pabrik kertas Activity pattern of ligninolytic enzyme of Pleurotus ostreatus in sludge waste of paper factory WIDIASTUTI, Happy; TRI-PANJI, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 76, No 1: Juni 2008
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v76i1.95

Abstract

Summary Sludge is a solid waste abundantly available on paper factory that is economically unutilized and tends to pollute environment. This waste can be used as growth media for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) as edible mushroom and ligninolytic enzymes production as well. A research has been conducted to study the activity pattern of ligninolytic enzymes of oyster mushroom grown on the sludge waste of recycle paper factory. Six treatments were examinated consisted of three media combinations (sawdust, sludge, sludge mixed with sawdust), with and without supplementing with rice bran, lime, and gypsum, and two mushroom strains Bogor oyster mushroom (JTB) and China Taipei oyster mushroom (JTT). Monitoring of ligninolytic enzyme activity consisting of laccase, mangan peroxidase (Mn-P) and lignin peroxidase (Li-P),  was subsequently regularly started since inoculation, at vegetative phase (four and six weeks), primordial formation, phase of fruiting body formation, and two weeks after formation of fruiting body. Each treatment was repeated three times, so that 216 bag logs of oyster mushroom cultures were performed. The results showed that laccase, Mn-P, and Li-P activities could be observed on sludge or mixture of sludge+sawdust media inoculated with P. ostreatus. Generally, the highest activity of ligninolytic enzymes especially for laccase and MnP were observed at the first vegetative growth phase i.e. before emerging primordial of fruiting body (1.697 & 2.113 U/mL, 4.394 & 2.314 U/mL  respectively for JTB and JTT laccase and JTB & JTT Mn-P). The highest Li-P activity was affected by the kind of media and strain of inoculum. In sludge medium, the highest Li-P activity was observed in  vegetative growth phase (2.706 & 4.014 U/mL respectively for JTB and JTT) while in a mixture of sludge + sawdust the highest activity of that enzyme was observed in primordial phase of growth (2.509 & 1.9 U/mL respectively for JTB and JTT). Addition of supplement to the sludge increased ligninolytic activity, while laccase activity of sludge was suggested could be more enhanced by mixing the sludge with sawdust and enrich with rice bran, gypsum and lime. Ringkasan                                                Sludge merupakan limbah padat yang tersedia melimpah di pabrik kertas dan belum dimanfaatkan secara ekonomis sehingga berpotensi mencemari lingkungan. Limbah ini dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai medium tumbuh jamur konsumsi seperti jamur tiram (Pleurotus ostreatus) dan penghasil enzim ligninolitik. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mempelajari pola aktivitas enzim ligninolitik jamur tiram pada limbah sludge pabrik kertas selama fase vegetatif sampai setelah fase generatif. Enam perlakuan yang diuji berupa tiga kombinasi komposisi medium (serbuk gergaji, sludge, campuran sludge dan serbuk gergaji), dengan dan tanpa pengayaan, yaitu penambahan dedak, kapur, dan gipsum,  serta dua strain jamur tiram Bogor (JTB) dan jamur tiram China Taipei (JTT). Pengamatan aktivitas enzim ligninolitik meliputi lakase, mangan peroksidase (Mn-P) dan lignin peroksidase  (Li-P) dilakukan sejak saat inokulasi, pada fase vegetatif (empat dan enam minggu), pada saat pembentukan primordia, fase tubuh buah, dan dua minggu setelah pembentukan tubuh buah. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali sehingga terdapat 216 bag log jamur tiram. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas ligninolitik dijumpai pada medium sludge dan campuran sludge+serbuk gergaji yang diino-kulasi P. ostreatus. Aktivitas enzim ligninolitik tertinggi khususnya lakase dan MnP teramati pada fase pertumbuhan vegetatif pertama yaitu sebelum terbentuknya primordia (1,697 & 2,113 U/mL, 4,394 & 2,314 U/mL  masing-masing untuk lakase JTB dan JTT dan MnP  JTB & JTT). Aktivitas LiP tertinggi dipengaruhi oleh jenis medium dan strain inokulum. Pada medium sludge, aktivitas LiP tertinggi dijumpai pada fase vegetatif (2,706 & 4,014 U/ml masing-masing untuk JTB dan JTT) sedangkan pada medium campuran sludge+serbuk gergaji, aktivitas enzim  ter-tinggi dijumpai  pada fase primordia (2,509 & 1,9 U/ml berturut-turut untuk JTB dan JTT). Pengayaan sludge meningkatkan aktivitas ligninolitik, sedangkan aktivitas lakase pada sludge diduga dapat lebih ditingkatkan dengan menambahkan serbuk gergaji disertai pengayaan berupa gipsum, dedak, dan kapur.
Optimasi pengomposan tandan kosong kelapa sawit menggunakan dekomposer bakteri lignoselulolitik skala komersial Optimization of decomposition of empty fruit bunches oil palm using lignocellulolytic bacterialdecomposercomposting in commercial scale WIDIASTUTI, Happy; PRAKOSO, Haryo Tejo; SUHARYANTO, .; SISWANTO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 83, No 2: Desember 2015
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v83i2.2

Abstract

AbstractDecomposition produces methane gas that contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. A research has been conducted to anticipate the occurrence of greenhouse gas emissions by composting of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) waste with aerobic systems using lignocellulolytic bacterial decom-posers (LCBD) in a commercial scale. Two of the activities carried out areoptimization of anaerobic decomposition (pre-treatment) process and optimization of anaerobic-aerobic decompositionin a scale of 50 tons and 780 tons. The results showed that the best pre-treatment is decomposition using fungal decomposer (Acticomp) in an open area and covered with a plastic. In the anaerobic-aerobic decomposition system on scale of 50 tons, the best treatment is using fungal decomposer (Acticomp) and lcbd both for four weeks each while on a scale of 780 tons showed that EFB decomposition on combination of anaerobic and aerobic decom-position system within two months and two weeks respectively produce compost with the C/N ratio of 20.5. The properties of compost was perfectly mature and producing the highest number of green bean germinated seeds.AbstrakPengomposan atau dekomposisi secara anaerob menghasilkan gas metan yang dapat me-nyumbang emisi gas rumah kaca.Untuk antisipasi terjadinya emisi gas rumah kaca telah dilakukan penelitian pengomposan limbah tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) dengan sistem aerobik menggunakan dekomposer bakteri lignoselulolitik (DBLS)pada skala komersial. Dua kegiatan yang dilakukan adalah optimasi pengomposan anaerob (pre treatment) dan optimasi pengomposan anaerobik-aerobik masing-masing pada skala 50 ton dan 780 ton. Pada optimasi pengomposan dua faktor yang diuji adalah penggunaan dekomposer dan penutupan kompos sedangkan pada optimasi pengomposan anaerobik-aerobik diuji pengaruh penggunaan DBLS dan pengaruh penggunaan DBLS   dan   lama   periode  sistem  pengomposan. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa pre treatment terbaik adalah pengomposan dengan dekomposer jamur (Acticomp) di areal terbuka dan ditutup terpal. Perlakuan pada sistem anaerobik-aerobik skala 50 ton terbaik adalah pengomposan dengan dekomposer jamur (Acticomp) selama empat minggu dan dengan DBLS selama empat minggu sedangkan pada skala 780 ton menunjukkan bahwa pengomposan TKKS pada kombinasi antara pe-ngomposan dengan dekomposer jamur (Acticomp) dan DBLS masing-masing dalam waktu dua bulan dan dua minggu menghasilkan kompos TKKS dengan rasio C/N 20,5 dengan karakter matang sempurna dan mampu menghasilkan jumlah biji kacang hijau berkecambah tertinggi. 
Deteksi Ganoderma secara molekuler pada kebun kelapa sawit yang diberi perlakuan biofungisida Ganor (Molecular detection of Ganoderma on oil palm plantation treated with Ganor biofungicide) MINARSIH, Hayati; WIDIASTUTI, Happy; SANTOSO, Djoko
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 1 (2018): April, 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v1i1.289

Abstract

AbstractGanor organic fungicide potentially reduces Ganoderma, a pathogenic fungus causing basal stem rot disease. Application of Ganor on oil palm trees in the plantation attacked Ganoderma, inhibits the growth of Ganoderma fruiting bodies, improves rooting and stimulates the opening of the spear leaf. This study aims to identify molecularly the presence of Ganoderma in oil palm trees that have been attacked by Ganoderma routinely treated with Ganor for three months. Molecular analysis was performed by PCR using Ganoderma specific primers. The analysis results of sample from trunks and roots of  oil palm, indicating that the Ganoderma infected oil palm which has been treated with Ganor, were relatively free (96.4%) of Ganoderma. Of the 28 samples examined of treated plants, 27 samples did not indicate the presence of Ganoderma specific DNA band. On the other hand, the untreated oil palm trees infected by Ganoderma were still detected by the appearence of  DNA bands specific to Ganoderma. The results of molecular analysis indicated that Ganor treatments can effectively reduce the attack rate of Ganoderma in oil palm trees in the plantation infected by Ganoderma. However, the use of the molecular technique for early detection needs to be further tested to evaluate its consistency prior to introduction to the commercial growers. The reproducibility can be confirmed by repeating the experiment using more samples. Ganor effectiveness in curing oil palm trees infected by Ganoderma, maybe indicated by the ability of the reproductive organs to develop, particularly female flowers. The sex ratio of Ganor treated oil palms was clearly higher than that of control palms in 10 to 12 weeks after the treatment.[Keywords: organic fungicides, stem rot, molecular analysis, Elais guinensis Jack.] AbstrakFungisida organik Ganor berpotensi mengurangi serangan Ganoderma, cendawan patogenik penyebab penyakit busuk pangkal batang. Aplikasi Ganor pada tanaman kelapa sawit di kebun yang terserang Ganoderma, menghambat pertumbuhan tubuh buah Ganoderma, memper-baiki perakaran dan merangsang pembukaan daun tombak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi secara molekuler adanya Ganoderma pada tanaman kelapa sawit terserang Ganoderma yang telah mendapat perlakuan Ganor secara rutin selama tiga bulan. Analisis molekuler dilakukan dengan teknik PCR menggunakan primer DNA spesifik Ganoderma. Hasil analisis sampel batang dan akar tanaman kelapa sawit, menunjukkan bahwa tanaman Perlakuan, yaitu kelapa sawit terserang Ganoderma yang telah mendapat perlakuan Ganor, 96,4% bebas Ganoderma. Dari 28 sampel tanaman Perlakuan yang diperiksa, 27 sampel tidak menunjukkan adanya pita DNA spesfik Ganoderma. Sementara itu pada tanaman Kontrol, yaitu tanaman kelapa sawit terserang Ganoderma dan tidak mendapat perlakuan Ganor, 100% masih terdeteksi adanya Ganoderma. Dari 7 sampel tanaman kontrol yang diperiksa semuanya menunjukkan adanya pita DNA spesifik Ganoderma. Hasil analisis molekuler ini mengindikasikan bahwa perlakuan Ganor efektif mengurangi tingkat serangan Ganoderma pada tanaman kelapa sawit di kebun yang terinfeksi Ganoderma. Namun demikian, untuk lebih meyakinkan praktisi perkebunan, penggunakan teknik molekuler ini masih perlu diuji lebih lanjut terkait konsistensinya. Reprodusibilitas dapat dikonfirmasi dengan mengulangi percobaan menggunakan lebih banyak sampel. Efektivitas Ganor dalam menyehatkan tanaman kelapa sawit terserang Ganoderma ini, terindikasi juga dari perkembangan organ reproduktifnya. Sex ratio meningkat dalam waktu 10 hingga 12 minggu setelah perlakuan.[Kata Kunci:  fungisida organik, busuk pangkal  batang, analisis molekuler, Elais guinensis Jack. ]