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KETAHANAN TERHADAP PENYAKIT ANTRAKNOSA CABAI LOKAL DAN INTRODUKSI DAN KERAGAAN DAYA HASILNYA Hakim, Abdul; Syukur, Muhamad; Widodo, ,
Zuriat Vol 23, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Breeding Science Society of Indonesia (BSSI) / PERIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24198/zuriat.v23i1.6862

Abstract

Penyakit yang menyebabkan rendahnya produktivitas cabai di Indonesia adalah antraknosa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan genotipe tanaman cabai yang tahan terhadap penyakit antraknosa yang disebabkan oleh Colletotrichum acutatum dan memiliki daya hasil tinggi. Penelitian ini dilakukan di lapangan dan laboratorium, menggunakan Rancangan Kelompok Lengkap Teracak, satu faktor dan dua ulangan. Isolat Colletotrichum acutatum yang digunakan adalah BGR 027, PYK 04 dan BKT 05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa genotipe IPB C15 memiliki ketahanan paling baik terhadap tiga isolat Colletotrichum acutatum. Genotipe ini merupakan salah satu sumber untuk sifat ketahanan cabai terhadap penyakit antraknosa dan berpotensi untuk dijadikan tetua donor untuk sifat tersebut. Genotipe IPB C14, IPB C15, IPB C128, IPB C129, dan IPB C131 merupakan genotipe yang memiliki bobot buah per tanaman yang tinggi. Genotipe introduksi lebih mendominasi untuk sifat ketahanan dan keragaan daya hasil daripada genotipe lokal. Dengan demikian perlu dilakukan eksplorasi untuk mendapatkan genotipe lokal yang tahan antraknosa dan berdaya hasil tinggi
PEWARISAN KETAHANAN CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) TERHADAP ANTRAKNOSA YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH COLLETOTRICHUM ACUTATUM Syukur, Muhamad; Sujiprihati, Sriani; Koswara, Jajah; Widodo, ,
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol. 35 No. 2 (2007): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy (PERAGI) and Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (50.734 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v35i2.1319

Abstract

Anthracnose is one of the most destructive disease of pepper in Indonesia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum have been reported to be predominant species in pepper fields of Asian countries including Indonesia. Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose caused by C. acutatum was studied in Capsicum annuum populations derived from a cross between resistant line 'C-15' and  susceptible line 'C-2'. Twenty green pepper fruits from each plant were inoculated with PYK 04 isolate.  This experiment showed that there was no maternal effect based on t-test of F1 and F1R.  Segregation of resistance and susceptibility in the F2 fitted a normal distrubution, indicated that resistance was controlled by polygenic genes. Eight effective factors were responsible for anthracnose resistance. The degree of dominance was partially recessive. Gene effects for resistance to anthracnose were additive and dominance. Additive variance was larger than dominance variance. Broad-sense heritability values were high but narrow-sense heritability values were medium. Selection for resistance to C. acutatum on pepper breeding programme should be conducted on later generation.   Key words :  Inheritance, anthracnose, resistance, pepper, Colletotrichum acutatum
BLACK POD DISEASE (BPD) OF CACAO CAUSED BY PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA(BUTL.) IS ONE OF THE MAJOR DISEASES ON CACAO PLANTATION WORLDWIDE. ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI (EF), FUNGI THAT LIVE ASYMPTOMATICALLY INSIDE HEALTHY PLANTS, WERE EXAMINED TO STUDY THEIR POTENTIALS AS BIOCONTROL AGENT OF THE DISEASE. SIX OF EF SELECTED FROM 37 SPECIES (FROM 2843 ISOLATES), ISOLATED FROM HEALTHY PODS OF CACAO FROM MARENA IN CENTRAL SULAWESI WERE TESTED FOR THEIR ABILITIES TO CONTROL BPD. PODS ON LIVING TREES IN THE FIELD WERE Tondok, Efi Toding; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Widodo, ,; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol. 40 No. 2 (2012): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy (PERAGI) and Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v40i2.6382

Abstract

Black pod disease (BPD) of cacao caused by Phytophthora palmivora(Butl.) is one of the major diseases on cacao plantation worldwide. Endophytic fungi (EF), fungi that live asymptomatically inside healthy plants, were examined to study their potentials as biocontrol agent of the disease. Six of EF selected from 37 species (from 2843 isolates), isolated from healthy pods of cacao from Marena in Central Sulawesi were tested for their abilities to control BPD. Pods on living trees in the field were sprayed with each EF propagules. The inoculated pods were harvested two weeks later and subsequently inoculated with P. palmivora. Scoring of disease development was performed and quantified as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). Latent period, infection rate and effectiveness were also recorded. In vitro growth inhibition of pathogen and induced plant defense mechanisms due to EF were also investigated. Xylariaceaeand Calocybe gambosatreatment generated the highest effectiveness control level, i.e. 38.8% and 33.8% respectively, followed by Resinicium friabileand Aschersoniatreatment, i.e. 17.4% dan 12.7% respectively.  Pestalotiopsisand Fusariumwere not effective to control BPD. There was a strong connection between disease severity of BPD with the latent period of pathogen. Growth inhibition of pathogen and induced resistance of plant were partially responsible for disease suppression by Xylariaceae, C. gambosa, R. friabileand Aschersonia. Keywords: Calocybe gambosa, induced resistance, peroxidases, salicylic acid, Xylariaceae
KETAHANAN TERHADAP ANTRAKNOSA YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH COLLETOTRICHUM ACUTATUM PADA BEBERAPA GENOTIPE CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) DAN KORELASINYA DENGAN KANDUNGAN KAPSAICIN DAN PEROKSIDASE Syukur, Muhamad; Sujiprihati, Sriani; Koswara, Jajah; Widodo, ,
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol. 37 No. 3 (2009): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy (PERAGI) and Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (179.531 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v37i3.1240

Abstract

Anthracnose is one of the most destructive pepper diseases in Indonesia. Colletotrichum acutatum has been identified as a predominant species in pepper fields of Asian countries including Indonesia. The experiment used completely randomized block design with 2 factors and 4 replications. The first factor was 14 genotypes (c-1,2,3,4,5,7,8,9,15,18,19,28,47, and 49, and the second factor was 4 isolates of C. acutatum (PYK 04, BGR 027, MJK 01, and PSG 01). Each experimental unit used 10 green pepper fruits.  Inoculation methods followed the AVRDC procedure and resistance score followed the modified procedure of Yoon method. Symptoms were evaluated five days after inoculation. Disease incidence was evaluated using Yoon method with slight modifications. The experiments showed that C-15 genotype was more resistant to anthracnose than others; C-8 and C-49 genotypes were recorded as susceptible to anthracnose. Except the three genotypes, all other genotypes were recorded as highly susceptible to anthracnose. Capsaicin content and peroxsidase activities were not correlated with resistance to anthracnose.   Key words:  pepper, resistance, anthracnose, Colletotrichum acutatum